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Epic of Creation (Mesopotamia)

Epic of Creation (Mesopotamia)
Stories describing creation are prominent in many cultures of the world. In Mesopotamia, the surviving evidence from the third millennium to the end of the first millennium B.C. indicates that although many of the gods were associated with natural forces, no single myth addressed issues of initial creation. It was simply assumed that the gods existed before the world was formed. Unfortunately, very little survives of Sumerian literature from the third millennium B.C. Several fragmentary tablets contain references to a time before the pantheon of the gods, when only the Earth (Sumerian: ki) and Heavens (Sumerian: an) existed. A Sumerian myth known today as "Gilgamesh and the Netherworld" opens with a mythological prologue. The origins of humans are described in another early second-millennium Sumerian poem, "The Song of the Hoe." In the Sumerian poem "The Debate between Grain and Sheep," the earth first appeared barren, without grain, sheep, or goats. Related:  the new mysticCreation Myths + Related

Ancient underwater cities being found that are 10,000 years old Lost city 'could rewrite history' By BBC News Online's Tom Housden The remains of what has been described as a huge lost city may force historians and archaeologists to radically reconsider their view of ancient human history. Marine scientists say archaeological remains discovered 36 meters (120 feet) underwater in the Gulf of Cambay off the western coast of India could be over 9,000 years old. The vast city - which is five miles long and two miles wide - is believed to predate the oldest known remains in the subcontinent by more than 5,000 years. The site was discovered by chance last year by oceanographers from India's National Institute of Ocean Technology conducting a survey of pollution. Using sidescan sonar - which sends a beam of sound waves down to the bottom of the ocean they identified huge geometrical structures at a depth of 120ft. Lost civilization The city is believed to be even older than the ancient Harappan civilization, which dates back around 4,000 years. Continued...

Top 10 Unusual Ancient Weapons Weird Stuff Mankind always has, and always will, fight wars. And in order to fight said wars, man needed weapons. Using whatever skills and resources they had, man built tools that would slash, smash, pierce and tear their enemies. Used by the Māori tribes of New Zealand, this simple-looking, yet solid, club was built from nephrite jade. Perhaps the most well-known on this list, the Chinese hook swords were wielded by the normally passive Shoalin monks of northern China. The kpinga was a throwing knife that was used by experienced warriors of the Azande tribe. The macuahuitl was basically a large, sword-shaped piece of wood, with razor-sharp pieces of obsidian embedded in the sides. This rather odd-looking weapon was used in the arenas by the gladiators of the ancient Roman Empire. Don’t be fooled, the chakram is not something you would want to play frisbee with. Now I have to hand it to the Chinese, their weapons have made four entries on my list.

Comparison of Four African Creation Myths by Jill Stuckwisch The four creation myths found on the internet, "An African Cosmogony," "An African Story of the Creation of Man," "Egyptian Cosmogony and Theogony," and the Yoruba creation myth found under "The Minneapolis Institute of Arts," have similar elements and incorporate values and norms common across many African Ethnic groups. One of the dominant values common to many ethnic groups is the value of the family and group. All four myths directly illustrate the belief that a person is described in terms of his or her family and lineage. A commonality between all of the myths except "An African Story of the Creation of Man" is that creation is by way of the mouth or spoken word accompanies creation. in "An African Cosmogony" Bumba, the creator, brings forth everything in the world by vomiting them up; all things first pass through Bumba's mouth before coming into existence. Return to Student Projects Return to Religious Traditions of the African Diaspora

gods? Here is a part from a text which you can find at : It seems that the Pleiadeans who speak here tell us that Mankind was in a much better state before the Annunaki-gods arrived. These 'gods' just tore up our D.N.A. in order to be able to use us for their own purposes. An original plan that was made by prior gods is given, the plan of the 'LIVING LIBRARY'. "Mankind is an experiment. And so, these extensions of the prime creator went out, and began to experiment with the Prime Creator's energy as it existed within themselves. Now, these energies-- we will call them Gods -- Creator Gods -- went out, and began to create their own hierarchy. So, the original plan was brought about, and let us say that there was impeccable scurrying and shuffling -- all kinds of things -- to bring about individual representatives of all of the galaxies, so that they could have their representatives here upon this planet. When we speak of Light.

Lost Cities There isn't anything quite as chilling as a city bereft of its inhabitants. A silent array of towers, walls and houses, without voices or the hubbub of everyday life. A place solely constructed to shelter people, that now has no purpose. Abandoned cities can be found around the world. Sometimes they were killed by war, while others starved in famine. In the case of the most ancient cities, the mystery of their deaths may never be solved. The Secret City on the Mountain Top In 1911 Professor Hiram Bingham, of Yale University, mounted an expedition to Peru to examine Inca ruins (The Inca Empire ruled Peru from 1200 A.D. to 1532). Hiring a guide, Bingham set off in a cold drizzle through a forest and up a long slope. After a two hour climb, Bingham finally was led to a fantastic sight: perched between two peaks was a city. The city is now known as Machu Picchu. The Mayans Move Out Few peoples in history are as mysterious as the ancient Mayans of Central America. The Palace in the Cliff

Sumerian Myths Sumerian civilization originated in what is now southern Iraq, just upriver from the mouths of the Tigris and Euphrates rivers. "Civilization" in this context means a settled town or city-dwelling people who possess a stable agricultural technology (including domesticated animals) and have developed a hierarchical system of social classes (peasants, laborers, slaves, craftsmen [smiths, masons, carpenters, potters, etc.], farmers, fishermen, merchants, doctors, architects, priests and temple attendants, bureaucrats, scribes, advisers, priest-kings). Since the climate of southern Iraq is hot and dry, agriculture requires an extensive irrigation system of canals and dikes. Often, the Sumerians wrote as if their civilization (agricultural techniques, cities, classes of people) came first, and people later. Map of Mesopotamian Archeological Sites (Oriental Institute, University of Chicago) Sumerian cities were close agglomerations of one or two story mud brick dwellings. Questions:1. 2. 3.

ENUMA ELISH Sacred-Texts Ancient Near East ENUMA ELISH THE EPIC OF CREATION L.W. King Translator (from The Seven Tablets of Creation, London 1902) A more complete etext of the Seven Tablets of Creation is also available here. When in the height heaven was not named, And the earth beneath did not yet bear a name, And the primeval Apsu, who begat them, And chaos, Tiamut, the mother of them both Their waters were mingled together, And no field was formed, no marsh was to be seen; When of the gods none had been called into being, And none bore a name, and no destinies were ordained; Then were created the gods in the midst of heaven, Lahmu and Lahamu were called into being... [about 30 illegible lines] ... he spake: ... thy... he hath conquered and ... he weepeth and sitteth in tribulation. ... of fear, ... we shall not lie down in peace. ... Tiamat made weighty her handiwork, Evil she wrought against the gods her children. [A gap of about a dozen lines occurs here.] [Nearly fifty lines are here lost.]

krishnajesusmyths The Krishna and Christian Jesus Parallels Robert Howard Kroepel Copyright © 2001 The parallels (similarities) of the hundu Krishna Myth to the Christian Jesus myth are strong evidence that Christianity stole/borrowed elements of the older myth. In comparing the Krishna and Jesus myths, some of the references of the Jesus myth are stories found in the so-called Apocryphal Gospels, the early Christian writings which were not accepted for the Christian Canon, which includes the Gospels of Mark, Matthew, Luke, and John, the Acts, and other letters. Special note will be made of the Apocryphal Gospel references. The Apocryphal Gospel myths are included because they give additional mythological information not found in the Canonic Gospels. Because we are interested in the total Jesus myth, this additional information is included. Here is a chart comparing the Jesus myth to the Krishna myth. Sources:

The Stone Circles of Cumbria and the Lake District The Stone Circles of Cumbria There are some 50 stone circles in Cumbria, including some of the earliest stone circles in Britain. There is a vast range of types, from the vast monumental circles at Castlerigg, Swinside and Long Meg, to the standard early bronze age circles of about 100 ft in diameter as at Casterton and Elva Plain, to diminutive rings associated with alignments and burials. Some are associated with henge monuments such as Mayburgh. Listed below are some of Cumbria’s stone circles, other ancient Henges, standing stones, and other ancient sites. The Best Stone Circles Castlerigg Swinside Long Meg Other Stone Circles Birkrigg Elva Plain Little Meg Glassonby Gamelands Kemp Howe Castlehowe Scar Iron Hill Oddendale Gunnerkeld Grey Croft Kinniside Moor Divock Other stones and ancient places Mayburgh Henge Goggleby Stone The Bowder Stone Giants Graves King Arthur’s Round Table Lowhouse Standing Stone Druidical Judgement Seat Ewe Close prehistoric Settlement Go to Menu : Map Data Map data ©2014 Google Map

Ancient Days:: Comparison of Genesis with Creation Stories of the Ancient Near East :: by David Livingston One Viewpoint Many professors in colleges, universities and seminaries today agree with the following ideas and teach them to their students. This is one reason young people who have had a strong religious faith lose it when they go to college. For many centuries, Jewish and Christian theologians agreed that the accounts of the world's origin given in Genesis were not only inspired by God, but owed nothing to any other scriptures. This extreme view has now been abandoned by all but fundamentalists.1 These authors are probably correct that all but Bible believers (fundamentalists) have abandoned this view. The Genesis Creation Story does not owe anything to the creation myths of Egypt and Mesopotamia. The first account of Creation (Genesis 1:1-2:31) was composed at Jerusalem soon after the return from the Babylonian Exile (500 BC). This interpretation of Genesis 1 and 2 agrees with many scholars. It is very important to keep in mind that we are still reading picturesque literature. A.R.

Creation Myths Shillluk (Africa) [Excerpted and edited from Folklore in the Old Testament, J.G. Frazer.] The creator Juok moulded all people of earth. While he was engaged in the work of creation, he wandered about the world. In the land of the whites he found a pure white earth or sand, and out of it he shaped white people. The way in which he modeled human beings was this. Sikh For millions upon millions, countless years was spread darkness, When existed neither earth nor heaven, but only the limitless Divine Ordinance. Then were not Brahma, Vishnu or Shiva: None other than the Sole Lord was visible. Brahma, Vishnu, and Shiva He created and to maya-attachment gave increase. The Creator fashioned the Nine Abodes [of sensation]; In the Tenth [the superconscious mind] is lodged the Lord, unknowable, limitless. Tahitian He was. Vodun Damballah (Sky-serpent loa and wise and loving Father archetype) created all the waters of the earth. [From Vodun Creation Mythology (Site is currently inoperative.)] Yokut

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