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The Kardashev Scale – Type I, II, III, IV & V Civilization Mass Effect citadel. Image credit: BioWare Theorists assert that, as a civilization grows larger and becomes more advanced, its energy demands will increase rapidly due to its population growth and the energy requirements of its various machines. With this in mind, the Kardashev scale was developed as a way of measuring a civilization’s technological advancement based upon how much usable energy it has at its disposal. Credit: Chris Cold The scale was originally designed in 1964 by the Russian astrophysicist, Nikolai Kardashev (who was looking for signs of extraterrestrial life within cosmic signals). Firstly, it is important to note that the human race is not even on this scale yet. A Type I designation is a given to species who have been able to harness all the energy that is available from a neighboring star, gathering and storing it to meet the energy demands of a growing population. What would this much energy mean for a species? Type V.

Cocktail Party Physics Astronomy Photographer of the Year : Exhibitions : What's on Take home the best of Astronomy Photographer of the Year The Royal Observatory has partnered with Collins to produce a beautiful hardback book featuring all the winning and shortlisted images from the 2013 Astronomy Photographer of the Year competition. Order yours now from our shop. We also have a selection of specially commissioned merchandise featuring some of the winning images. Astronomy Photographer of the Year app Astronomy Photographer of the Year 1.0 for iPhone and iPad is the perfect app for astronomy and photography enthusiasts, allowing users to explore 90 breath-taking images of space. Price: £0.69 Download from iTunesDeveloper: HarperCollins Publishers Limited

Learning Styles ;) How Artists Once Imagined the Earth Would Look from Space: | Oddly_Even Ever since the invention of the telescope, people knew what the planets of the solar system looked like. By the turn of the 20th century, we even had excellent photos of many of them. But before the first satellites—or even the first high-altitude photos from V2 rockets and stratosphere balloons—no one had any idea what our planet would look like when seen from space. Here’s how artists imagined Earth would look from space. Illustration by Chesley Bonestell. No one saw our earth as an entire planet hanging in empty space until 1960, when a Russian satellite snapped a grainy image. The first TV picture of earth from space. First full-disk photo of earth from space. First color full-disk photo of earth from space. Before this, a number of artists tried to imagine what our planet might look like from space. Nineteenth century visualization of the earth seen from space. Figuring out what the seas and continents would look like was a snap. Flammarion, 1884. Howard Russell Butler. Lucien Rudaux.

Predicting what extra-terrestrials will be like: and preparing for the worst 1. Introduction ‘Astrobiology is the study of things that do not exist.’ But all is not necessarily lost. Too much excitement; time to settle down. 2. (a) Terrestrial limits What we find here, therefore, will be a reliable guide to what we will find anywhere. Figure 1. Diagrammatic sketch of the carbaquist habitation box with respect to some principal parameters (pH, pressure, salinity, temperature). So far as the thermal tolerance of eukaryotes is concerned, while much has been made of certain polychaetes inhabiting hydrothermal vents (e.g. [13]), both the dynamic nature of this environment and the difficulties in obtaining accurate measurements suggest that for short-term exposure the upper limit lies at about 55°C, and the ambient preference is of the order of 40–50°C [14,15]. This is evident at the other end of the temperature spectrum. (b) Beyond the Earth (c) Beyond the Solar System

Welcome page Website of Erik Verlinde Erik P. Verlinde Institute for Theoretical PhysicsUniversity of AmsterdamValckenierstraat 651018 XE, Amsterdam Email: So It Ends for Comet ISON - Comets Well, don't say we didn't warn you. As we hoped all along wouldn't happen, Comet ISON turned into a dud not a dazzle — a speck not a spectacle — a complete, unmitigated flop in terms of any kind of visual display for the world in the December dawn sky. But it sure was exciting while it lasted, and never more so than on November 27th and 28th as it approached and then passed through perihelion while spacecraft watched. To recap: Comet ISON thwarted predictions at every turn. Then, as it disappeared down into the glare of sunrise for viewers on Earth, spacecraft took over. At perihelion, less than one solar diameter from the Sun's surface, the extreme-ultraviolet cameras on the Solar Dynamics Observatory — the only craft able to look so close to the Sun — saw nothing whatsoever. Scientists glumly pronounced near-obituaries on a live NASA webcast. Then out the other side came a headless dust-and-rubble stream. Oh well. Let's hope for better luck next time. P.

Perfectly-Timed Photos of Animals About to Become Dinner Call it survival of the fittest or just being at the wrong place at the wrong time. Today we take a look at incredible photos, taken at just the right moment, of animals about to feast on other animals. They show birds, reptiles and mammals about to consume their latest meal. If anything, they'll will make you happy that humans are on top of the food chain! Photographer Tom Samuelson said about his epic shot, above, "Great gray owls come south from Canada into Minnesota during the winter to find food. Bald Eagle with Duck Photo credit: Henrik Nilsson Osprey with Fish Photo credit: Austin Thomas Pelican with Fish Photo credit: Ali Alqudsi Eurasian Hoopoe with Caterpillar Photo credit: John Gooday Puffin with Small Fish Photo credit: Harry Eggens Boomslang Snake with Flap-Neck Chameleon Photo credit: Greg du Toit Indian Pond Heron Paddybird with Mouse Photo credit: Nitin Prabhudesai Red-Tailed Hawk with Squirrel Photo credit: Salah Baazizi Snake with Fish Photo credit: Hermant Kumar Brown Bear with Salmon

Peptides may hold ‘missing link’ to life Simple peptides can organize into bi-layer membranes. This recent finding suggests a “missing link” between the pre-biotic Earth’s chemical inventory and the organizational scaffolding essential to life. “We’ve shown that peptides can form the kind of membranes needed to create long-range order,” says Seth Childers, a chemistry graduate student at Emory University and lead author of the paper recently published by the German Chemical Society’s Angwandte Chemie. “What’s also interesting is that these peptide membranes may have the potential to function in a complex way, like a protein.” Yan Liang, a post-doctoral fellow in neuroscience, captured images of the peptides as they aggregated into molten globular structures, and self-assembled into bi-layer membranes. “In order to form nuclei, which become the templates for growth, the peptides first repel water,” says Liang.