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Biomechanics

Biomechanics
Page of one of the first works of Biomechanics (De Motu Animalium of Giovanni Alfonso Borelli) Word history[edit] The word "biomechanics" (1899) and the related "biomechanical" (1856) were coined by Nikolai Bernstein[citation needed] from the Ancient Greek βίος bios "life" and μηχανική, mēchanikē "mechanics", to refer to the study of the mechanical principles of living organisms, particularly their movement and structure.[3] Method[edit] Usually biological systems are much more complex than man-built systems. Numerical methods are hence applied in almost every biomechanical study. Subfields[edit] Applied subfields of biomechanics include: Sports biomechanics[edit] In sports biomechanics, the laws of mechanics are applied to human movement in order to gain a greater understanding of athletic performance and to reduce sport injuries as well. Continuum biomechanics[edit] Biomaterials are classified in two groups, hard and soft tissues. Biofluid mechanics[edit] Biotribology[edit] History[edit]

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Biomechanics

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Biomineralization Glomerula piloseta (Sabellidae), longitudinal section of the tube, aragonitic spherulitic prismatic structure IUPAC definition Mineralization caused by cell-mediated phenomena.[1][a] Biomineralization is the process by which living organisms produce minerals, [2]often to harden or stiffen existing tissues. Such tissues are called mineralized tissues. It is an extremely widespread phenomenon; all six taxonomic kingdoms contain members that are able to form minerals, and over 60 different minerals have been identified in organisms.[3][4][5] Examples include silicates in algae and diatoms, carbonates in invertebrates, and calcium phosphates and carbonates in vertebrates. Developmental biology Perspectives[edit] Developmental model organisms[edit] Often used model organisms in developmental biology include the following: Studied phenomena[edit] Cell differentiation[edit]

Spleen The spleen synthesizes antibodies in its white pulp and removes antibody-coated bacteria and antibody-coated blood cells by way of blood and lymph node circulation. A study published in 2009 using mice found that the spleen contains, in its reserve, half of the body's monocytes within the red pulp.[5] These monocytes, upon moving to injured tissue (such as the heart), turn into dendritic cells and macrophages while promoting tissue healing.[5][6][7] The spleen is a center of activity of the mononuclear phagocyte system and can be considered analogous to a large lymph node, as its absence causes a predisposition to certain infections.[8] In humans, the spleen is brownish in color and is located in the left upper quadrant of the abdomen.[4][9] Structure[edit]

Motility In biology, motility is the ability to move spontaneously and actively, consuming energy in the process. Most animals are motile but the term applies to unicellular and simple multicellular organisms, as well as to some mechanisms of fluid flow in multicellular organs, in addition to animal locomotion. Motile marine animals are commonly called free-swimming. Motility may also refer to an organism's ability to move food through its digestive tract, i.e., peristaltics (gut motility, intestinal motility, etc.).[1] Cellular-level motility[edit]

Embryology 1 - morula, 2 - blastula 1 - blastula, 2 - gastrula with blastopore; orange - ectoderm, red - endoderm. Dissection of human embryo, 38 mm - 8 weeks Embryology (from Greek ἔμβρυον, embryon, "the unborn, embryo"; and -λογία, -logia) is the science of the development of an embryo from the fertilization of the ovum to the fetus stage. Embryonic development of animals[edit] After cleavage, the dividing cells, or morula, becomes a hollow ball, or blastula, which develops a hole or pore at one end. Congenital heart defect Congenital heart defect (CHD) or congenital heart anomaly[2] is a defect in the structure of the heart and great vessels that is present at birth. Many types of heart defects exist, most of which either obstruct blood flow in the heart or vessels near it, or cause blood to flow through the heart in an abnormal pattern. Other defects, such as long QT syndrome, affect the heart's rhythm. Heart defects are among the most common birth defects and are the leading cause of birth defect-related deaths. Approximately 9 people in 1000 are born with a congenital heart defect.[3] Many defects do not need treatment, but some complex congenital heart defects require medication or surgery.

Animal locomotion Animal locomotion, in ethology, is any of a variety of movements that results in progression from one place to another.[1] Some modes of locomotion are (initially) self-propelled, e.g. running, swimming, jumping, flying, soaring and gliding. There are also many animal species that depend on their environment for transportation, a type of mobility called passive locomotion, e.g. sailing (some jellyfish), kiting (spiders) and rolling (some beetles and spiders). Animals move for a variety of reasons, such as to find food, a mate, a suitable microhabitat, or to escape predators.

Human body The study of the human body involves anatomy and physiology. The human body can show anatomical non-pathological anomalies known as variations which need to be able to be recognised. Physiology focuses on the systems and their organs of the human body and their functions. Many systems and mechanisms interact in order to maintain homeostasis. Circulatory system The circulatory system is often seen to be composed of both the cardiovascular system, which distributes blood, and the lymphatic system, which circulates lymph.[1]These are two separate systems. The passage of lymph for example takes a lot longer than that of blood.[2] Blood is a fluid consisting of plasma, red blood cells, white blood cells, and platelets that is circulated by the heart through the vertebrate vascular system, carrying oxygen and nutrients to and waste materials away from all body tissues. Lymph is essentially recycled excess blood plasma after it has been filtered from the interstitial fluid (between cells) and returned to the lymphatic system. The cardiovascular (from Latin words meaning 'heart'-'vessel') system comprises the blood, heart, and blood vessels.[3] The lymph, lymph nodes, and lymph vessels form the lymphatic system, which returns filtered blood plasma from the interstitial fluid (between cells) as lymph.

Biomolecular structure Structure of the protein 1EFN Biomolecular structure is the intricate folded, three-dimensional shape that is formed by a protein, DNA, or RNA molecule, and that is important to its function. The structure of these molecules is frequently decomposed into primary structure, secondary structure, tertiary structure, and quaternary structure.

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