The Kardashev Scale – Type I, II, III, IV & V Civilization Mass Effect citadel. Image credit: BioWare Theorists assert that, as a civilization grows larger and becomes more advanced, its energy demands will increase rapidly due to its population growth and the energy requirements of its various machines. With this in mind, the Kardashev scale was developed as a way of measuring a civilization’s technological advancement based upon how much usable energy it has at its disposal. Credit: Chris Cold The scale was originally designed in 1964 by the Russian astrophysicist, Nikolai Kardashev (who was looking for signs of extraterrestrial life within cosmic signals). Firstly, it is important to note that the human race is not even on this scale yet. A Type I designation is a given to species who have been able to harness all the energy that is available from a neighboring star, gathering and storing it to meet the energy demands of a growing population. What would this much energy mean for a species? Type V.
Predicting what extra-terrestrials will be like: and preparing for the worst 1. Introduction ‘Astrobiology is the study of things that do not exist.’ But all is not necessarily lost. Too much excitement; time to settle down. 2. (a) Terrestrial limits What we find here, therefore, will be a reliable guide to what we will find anywhere. Figure 1. Diagrammatic sketch of the carbaquist habitation box with respect to some principal parameters (pH, pressure, salinity, temperature). So far as the thermal tolerance of eukaryotes is concerned, while much has been made of certain polychaetes inhabiting hydrothermal vents (e.g. ), both the dynamic nature of this environment and the difficulties in obtaining accurate measurements suggest that for short-term exposure the upper limit lies at about 55°C, and the ambient preference is of the order of 40–50°C [14,15]. This is evident at the other end of the temperature spectrum. (b) Beyond the Earth (c) Beyond the Solar System
Stellar engine Stellar engines are a class of hypothetical megastructures which use a star's radiation to create usable energy. Some variants use this energy to produce thrust, and thus accelerate a star, and anything orbiting it, in a given direction. The creation of such a system would make its builders a Type-II civilization on the Kardashev scale. There are three variant classes of this idea. Class A (Shkadov thruster) Class B A Class B stellar engine is a Dyson sphere—of whichever variant—built around the star, which uses the difference in temperature between the star and the interstellar medium to extract usable energy from the system, possibly using the phenomenon of thermoelectricity (heat engines, or thermal diodes). Class C A 'Class C' stellar engine combines the two other classes, employing both the propulsive aspects of the Shkadov thruster, and the energy generating aspects of a Class B engine. Stellar engines in fiction See also Dyson spheres in popular culture
L'Encyclopédie des Planètes Extrasolaires Exoplanet Atlas full of errors – VisualJournalism When you do graphics for print in Wired – and then post on your blog about the process – stressing how much attention you pay to the details, then you’re asking for it. Sorry, David McCandless … (Click the graphic for full-size at Wired and read the blogpost at information is beautiful here) Your Exoplanet Atlas is full of errors. According to your own description, you have three designers and three researchers working on the project for nine months doing 26 drafts, and yet it takes only a very simple check-up to realize, that this Atlas is not to be trusted. My advice – Get a proofreader with infographic knowledge and hopefully you’ll put out an error-free graphic next time. I’m sure you’ll agree, that information not only has to be beautiful – it also has to be correct: 1. 2. 3. 4. ‘No more, no more’.
Kepler's Exoplanets Visualized Super-Earths? Hot-Jupiters? Habitable zones, sun-like stars, Earth-like planets? What does it all mean? Sure, we all have a grasp as to what it would mean if astronomers found an exoplanet roughly the same size as the Earth, orbiting within the “Goldilocks Zone” of its parent star — i.e., it’s not too hot or too cold for liquid water to exist on the surface. WIDE ANGLE: The Age of the Exoplanet But how close are we getting to that fabled Earth-like exoplanet (“exoEarth”? What are we seeing here? This is a visualization of the 1236 exoplanet candidates observed by Kepler. By throwing all of the 1236 exoplanets recently announced by the Kepler science team into one “solar system,” one can get a very real sense about how far the planetary candidates are from their parent star, their temperatures and relative sizes. NEWS: Exoplanet Bonanza Boosts Count by 1,200 To be honest, I think the animation speaks for itself; a wonderful melding of space and art. Source: Physics World
Odyssespace: l'astronomie sous toutes ses formes | Accueil Dyson Spheres: The Ultimate Energy Shell Game The world’s exponential population growth will soon need to flatten out otherwise within a few hundred years every square foot of the Earth’s surface will be taken up by a human. (Which reminds me of one of my favorite bumper stickers from a space advocacy group in the 1970s that read: “American Needs Space to Grow.”) With this population growth, mankind’s hunger for energy has also increased exponentially. And if this continues, we will soon consume more energy than the Earth receives from the sun. ANALYSIS: Looking for Alien ‘Bubbles’ in Other Galaxies A solution to this energy demand is to become an extra-terrestrial civilization and harvest the resources of a planetary system to colonize space. This concept was taken to its logical extreme by British physicist Freeman Dyson who proposed in 1959 that advanced extraterrestrial civilizations might encase their stars in an artificially constructed sphere, the radius of Earth’s orbit. So where would that energy come from?
What our civilization needs is a billion-year plan Artist’s concept of a Kardashev Type 2 civilization (credit: Chris Cold) Lt Col Garretson — one of the USAF’s most farsighted and original thinkers — has been at the forefront of USAF strategy on the long-term future in projects such as Blue Horizons (on KurzweilAI — see video), Energy Horizons, Space Solar Power, the AF Futures Game, the USAF Strategic Environmental Assessment, and the USAF RPA Flight Plan. Now in this exclusive to KurzweilAI, he pushes the boundary of long-term thinking about humanity’s survival out to the edge … and beyond. — Ed. The views expressed are those of the author and do not necessarily reflect the official policy or position of the Department of the Air Force or the U.S. government. It isn’t enough just to plan for two or 20, or even the fabled Chinese 100 year periods. For this discussion, I define a “significant event” as an event about which we have foreknowledge and which will fundamentally change our planning assumptions. Beyond the solar system
Les exoplanètes de Kepler réunies Cette simulation regroupe les quelque 2 229 candidats exoplanètes découvertes par le satellite américain Kepler autour d'une étoile de la taille du Soleil (cette liste exclut les faux positifs avérés et les planètes en orbite autour de deux étoiles). Ces planètes ont été mises à l'échelle par rapport au rayon de leur étoile hôte (le rayon orbital et la taille d'une planète dont l'étoile est n fois plus petite que le Soleil sont agrandis d'un facteur n). Leur couleur correspond à leur température estimée, qui varie de -110 à 4500 °C (du bleu vers le rouge). Les orbites des planètes internes du Système solaire – Mercure, Vénus, la Terre et Mars – sont visibles à mesure que le champ s'élargit. Le satellite Kepler a détecté ces candidats exoplanètes – qui se répartissent dans 1 770 systèmes planétaires – par la méthode des transits, c'est-à-dire en mesurant les infimes baisses périodiques de la luminosité de l'étoile lorsqu'une planète passe devant en coupant la ligne de visée.