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A correspondent writes to ask if I could explain the difference in the meaning between the following sentences: (1) I would like to have studied philosophy. (2) I would have liked to study philosophy. (3) I would have liked to have studied philosophy. The underlying issue is one of focus. Where is the perfective meaning inherent in the auxiliary verb have being focused? In (1) the liking is now and the studying is some time in the past. In (2) the liking is some time in the past (and thus the study). In (3) both the liking and the study are in the past.

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Ben Crystal Ben Crystal (born 1977) is an English actor, author, and producer, best known for his work on performing and promoting William Shakespeare in "Original Pronunciation". Background and career[edit] The son of linguist David Crystal, Ben was born in Ascot, Berkshire, and grew up in Wokingham and Holyhead, North Wales. He studied English Language and Linguistics at Lancaster University between 1995 and 1998, before training as an actor between 1998 and 1999. After leaving drama school he studied methods from the theatre companies Complicite and Frantic Assembly, particularly under Annabel Arden and Monika Pagneux.

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