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Epic of Creation (Mesopotamia)

Epic of Creation (Mesopotamia)
Stories describing creation are prominent in many cultures of the world. In Mesopotamia, the surviving evidence from the third millennium to the end of the first millennium B.C. indicates that although many of the gods were associated with natural forces, no single myth addressed issues of initial creation. It was simply assumed that the gods existed before the world was formed. Unfortunately, very little survives of Sumerian literature from the third millennium B.C. Several fragmentary tablets contain references to a time before the pantheon of the gods, when only the Earth (Sumerian: ki) and Heavens (Sumerian: an) existed. A Sumerian myth known today as "Gilgamesh and the Netherworld" opens with a mythological prologue. The origins of humans are described in another early second-millennium Sumerian poem, "The Song of the Hoe." In the Sumerian poem "The Debate between Grain and Sheep," the earth first appeared barren, without grain, sheep, or goats. Related:  the new mysticCreation Myths + Related

Top 10 Unusual Ancient Weapons Weird Stuff Mankind always has, and always will, fight wars. And in order to fight said wars, man needed weapons. Using whatever skills and resources they had, man built tools that would slash, smash, pierce and tear their enemies. Used by the Māori tribes of New Zealand, this simple-looking, yet solid, club was built from nephrite jade. Perhaps the most well-known on this list, the Chinese hook swords were wielded by the normally passive Shoalin monks of northern China. The kpinga was a throwing knife that was used by experienced warriors of the Azande tribe. The macuahuitl was basically a large, sword-shaped piece of wood, with razor-sharp pieces of obsidian embedded in the sides. This rather odd-looking weapon was used in the arenas by the gladiators of the ancient Roman Empire. Don’t be fooled, the chakram is not something you would want to play frisbee with. Now I have to hand it to the Chinese, their weapons have made four entries on my list.

Comparison of Four African Creation Myths by Jill Stuckwisch The four creation myths found on the internet, "An African Cosmogony," "An African Story of the Creation of Man," "Egyptian Cosmogony and Theogony," and the Yoruba creation myth found under "The Minneapolis Institute of Arts," have similar elements and incorporate values and norms common across many African Ethnic groups. One of the dominant values common to many ethnic groups is the value of the family and group. All four myths directly illustrate the belief that a person is described in terms of his or her family and lineage. A commonality between all of the myths except "An African Story of the Creation of Man" is that creation is by way of the mouth or spoken word accompanies creation. in "An African Cosmogony" Bumba, the creator, brings forth everything in the world by vomiting them up; all things first pass through Bumba's mouth before coming into existence. Return to Student Projects Return to Religious Traditions of the African Diaspora

Sumerian Myths Sumerian civilization originated in what is now southern Iraq, just upriver from the mouths of the Tigris and Euphrates rivers. "Civilization" in this context means a settled town or city-dwelling people who possess a stable agricultural technology (including domesticated animals) and have developed a hierarchical system of social classes (peasants, laborers, slaves, craftsmen [smiths, masons, carpenters, potters, etc.], farmers, fishermen, merchants, doctors, architects, priests and temple attendants, bureaucrats, scribes, advisers, priest-kings). Since the climate of southern Iraq is hot and dry, agriculture requires an extensive irrigation system of canals and dikes. Often, the Sumerians wrote as if their civilization (agricultural techniques, cities, classes of people) came first, and people later. Map of Mesopotamian Archeological Sites (Oriental Institute, University of Chicago) Sumerian cities were close agglomerations of one or two story mud brick dwellings. Questions:1. 2. 3.

ENUMA ELISH Sacred-Texts Ancient Near East ENUMA ELISH THE EPIC OF CREATION L.W. King Translator (from The Seven Tablets of Creation, London 1902) A more complete etext of the Seven Tablets of Creation is also available here. When in the height heaven was not named, And the earth beneath did not yet bear a name, And the primeval Apsu, who begat them, And chaos, Tiamut, the mother of them both Their waters were mingled together, And no field was formed, no marsh was to be seen; When of the gods none had been called into being, And none bore a name, and no destinies were ordained; Then were created the gods in the midst of heaven, Lahmu and Lahamu were called into being... [about 30 illegible lines] ... he spake: ... thy... he hath conquered and ... he weepeth and sitteth in tribulation. ... of fear, ... we shall not lie down in peace. ... Tiamat made weighty her handiwork, Evil she wrought against the gods her children. [A gap of about a dozen lines occurs here.] [Nearly fifty lines are here lost.]

Ancient Days:: Comparison of Genesis with Creation Stories of the Ancient Near East :: by David Livingston One Viewpoint Many professors in colleges, universities and seminaries today agree with the following ideas and teach them to their students. This is one reason young people who have had a strong religious faith lose it when they go to college. For many centuries, Jewish and Christian theologians agreed that the accounts of the world's origin given in Genesis were not only inspired by God, but owed nothing to any other scriptures. This extreme view has now been abandoned by all but fundamentalists.1 These authors are probably correct that all but Bible believers (fundamentalists) have abandoned this view. The Genesis Creation Story does not owe anything to the creation myths of Egypt and Mesopotamia. The first account of Creation (Genesis 1:1-2:31) was composed at Jerusalem soon after the return from the Babylonian Exile (500 BC). This interpretation of Genesis 1 and 2 agrees with many scholars. It is very important to keep in mind that we are still reading picturesque literature. A.R.

Creation Myths Shillluk (Africa) [Excerpted and edited from Folklore in the Old Testament, J.G. Frazer.] The creator Juok moulded all people of earth. While he was engaged in the work of creation, he wandered about the world. In the land of the whites he found a pure white earth or sand, and out of it he shaped white people. The way in which he modeled human beings was this. Sikh For millions upon millions, countless years was spread darkness, When existed neither earth nor heaven, but only the limitless Divine Ordinance. Then were not Brahma, Vishnu or Shiva: None other than the Sole Lord was visible. Brahma, Vishnu, and Shiva He created and to maya-attachment gave increase. The Creator fashioned the Nine Abodes [of sensation]; In the Tenth [the superconscious mind] is lodged the Lord, unknowable, limitless. Tahitian He was. Vodun Damballah (Sky-serpent loa and wise and loving Father archetype) created all the waters of the earth. [From Vodun Creation Mythology (Site is currently inoperative.)] Yokut

Enoch & the Nephilim - Part III Enoch & the Nephilim Part III The Evidence Mounts "More and more we are finding that mythology in general though greatly contorted very often has some historic base. And the interesting thing is that one myth which occurs over and over again in many parts of the world is that somewhere a long time ago supernatural beings had sexual intercourse with natural women and produced a special breed of people." -Francis A. Evidence for the existence of the Nephilim goes beyond the biblical record. "I have begotten a strange son," said Lamech, "...his nature is different and he is not like us, and his eyes are as the rays of the sun, and his countenance is glorious. Lamech did what most husbands would have done: he reproached his wife for infidelity. How enlightening for our study! Here is the statement made by Bat-Enosh as it reads in the Lamech Scroll: "My lord and kinsman, remember my delicate feelings. The Genesis Apocryphon is not the only extrabiblical documentation. An amazing book!

Genesis creation narrative The Genesis creation narrative is the creation myth of both Judaism and Christianity. It is made up of two parts, roughly equivalent to the first two chapters of the Book of Genesis. In the first part, Genesis 1:1 through Genesis 2:3, Elohim, the generic Hebrew word for God, creates the world in six days, then rests on, blesses and sanctifies the seventh day. A common hypothesis among biblical scholars is that the first major comprehensive draft of the Pentateuch (the series of five books which begins with Genesis and ends with Deuteronomy) was composed in the late 7th or the 6th century BC (the Yahwist source) and that this was later expanded by other authors (the Priestly source) into a work very like the one we have today. Composition[edit] Sources[edit] As for the historical background which led to the creation of the narrative itself, a theory which has gained considerable interest, although still controversial, is "Persian imperial authorisation". Structure[edit] Background[edit]

Sacred Earth - Sacred Plants: Mandrake (Mandragora officinalis) © Kat Morgenstern, February 2002 There are 6 species in this genus, the most common of which is Mandragora officinarum. The perennial plants form a leaf-rosette with no stalk. The leaves can grow up to a foot in size and are between 4 - 5 inches wide with a sharply pointed apex. When they first emerge they stand erect, but gradually flatten out. Mandrake originates in the eastern Mediterranean region and is distributed throughout southern Europe, the Middle East and northern Africa, where it grows in waste places and abandoned fields in sandy and rocky, well draining soil. Once shrouded in much mystery and lore, Mandrake, the most important magical plant of the Middle Ages, today has been all but forgotten. Mandrake was also known to have narcotic properties and in Antiquity was often used as an anaesthetic for surgical procedures. Apuleius thought it an effective remedy to counteract possession by evil spirits. Such a powerful magical ally was of course not easy to come by.

Framework interpretation (Genesis) This article focuses on the views of certain Christian commentators and theologians. For a more general account of the topic, see Genesis creation narrative. The framework interpretation (also known as the literary framework view, framework theory, or framework hypothesis) is a description of the structure of the first chapter of the Book of Genesis (more precisely Genesis 1:1-2:4a), the Genesis creation narrative. It can be illustrated with the following table: Genesis 1 divides its six days of Creation into two groups of three ("triads"). Differences exist on how to classify the two triads, but Meredith G. The framework interpretation is held by many theistic evolutionists and some progressive creationists. Old Testament and Pentateuch scholar Gordon Wenham supports a schematic interpretation of Genesis 1 in his two volume, scholarly commentary on Genesis. Jump up ^ Kline, "Space and Time," p. 6.Jump up ^ Davis A. Henri Blocher (1984).

The Temple Mount in Jerusalem