Reported speech 1 In reported speech the tenses, word-order and pronouns may be different from the original sentence. Reported speech (1) When we report someone’s words we can do it in two ways. We can use direct speech with quotation marks (“I work in a bank”), or we can use reported speech (He said he worked in a bank.) In reported speech the tenses, word-order and pronouns may be different from those in the original sentence. Present simple and present continuous tenses Direct speech: “I travel a lot in my job” Reported speech: He said that he travelled a lot in his job. The present simple tense (I travel) usually changes to the past simple (he travelled) in reported speech. Direct speech: “Be quiet. The present continuous usually changes to the past continuous. “I work in Italy” Reported speech: He told me that he works in Italy. It isn’t always necessary to change the tense. Past simple and past continuous tenses Direct speech: “We lived in China for 5 years.” Perfect tenses
Direct | indirect speech in English If we want to say what other people said, thought or felt, we can use the direct or indirect speech. The direct speech: "I like it," he said. "Irene is late," he thought. If these verbs are in the past tense, we change the following: a) verb tenses and verb forms b) pronouns c) the adverbs of time and place A) Verb tenses We change the tenses in the following way: Present - past "I never understand you," she told me. - She told me she never understood me. As you can see, both the past tense and the present perfect change into the past perfect. Notes 1. The verb forms remain the same in the following cases: If we use the past perfect tense.Eva: "I had never seen him." - Eva claimed that she had never seen him. B) Pronouns We have to change the pronouns to keep the same meaning of a sentence." Sometimes we have to use a noun instead of a pronoun, otherwise the new sentence is confusing." This and these are usually substituted." C) Time and place Here usually becomes there. Reported questions
Random Idea English: Reported speech - lesson and exercises Constructing reported speech involves using a mixture of some basic rules and your common sense. When using the first doesn't sound natural, use the second. The main idea is that it should make sense to the listener. This is a fairly detailed but not exhaustive look at reported speech. I hope to follow it up with some more advanced vocabulary and exercises fairly soon. Click and Drop - Where you see this sign, mouse over for instructions Basic principles Exercise 1 - Convert the direct statements and questions into reported speech. Basic rules In both reported statements and questions verbs usually go one tense back (backshifting)pronouns, possessives and other determiners may have to be changedtime references may have to be made non-time-specificplace references may need to be changed Note These are not fixed rules, but reflect that: Additionally in reported questions in the main question, change question order to statement orderin yes/no questions, add if or whether Patricia isn't here today.
Infinitive and Gerund Exercises and Tests on Infinitive and Gerund There are certain words in English that are usually followed by an infinitive or gerund. If you are not sure whether to use the infinitive or gerund, check out our lists or look the words up in a dictionary. Infinitive Use Certain words are followed by an infinite verb with or without ‘to’. Gerund Form ing form of the verb Exceptions in Spelling See → Present Progressive – Exceptions Certain words are followed by an Ing-Form. Words followed either by Infinitive or Ing-Form Exercises and Tests Infinitive Gerund Infinitive / Gerund Tests on Infinitive and Gerund Level 1 • Level 2 • Level 3 • Level 4
Reporting Verbs for Advanced Level ESL Learners and Classes When using reported speech, most students learn to use "say" and "tell": Examples: John told me he was going to stay late at work. Peter said he wanted to visit his parents that weekend. These forms are perfectly correct for reporting what others have said. For more information on reported speech, this overview of reported speech provides a guide on which transformations are required to use the form. Related Grammar Basic Reported (Indirect) Speech Indirect Speech Transformations Quiz 1 Indirect Speech Transformations Quiz 2 More Grammar Reference
style indirect lesson and exercises Le style indirect donne les moyens de rapporter les paroles de quelqu'un en insistant sur les faits objectifs, en se détachant des émotions du moment où les paroles ont été prononcées. Cours sur le style indirect en anglais - reported speech Le style indirect sert à rapporter les paroles de quelqu'un.En anglais, comme en français, il faut penser à transformer les personnes, les expressions de temps et de lieu et les conjugaisons. La carte mentale de cours va vous aider à ne rien oublier ! Cours sur le style indirect en anglais (carte mentale créée par Agnès Pihuit Imbert / my-teacher.fr) Said is dead... Exercices et jeux sur le discours indirect anglais Exercice interactif : pour s'entrainer aux conjugaisons, choisir la bonne solution (a4ESL) Exercice interactif sur le style indirect en anglais : associer chaque phrase au style indirect à celle qui lui correspond au style direct (englishgrammarsecrets)
Reported Speech Exercises Reported Speech Exercises Here's a list of all the reported speech exercises on this site: (Click here to read the explanations about reported speech) Reported Statements: Reported Questions: Reported Orders and Requests: Reported Requests and Orders Exercise (intermediate) (in PDF here) Mixed Exercises: Return to reported speech explanations from reported speech exercises. LoginSubscribe to PEG+What's New?
Wh- Question Clauses – Reported / Indirect Speech Restate a question within a clause (reported speech) Quoted Questions vs. Restated Questions Wh-question: Who, What, Where, Why, When and How The main clause (matrix clause) is the independent clause and the subordinate clause (embedded clause) is the dependent clause. In reported speech, no additional punctuation (quotation marks, comma, or question mark) is used. Ask Synonyms ask (V) – request information → My father always asks how I am doing. Also see Said Synonyms. Adjustments Word Order / Person & Number ¹subordinate marker – who, what, where, why, when, how perspective (N) – point of view; how someone relates to surroundings: person (you, i we); place (here, there); time (now, then); direction (coming, going) See deixis. Time / Location ¹subordinate marker– who, what, where, why, when, how ²direction: change coming to going if both speaker and listener do not share a location Adjusting Perspective (deixis) Adjusting Perspective Deictic words Person Deixis Time and Place Deixis Advanced
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Reported Speech Click here for a list of reported speech exercises.Click here to download this explanation in PDF. Reported Statements When do we use reported speech? Watch my reported speech video: Here's how it works: We use a 'reporting verb' like 'say' or 'tell'. Direct speech: I like ice cream.Reported speech: She says (that) she likes ice cream. We don't need to change the tense, though probably we do need to change the 'person' from 'I' to 'she', for example. (As I'm sure you know, often, we can choose if we want to use 'that' or not in English. But, if the reporting verb is in the past tense, then usually we change the tenses in the reported speech: Direct speech: I like ice cream.Reported speech: She said (that) she liked ice cream. * doesn't change. Occasionally, we don't need to change the present tense into the past if the information in direct speech is still true (but this is only for things which are general facts, and even then usually we like to change the tense): Reported Questions