Ancestral sin Ancestral sin (Greek: προπατορικὴ ἁμαρτία or προπατορικὸν ἁμάρτημα, more rarely προγονικὴ ἁμαρτία) is the object of a Christian doctrine taught by the Eastern Orthodox Church. Some identify it as "inclination towards sin, a heritage from the sin of our progenitors". But most distinguish it from this tendency that remains even in baptized persons, since ancestral sin "is removed through baptism". St. Gregory Palamas taught that, as a result of ancestral sin (called "original sin" in the West), man's image was tarnished, disfigured, as a consequence of Adam's disobedience. The Greek theologian John Karmiris writes that "the sin of the first man, together with all of its consequences and penalties, is transferred by means of natural heredity to the entire human race. Since every human being is a descendant of the first man, 'no one of us is free from the spot of sin, even if he should manage to live a completely sinless day.' ... Roman Catholic Church See also
Salvation Salvation (Latin salvatio; Greek sōtēria; Hebrew yeshu'ah) is being saved or protected from harm or being saved or delivered from some dire situation. In religion, salvation is stated as the saving of the soul from sin and its consequences. The academic study of salvation is called soteriology. Meaning Abrahamic religions Judaism In contemporary Judaism, redemption (Hebrew ge'ulah), refers to God redeeming the people of Israel from their various exiles. This includes the final redemption from the present exile. Judaism holds that adherents do not need personal salvation as Christians believe. The Jewish concept of Messiah visualises the return of the prophet Elijah as the harbinger of one who will redeem the world from war and suffering, leading mankind to universal brotherhood under the fatherhood of one God. When examining Jewish intellectual sources throughout history, there is clearly a spectrum of opinions regarding death versus the Afterlife.
Allegorical interpretations of Genesis Genesis is part of the canonical scriptures for both Christianity and Judaism, and thus to believers is taken as being of spiritual significance. The opening sequences of the book tell the biblical story of origins. Those who read Genesis literally believe that it teaches the creation of humanity and the universe in general in a timeframe of six successive days of 24 hour durations. Those who favor an allegorical interpretation of the story claim that its intent is to describe humankind's relationship to creation and the creator. Some Jews and Christians have long considered the creation account of Genesis as an allegory instead of as historical description, much earlier than the development of modern science. Interpretation Church historians on allegorical interpretation of Genesis The literalist reading of some contemporary Christians maligns the allegorical or mythical interpretation of Genesis as a belated attempt to reconcile science with the biblical account. St. St.
Creator deity Polytheism Platonic demiurge Monolatrism Monism Monism has its origin in Hellenistic philosophy as a concept of all things deriving from a single substance or being. Following a long and still current tradition H.P. "Pantheists are ‘monists’...they believe that there is only one Being, and that all other forms of reality are either modes (or appearances) of it or identical with it." Although, like Baruch Spinoza, some pantheists may also be monists, and monism may even be essential to some versions of pantheism (like Spinoza's), not all pantheists are monists. In Advaita Vedanta, Brahman is the abstract notion of "the Absolute" from which the universe takes its origin and at an ultimate level, all assertions of a distinction between Brahman, other gods and creation are meaningless (monism). Buddhism In Buddhism, causality is the responsible for creation. Hinduism Hinduism includes a range of viewpoints about the origin of life, creationism and evolution.
Framework interpretation (Genesis) This article focuses on the views of certain Christian commentators and theologians. For a more general account of the topic, see Genesis creation narrative. The framework interpretation (also known as the literary framework view, framework theory, or framework hypothesis) is a description of the structure of the first chapter of the Book of Genesis (more precisely Genesis 1:1-2:4a), the Genesis creation narrative. It can be illustrated with the following table: Genesis 1 divides its six days of Creation into two groups of three ("triads"). Differences exist on how to classify the two triads, but Meredith G. The framework interpretation is held by many theistic evolutionists and some progressive creationists. Old Testament and Pentateuch scholar Gordon Wenham supports a schematic interpretation of Genesis 1 in his two volume, scholarly commentary on Genesis. Jump up ^ Kline, "Space and Time," p. 6.Jump up ^ Davis A. Henri Blocher (1984).
Intelligent design Intelligent design (ID) is the pseudoscientific view that "certain features of the universe and of living things are best explained by an intelligent cause, not an undirected process such as natural selection." Educators, philosophers, and the scientific community have demonstrated that ID is a religious argument, a form of creationism which lacks empirical support and offers no tenable hypotheses. Proponents argue that it is "an evidence-based scientific theory about life's origins" that challenges the methodological naturalism inherent in modern science, while conceding that they have yet to produce a scientific theory. The leading proponents of ID are associated with the Discovery Institute, a politically conservative think tank based in the United States.[n 1] Although they state that ID is not creationism and deliberately avoid assigning a personality to the designer, many of these proponents express belief that the designer is the Christian deity.
Genesis creation narrative The Genesis creation narrative is the creation myth of both Judaism and Christianity. It is made up of two parts, roughly equivalent to the first two chapters of the Book of Genesis. In the first part, Genesis 1:1 through Genesis 2:3, Elohim, the generic Hebrew word for God, creates the world in six days, then rests on, blesses and sanctifies the seventh day. A common hypothesis among biblical scholars is that the first major comprehensive draft of the Pentateuch (the series of five books which begins with Genesis and ends with Deuteronomy) was composed in the late 7th or the 6th century BC (the Yahwist source) and that this was later expanded by other authors (the Priestly source) into a work very like the one we have today. Composition Sources As for the historical background which led to the creation of the narrative itself, a theory which has gained considerable interest, although still controversial, is "Persian imperial authorisation". Structure Background
Creation of man from clay Fashioning a man out of clay According to Genesis 2:7 "And the Lord God formed man of the dust of the ground, and breathed into his nostrils the breath of life; and man became a living soul."According to the Qur'an[23:12–15], God created man from clay.According to greek mythology (see Hesiod's poem Theogeny), Prometheus created man from clay, while Athena breathed life into them.According to Chinese mythology (see Chu Ci and Imperial Readings of the Taiping Era), Nüwa molded figures from the yellow earth, giving them life and the ability to bear children.According to Egyptian mythology the god Khnum creates human children from clay before placing them into their mother's womb. انا خلقنا الانسان من صلصال من حمإ مسنون reference from sour at alhijer holy Quran
Old Earth creationism Old Earth creationism is an umbrella term for a number of types of creationism, including gap creationism, progressive creationism, and evolutionary creationism. Old Earth creationism is typically more compatible with mainstream scientific thought on the issues of physics, chemistry, geology and the age of the Earth, in comparison to young Earth creationism. Types of old Earth creationism Gap creationism Gap creationism states that life was immediately and recently created on a pre-existing old Earth. One variant rests on a rendering of Genesis 1:1-2 as: "In the beginning ... the earth was formless and void." This is taken by Gap creationists to imply that the earth already existed, but had passed into decay during an earlier age of existence, and was now being "shaped anew". Progressive creationism Theistic evolution Hindu creationism Approaches to Genesis 1 The Framework interpretation Day-age creationism Cosmic Time Criticism
Second death The second death is an eschatological concept in Judaism and Christianity related to punishment after a first, natural, death. Judaism Although the term is not found in the Hebrew Bible, Sysling in his study (1996) of Teḥiyyat ha-metim (Hebrew; "resurrection of the dead") in the Palestinian Targums identifies a consistent usage of the term "second death" in texts of the Second Temple period and early Rabbinical writings. In most cases this "second death" is identical with the judgment, following resurrection, in Gehinnom at the Last Day. Targum Deuteronomy In Targum Neofiti (Neof.) and the fragments (FTP and FTV) the "second death" is the death the wicked die. Targum Isaiah Targum Isaiah has three occurrences. Targum Jeremiah Targum Psalms The majority reading of Targum Psalm 49:11 has the Aramaic translation "For the wise see that the evildoers are judged in Gehinnom". Rabbinic interpretations Christianity Different views See also
Afterlife Ancient Egyptian papyrus depicting the journey into the afterlife. Paradise of Bhaishajyaguru discovered at the Mogao Caves.  In metaphysical models, theists generally believe some sort of afterlife awaits people when they die. Members of some generally non-theistic religions such as Buddhism, tend to believe in an afterlife, but without reference to a God. Many religions, whether they believe in the soul's existence in another world like Christianity, Islam and many pagan belief systems, or in reincarnation like many forms of Hinduism and Buddhism, believe that one's status in the afterlife is a reward or punishment for their conduct during life. Reincarnation Reincarnation refers to an afterlife concept found among Hindus, Buddhists, Jains, Sikhs, Rosicrucians, Theosophists, Spiritists, and Wiccans. One consequence of reincarnationist beliefs is that our current lives are both afterlife and a beforelife. Heaven and hell Limbo Purgatory Ancient religions
Temptation More informally, temptation may be used to mean "the state of being attracted and enticed" without anything to do with moral, ethical, or ideological valuation; for example, one may say that a piece of food looks "tempting" even though eating it would result in no negative consequences. Religious usage Temptation has implications deeply rooted in Judaism and the The Old Testament, starting with the story of Eve and the original sin. Many non-Western cultures had no precise equivalent until coming into contact with Europeans. In the text of the Lord's Prayer, the King James Version uses "temptation" to translate the Greek word πειρασμός peirasmos. This word has nothing to do with "temptation" with moral-ethical or spiritual-eschatological overtones. Non-religious usage Temptation is usually used in a loose sense to describe actions which indicate a lack of self control. See also References