untitled The North Atlantic Treaty, signed Washington D.C. 4 April 1949 The Parties to this Treaty reaffirm their faith in the purposes and principles of the Charter of the United Nations and their desire to live in peace with all peoples and all governments. They are determined to safeguard the freedom, common heritage and civilisation of their peoples, founded on the principles of democracy, individual liberty and the rule of law. Background Two years after the Second World War, on 4 March 1947, France and Britain signed the Treaty of Dunkirk, to support each other if either of them should 'become again involved in hostilities with Germany'. A year later, on 17 March 1948, France and Britain joined with the Belgium, Luxembourg and the Netherlands to sign the Treaty of Brussels. 1. pledged to ' fortify and preserve the principles of democracy, personal freedom and political liberty'. 2. changed ‘involved in hostilities with Germany’ to ‘an armed attack in Europe’. The Formation of NATO Principles 2.
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How the Cold War Developed 1949-63 How peaceful was Peaceful Coexistence? Hungary, 1956: causes of the rising, why it was a threat to the USSR and how the soviets dealt with it; the effects on Europe and the Cold War The continuation of the nuclear arms/space race: Sputnik 1; ICBMs; Polaris; Gagarin; Apollo The U2 Crisis 1960: the purpose of U2; the responses of the USA and the USSR to the crisis; the effect on the Paris Summit and the peace process The situation in Berlin: the Berlin Wall; Kennedy’s response. How close to war was the world in the 1960s?
Berlin Blockade A move to test our ability and our will to resist. President Truman, speaking in 1949 The climax of the struggle for power over Germany and Europe. Avi Shlaim, Britain, the Berlin Blockade and the Cold War (1983) The first major crisis of the Cold War, setting up the stage for the decades of tension that were to follow. Rebecca Byrnes (an Australian student) on Suite 101.com The first point where war between the two superpowers was possible. ‘Booji’, a contributor to www.debatewise.com The USSR had already disagreed with Britain and the USA at Potsdam (July 1945) about what should be done with Germany. There had been particular disagreement about reparations: Britain and America had wanted Germany to recover economically, but the Russians had gained the right to take 10% of the industrial equipment of western Germany, and as whatever they wanted from their own zone in eastern Germany: Berlin, in Russia's zone, was also split into 4 zones. New Words Blockade: a siege. Bizonia Currency: money.
A Secret Landscape: The Cold War Infrastructure of the Nation's Capital Region Road to World War II International relations 1919-39: basic narrative overview Peace to War 1919-39: clear overview aimed specifically at the old AQA GCSE. Podcasts: - Giles Hill on the Road to War - BBC debate-podcast on what caused the war - quirky view History Learning Site - excellent IGCSE notes: an exemplar set of student notes The BBC Causes of World War II site An excellent site on 'Why World War II?' A good set of notes, suitable for top-GCSE/A-level, which address long- and short-term causes and give a brief historiography. A site studying the theories of AJP Taylor about why there was a war Cartoonists and the idea of a Stufenplan - Did Hitler have a plan for war? A site about 1938 - including many radio broadcasts
The Warsaw Security Pact: May 14, 1955 The Warsaw Security Pact: May 14, 1955 Treaty of Friendship, Cooperation and Mutual Assistance Between the People's Republic of Albania, the People's Republic of Bulgaria, the Hungarian People's Republic, the German Democratic Republic, the Polish People's Republic, the Rumanian People's Republic, the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics and the Czechoslovak Republic, May 14, 1955 (1) who, having presented their full powers, found in good and due form, have agreed as follows: Article 1 The Contracting Parties undertake, in accordance with the Charter of the United Nations Organization, to refrain in their international relations from the threat or use of force, and to settle their international disputes peacefully and in such manner as will not jeopardize international peace and security. Article 2 Article 3 Article 4 Measures taken on the basis of this Article shall be reported to the Security Council in conformity with the provisions of the Charter of the United Nations Organization.
10 Ridiculous Cold War Government Projects Politics The Cold War was a period of time when all of the countries of the world waited with baited breath to see what the outcome of the decades-long hard staring contest between the United States and the Soviet Union would be. As the nuclear arms race ramped up, some of these countries (either voluntarily or otherwise) picked sides; some began developing nuclear programs of their own, and most just kept their heads down and quietly hoped for another day without complete annihilation. Most are aware of some of the truly shady things done by intelligence agencies and military organizations during this period, but the sheer scope of programs designed to figure out the capabilities of and/or screw with the other guy—and the ridiculous amounts of money and effort involved—is staggering. Before the development of the Intercontinental Ballistic Missile and the real threat of total nuclear destruction, people projected their Atomic fears onto all kinds of weird things. Col. Body.
Causes of WWI - Contents The Causes of World War One - Views of historians BBC News magazine - Who started WWI Blackadder on the causes of World War One - BBC debate-podcast on why war broke out - Giles Hill on the causes of the First World War - quirky view Map of Europe in 1914 Good notes + activities: recommended More notes Brilliant overview from wikipedia Reed Brett on the Causes of the War Prof Rempel on the Causes Interactive lesson - really good once you think you have got the basic idea BBC site - by Gary Sheffield Blackadder on the Causes of World War One - can you understand the humour? This site looks at the coming of war from Britain's point of view This thread on the History Help forum looks at how you can blame almost everyone and everyone for starting the war! Two essays, one arguing that militarism, the other that nationalism was to blame Nebojsa Malic argues simply and effectively that Serbia was not to blame, but that Austria and Germany wanted war.
AirBrige to Berlin Home Post war Germany was divided into three sections--the Allied part was controlled by the United States, Great Britain and France and other part by the Soviet Union. The city of Berlin, although located in the eastern Soviet half, was also divided into four sectors --West Berlin occupied by Allied interests and East Berlin occupied by Soviets. In June 1948, the Soviet Union attempted to control all of Berlin by cutting surface traffic to and from the city of West Berlin. Berlin Airlift The Unknown Cold War The modernizing of China and the dissolution of the Soviet Union over the last two decades have led to the release of hundreds of millions of pages of formerly top-secret archival documents. These documents—transnational cables, transcripts, diplomatic reports, and internal memoranda—are giving the West a new view of Sino-Soviet and inter-Soviet relations. They also hint at the dangers that might have been. Historians are collecting and translating provocative accounts of the Cuban Missile Crisis and other flash points in the Cold War. The Wilson Center and The George Washington University are partners in an ongoing NEH-supported collaboration to train high school teachers in recent advances in Cold War historiography and to build a website to store and display online resources. “Archives are a repository of a nation’s truths,” says Nancy Meyers, project associate at the Cold War International History Project. “Primary matter is hard for high school students to use.
World War II Home Front Study the topic through films! These four classic films will give you a great insight: Dunkirk Reach for the Sky The Cruel Sea The Longest Day Britain in World War II History Learning Site (excellent) A Chronology of the period with hyperlinks Spartacus encyclopaedia BBC site: excellent Maps of World War II campaigns (detailed) Battle of Britain site: excellent Hannah Hatfield's Spirit of Normandy prize-winning work on D-Day! The 'Home Front' The Imperial War Museum site is good on Civilians and has a very simple site on the Home Front Economic effects of the war Essays on the Home Front by Joanne Oliver and Laura Cleland - must-read pieces! Civvy Street in WWII (Tom Fletcher's memories) - wonderful account! Collected memories a. b. c. d. e. f. g. h. i. Memories on video - very accessible j. k. The Aycliffe Angels Chesham at War Brilliant BBC audio-clips from the war Problems on the Home Front A Socialist view of the war - argues that some sacrificed more than others to win the war The 1940s House
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