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Quaternion

Quaternion
Graphical representation of quaternion units product as 90°-rotation in 4D-space, ij = k, ji = −k, ij = −ji History[edit] Quaternion plaque on Brougham (Broom) Bridge, Dublin, which says: Here as he walked by on the 16th of October 1843 Sir William Rowan Hamilton in a flash of genius discovered the fundamental formula for quaternion multiplicationi2 = j2 = k2 = ijk = −1 & cut it on a stone of this bridge Quaternion algebra was introduced by Hamilton in 1843.[7] Important precursors to this work included Euler's four-square identity (1748) and Olinde Rodrigues' parameterization of general rotations by four parameters (1840), but neither of these writers treated the four-parameter rotations as an algebra.[8][9] Carl Friedrich Gauss had also discovered quaternions in 1819, but this work was not published until 1900.[10][11] i2 = j2 = k2 = ijk = −1, into the stone of Brougham Bridge as he paused on it. On the following day, Hamilton wrote a letter to his friend and fellow mathematician, John T. Related:  Mathematics | Number Systemsdocs à revoir

Curious quaternions November 2004 John Baez is a mathematical physicist at the University of California, Riverside. He specialises in quantum gravity and n-categories, but describes himself as "interested in many other things too." His homepage is one of the most well-known maths/physics sites on the web, with his column, This Week's Finds in Mathematical Physics, particularly popular. The birth of complex numbers Like many concepts in mathematics, complex numbers first popped up far from their main current area of application. The birth of the complex The particular challenge that brought mathematicians to consider what they soon called "imaginary numbers" involved attempts to solve equations of the type ax2+bx+c=0. To solve such an equation, you must take square roots, "and sometimes, if you're not careful, you take the square root of a negative number, and you've probably been repeatedly told never ever to do that. The complex number with real part 1 and imaginary part 2 where and and up by . is the same as .

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Convex regular polychoron The tesseract is one of 6 convex regular polychora In mathematics, a convex regular polychoron is a polychoron (4-polytope) that is both regular and convex. These are the four-dimensional analogs of the Platonic solids (in three dimensions) and the regular polygons (in two dimensions). These polychora were first described by the Swiss mathematician Ludwig Schläfli in the mid-19th century. Schläfli discovered that there are precisely six such figures. Properties[edit] Since the boundaries of each of these figures is topologically equivalent to a 3-sphere, whose Euler characteristic is zero, we have the 4-dimensional analog of Euler's polyhedral formula: where Nk denotes the number of k-faces in the polytope (a vertex is a 0-face, an edge is a 1-face, etc.). Visualizations[edit] The following table shows some 2-dimensional projections of these polychora. See also[edit] References[edit] External links[edit]

Quaternions and spatial rotation Using quaternion rotations[edit] A Euclidean vector such as (2, 3, 4) or (ax, ay, az) can be rewritten as 2 i + 3 j + 4 k or ax i + ay j + az k, where i, j, k are unit vectors representing the three Cartesian axes. A rotation through an angle of θ around the axis defined by a unit vector is represented by a quaternion using an extension of Euler's formula: The rotation is clockwise if our line of sight points in the same direction as u→. It can be shown that this rotation can be applied to an ordinary vector in 3-dimensional space, considered as a quaternion with a real coordinate equal to zero, by evaluating the conjugation of p by q: using the Hamilton product, where p′ = (px′, py′, pz′) is the new position vector of the point after the rotation. In this instance, q is a unit quaternion and It follows that conjugation by the product of two quaternions is the composition of conjugations by these quaternions. which is the same as rotating (conjugating) by q and then by p. . Example[edit] and Let

Mu-Ency -- The Encyclopedia of the Mandelbrot Set at MROB A second-order embedded Julia set This is a picture from the Mandelbrot Set, one of the most well-known fractal images in the world. (Click it for a larger version). The Mandelbrot Set is one of my hobbies, and I have collected a large amount of information about it. Here are some entries from Mu-Ency: Mandelbrot Set: The mathematical definition. More Pictures: Some entries with pictures of parts of the Mandelbrot Set are: R2, Cusp, Embedded Julia set, 2-fold Embedded Julia set, 4-fold Embedded Julia set, Paramecia, R2.C(0), R2.C(1/3), R2.1/2.C(1/2), R2t series, Seahorse Valley, Delta Hausdorff Dimension, Exponential Map, Reverse Bifurcation. You can also look up specific terms in the index. Coordinates of the image above: Center: -1.769 110 375 463 767 385 + 0.009 020 388 228 023 440 i Width (and height): 0.000 000 000 000 000 160 Algorithm: distance estimator Iterations: 10000

Four-dimensional space In modern physics, space and time are unified in a four-dimensional Minkowski continuum called spacetime, whose metric treats the time dimension differently from the three spatial dimensions (see below for the definition of the Minkowski metric/pairing). Spacetime is not a Euclidean space. History[edit] An arithmetic of four dimensions called quaternions was defined by William Rowan Hamilton in 1843. This associative algebra was the source of the science of vector analysis in three dimensions as recounted in A History of Vector Analysis. Soon after tessarines and coquaternions were introduced as other four-dimensional algebras over R. One of the first major expositors of the fourth dimension was Charles Howard Hinton, starting in 1880 with his essay What is the Fourth Dimension? Little, if anything, is gained by representing the fourth Euclidean dimension as time. Vectors[edit] This can be written in terms of the four standard basis vectors (e1, e2, e3, e4), given by Geometry[edit]

Sexagesimal Origin[edit] It is possible for people to count on their fingers to 12 using one hand only, with the thumb pointing to each finger bone on the four fingers in turn. A traditional counting system still in use in many regions of Asia works in this way, and could help to explain the occurrence of numeral systems based on 12 and 60 besides those based on 10, 20 and 5. In this system, the one (usually right) hand counts repeatedly to 12, displaying the number of iterations on the other (usually left), until five dozens, i. e. the 60, are full.[1][2] According to Otto Neugebauer, the origins of the sixty-count was through a count of three twenties. Usage[edit] Babylonian mathematics[edit] Numbers larger than 59 were indicated by multiple symbol blocks of this form in place value notation. ) to represent zero, but only in the medial positions, and not on the right-hand side of the number, as we do in numbers like 13,200. Other historical usages[edit] Notation[edit] Modern usage[edit] Fractions[edit]

Calculating the Distance to the Horizon For Any Game Home Up Site Map Assumptions | Method 1 | Method 2 Method 1 | Method 2 This is all based on the assumption that the horizon is the point on the world's surface at which the line of sight of the viewer, whatever their height, becomes parallel (tangential) to the surface of the world, and meets the surface of the world (so that the viewer cannot see any further than it). Note that I do not mention units in any of the equations on this page. Assumptions | Method 2 For a right-angled triangle: Where: R is the longest side (the hypotenuse), x and y are the other two sides. Using this equation on the triangle in the figure above, the longest side is the radius of the planet plus the height of the observer (r + h) , and the other two sides are d and r . Or, re-arranged: Or: So the total distance to the horizon is given by: This equation will work for any size world, and any height of observer. Assumptions | Method 1 Back to My Roleplaying Page .

Many-worlds interpretation The quantum-mechanical "Schrödinger's cat" paradox according to the many-worlds interpretation. In this interpretation, every event is a branch point; the cat is both alive and dead, even before the box is opened, but the "alive" and "dead" cats are in different branches of the universe, both of which are equally real, but which do not interact with each other.[1] The many-worlds interpretation is an interpretation of quantum mechanics that asserts the objective reality of the universal wavefunction and denies the actuality of wavefunction collapse. The original relative state formulation is due to Hugh Everett in 1957.[3][4] Later, this formulation was popularized and renamed many-worlds by Bryce Seligman DeWitt in the 1960s and 1970s.[1][5][6][7] The decoherence approaches to interpreting quantum theory have been further explored and developed,[8][9][10] becoming quite popular. Before many-worlds, reality had always been viewed as a single unfolding history. Outline[edit] Wojciech H.

Duodecimal The number twelve, a superior highly composite number, is the smallest number with four non-trivial factors (2, 3, 4, 6), and the smallest to include as factors all four numbers (1 to 4) within the subitizing range. As a result of this increased factorability of the radix and its divisibility by a wide range of the most elemental numbers (whereas ten has only two non-trivial factors: 2 and 5, with neither 3 nor 4), duodecimal representations fit more easily than decimal ones into many common patterns, as evidenced by the higher regularity observable in the duodecimal multiplication table. As a result, duodecimal has been described as the optimal number system.[1] Of its factors, 2 and 3 are prime, which means the reciprocals of all 3-smooth numbers (such as 2, 3, 4, 6, 8, 9...) have a terminating representation in duodecimal. Origin[edit] Languages using duodecimal number systems are uncommon. Places[edit] Comparison to other numeral systems[edit] A dozenal multiplication table

Book Recommendations - EFnetMath These are semi-official #math book recommendations for various topics. These are all personal recommendations of channel regulars. This means that given the collective experience of the channel, these are the books to read. We made an arbitrary split between the mathematics before and after calculus. General Interest These books are intended for a general audience. history/philosophy of math, 'how to solve it' The History of Calculus and Its Conceptual Development ( by Boyer A History of Mathematics ( by Boyer A Mathematician's Apology ( by Hardy Pre-College Mathematics This category is the catch-all for topics generally preceding calculus. Schaum's outlines -- I used various ones for college-level math and they were useful, and the calculus one below is well-recommended. Algebra Field and Galois Theory ( by Morandi

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