Hinduism - Puranas Sacred-texts home Journal Articles: Hinduism OCRT: Hinduism Buy CD-ROM Buy books about Hinduism Vedas Upanishads Puranas Other Primary Texts Epics Mahabharata Ramayana Bhagavad Gita Vedanta Later texts Modern books The Vedas There are four Vedas, the Rig Veda, Sama Veda, Yajur Veda and Atharva Veda. The Vedas are the primary texts of Hinduism. They also had a vast influence on Buddhism, Jainism, and Sikhism. The Vedas contain hymns, incantations, and rituals from ancient India. Rig Veda The Rig-Veda translated by Ralph Griffith A complete English translation of the Rig Veda. Rig-Veda (Sanskrit)The complete Rig Veda in Sanskrit, in Unicode Devanagari script and standard romanization. Vedic Hymns, Part I (SBE 32)Hymns to the Maruts, Rudra, Vâyu and Vâta, tr. by F. Vedic Hymns, Part II (SBE 46)Hymns to Agni, tr. by Hermann Oldenberg The Vedic Hymns to Agni. A Vedic Reader for Students (excerpts) by A.A. Sama Veda Yajur Veda The Texts of the White Yajurveda translated by Ralph T.H.
Valdivia culture The Valdivia Culture is one of the oldest settled cultures recorded in the Americas. It emerged from the earlier Las Vegas culture and thrived on the Santa Elena peninsula near the modern-day town of Valdivia, Ecuador between 3500 BC and 1800 BC. map of Valdivia Culture Valdivian pottery is the oldest in America. Valdivian pottery in the Museo de La Plata (Argentina). Mortar, Jaguar Valdivia, South Coast ( 4000 to 1500 B.C). Mortar, Parrot Valdivia, South Coast (4000 a 1500 BC). The Valdivia culture was discovered in 1956 by the Ecuadorian archeologist Emilio Estrada. Recently, geneticists have published evidence from haplogroup studies that support the theory of Japanese-Valdivian contact. Valdivian pottery initially was rough and practical, but it became splendid, delicate and large over time. There is a display of Valdivian artifacts in Guayaquil, Ecuador at UEES. References External links Ecuadorian Archaeology External links
The Kerala School, European Mathematics and Navigation The National Geographic has declared Kerala, the south-west coast near the tip of the Indian peninsula, as God's Own Country. It has been a centre of maritime trade, with its rich variety of spices greatly in demand, even as early as the time of the Babylonians. Famous travellers and explorers such as Ibn Battuta and Vasco da Gama came from across the Arabian Sea. In recent years, Kerala has gained recognition for its role in the reconstruction of medieval Indian mathematics. Joseph (1994) has very emphatically brought out the significance of the Kerala school of Maths in his The Crest of the Peacock, though the Eurocentric scholars have severely criticized it. C.K. Joseph informs that in 1835, Charles Whish published an article in which he referred to four works – Nilakantha's Tantra Samgraha, Jyesthadeva's Yuktibhasa, Putumana Somayaji's Karana Paddhati and Sankara Varman' s Sadratnamala – as being among the main astronomical and mathematical texts of the Kerala school. Bibliography
Uxmal Uxmal (Yucatec Maya: Óoxmáal [óˑʃmáˑl]) is an ancient Maya city of the classical period in present-day Mexico. It is considered one of the most important archaeological sites of Maya culture, along with Chichen Itza in Mexico; Caracol and Xunantunich in Belize, and Tikal in Guatemala. It is located in the Puuc region and is considered one of the Maya cities most representative of the region's dominant architectural style. It is located 62 km south of Mérida, capital of Yucatán state in Mexico. Its buildings are typical of the Puuc style, with smooth low walls that open on ornate friezes based on representations of typical Maya huts. The buildings take advantage of the terrain to gain height and acquire important volumes, including the Pyramid of the Magician, with five levels, and the Governor's Palace, which covers an area of more than 1,200 m2 (12,917 sq ft). Toponymy The present name seems to derive from Oxmal, meaning "three times built". Ancient history Sylvanus G.
Hindu Culture1 "Some foolish men declare that a Creator made the world. The doctrine that the world was created is ill-advised, and should be rejected. If God created the world, where was he before creation?... How could God have made the world without any raw material? Modern people divide the day into 24 hours, the hour - into 60 minutes, the minute - into 60 seconds. Sayana (c. 1315-1387) was a minister in the court of King Bukka I of the Vijayanagar Empire in South India; he was also a great Vedic scholar who wrote extensive commentaries on several ancient texts. Tatha cha smaryate yojananam sahasre dve dve shate dve cha yogane ekena nimishardhena kramamana namo ‘stu ta iti Thus it is remembered: (O Sun), bow to you, you who travers 2,202 yojanas in half a minute. The Puranas define 1 nimesha to be equal to 16/75 seconds. 1 yojana is about 9 miles. Sayana’s statement was printed in 1890 in the famous edition of Rig Veda edited by Max Muller, the German Sanskritist . T. Dr. – Vedanga Jyotisa.
Varuna In the Vedas Varuna and Mitra are the gods of the societal affairs including the oath, and are often twinned Mitra-Varuna (a dvandva compound). Varuna is also twinned with Indra in the Rigveda, as Indra-Varuna (when both cooperate at New Year in re-establishing order ). The Rigveda and Atharvaveda portrays Varuna as omniscient, catching liars in his snares. Similarities with other gods In the Ramayana Faced with the dilemma of how to cross the ocean to Lanka, where his abducted wife Sita is held captive by the demon king Ravana, Rama (an Avatar of Vishnu) performs a penance (tapasya) to Varuna, the Lord of Oceans, fasting and meditating in perfect dhyana for three days and three nights. In Contemporary Hinduism Worship of Varuna is an integral part of the evening ritual of the Sandhyavandanam, of a dvija Hindu. In Zoroastrianism "Varun" is one of 101 names of Ahura Mazda, meaning "Deliverer from evil". Varuna is not attested in the texts of the Avesta.
» Does no one remember the Indian contribution to Technology? . || Satyameva Jayate || I came across this excellent, very powerful and well-researched article by karigar: Karnataki Karbon Nanotube Swords- forget S Indian Wootz! Please read in full and circulate widely. It is a shame that widespread ignorance still persists about our achievements in Sciences, Mathematics and various disciplines of technology. While on the subject, please also have a look at one of my earlier articles: “Does no one remember the Hindu contribution to Mathematics?” Some excerpts: Just got done reading the NY times article attached below. Oh the great Western (& Westernized Indian) media, & us, its uninformed, unsuspecting, & uncritical consumers! The Mehrauli pillar in Delhi, made in the Magadhan times, & rustless till today, is just dismissed as a “wonder” by us Western Educated Indians, in line with the rest of the world that doesn’t have time for Indian thought. [Ref: Preface for "Heat Treatment Fundamentals" By S Collard Churchill, first Pub. 1958 in UK by The Machinery Publishing Co Ltd.]
Vengeful ghost The spirit of the vengeful priest Raigo returns as a plague of rats and destroys the Mii Temple. Tsukioka Yoshitoshi 1891 As a husband passes by the place where his pregnant wife was brutally murdered, her ghost appears and hands their child to him. She then tells him the story of her murder and assists him as he takes revenge for her death. Utagawa Kuniyoshi 1845 In mythology and folklore, a vengeful ghost or vengeful spirit is said to be the spirit of a deceased person who returns from the afterlife to seek revenge for a cruel, unnatural or unjust death. Cultural background The concept of a vengeful ghost goes back to ancient times and is part of many cultures. Exorcisms and appeasement are among the religious and social customs practiced by various cultures in relation to the vengeful ghost. List of vengeful ghosts Ancient Rome Ancient Greece British Isles China Indian Subcontinent Japan Onryō. Latin America North America Chindi.
Sharda Temple of Hindus in Pakistan Occupied Kashmir | The Kashmir It may be noted that Goverments of both countries, India and Pakistan have allowed muslim population of Kashmir to cross the line of actual control and have allowed trade as well across the border , both these countries are not allowing Kashmiri Hindus to visit the above shrine despite many requests. Prior to independence, Hindu Pandits were settled in great numbers, in the Northern areas of Kashmir. Sharadi is a small village in Northern parts of Kashmir, which was famous for an ancient temple of Goddess Sharada. A Kashmiri Pandit family headed by Thusu Ladarwani was settled in this village. This Thusu family was compelled to migrate to Srinagar from Pakistan occupied Kashmir (POK) and again due to the terrorists and their activities, had forcibly to shift to Jammu and stay in a transit camp there. At present, Shri Shambhunathji Thusu from this family is ninety four year old and possesses an exceptionally remarkable memory. Shri. Shri. Prior to Division of Kashmir in last century Mr.
Ventarron Researchers named the temple structure Ventarrón. Located in a valley, the complex, covers about 2500 square meters (27,000 square feet). The temple and murals were radio carbon dated to 2000 B.C., and are thought to be the oldest discovered in the Americas. One mural on two walls depicts a deer caught in a net; another has an abstract design in red and white. The temple was constructed of bricks of river sediment rather than the stone or adobe later to be traditional in the area; its construction is unique for the northern coast. It contains a stairway leading to a fire altar. Walter Alva, the Peruvian archaeologist making the discovery, commented on the findings: "What's surprising are the construction methods, the architectural design and most of all the existence of murals that could be the oldest in the Americas. Alva and his team worked three months on the excavation. Coordinates: