Quantum entanglement Quantum entanglement is a physical phenomenon that occurs when pairs or groups of particles are generated or interact in ways such that the quantum state of each particle cannot be described independently – instead, a quantum state may be given for the system as a whole. Such phenomena were the subject of a 1935 paper by Albert Einstein, Boris Podolsky and Nathan Rosen,[1] describing what came to be known as the EPR paradox, and several papers by Erwin Schrödinger shortly thereafter.[2][3] Einstein and others considered such behavior to be impossible, as it violated the local realist view of causality (Einstein referred to it as "spooky action at a distance"),[4] and argued that the accepted formulation of quantum mechanics must therefore be incomplete. History[edit] However, they did not coin the word entanglement, nor did they generalize the special properties of the state they considered. Concept[edit] Meaning of entanglement[edit] Apparent paradox[edit] The hidden variables theory[edit]

Mass gap In quantum field theory, the mass gap is the difference in energy between the vacuum and the next lowest energy state. The energy of the vacuum is zero by definition, and assuming that all energy states can be thought of as particles in plane-waves, the mass gap is the mass of the lightest particle. Since exact energy eigenstates are infinitely spread out and are therefore usually excluded from a formal mathematical description, a stronger definition is that the mass gap is the greatest lower bound of the energy of any state which is orthogonal to the vacuum. Mathematical definitions[edit] For a given real field with being the lowest energy value in the spectrum of the Hamiltonian and thus the mass gap. with the constant being finite. Examples from classical theories[edit] An example of mass gap arising for massless theories, already at the classical level, can be seen in spontaneous breaking of symmetry or Higgs mechanism. This equation has the exact solution —where and being References[edit]

Amplituhedron An amplituhedron is a geometric structure that enables simplified calculation of particle interactions in some quantum field theories. In planar N = 4 supersymmetric Yang–Mills theory, an amplituhedron is defined as a mathematical space known as the positive Grassmannian. The connection between the amplituhedron and scattering amplitudes is at present a conjecture that has passed many non-trivial checks, including an understanding of how locality and unitarity arise as consequences of positivity. Research has been led by Nima Arkani-Hamed. Edward Witten described the work as “very unexpected" and said that "it is difficult to guess what will happen or what the lessons will turn out to be Description[edit] Using twistor theory, BCFW recursion relations involved in the scattering process may be represented as a small number of twistor diagrams. Implications[edit] See also[edit] References[edit] Notes[edit] Bibliography[edit] External links[edit]

Chiral symmetry breaking In particle physics, chiral symmetry breaking is an example of spontaneous symmetry breaking affecting the chiral symmetry of a gauge theory such as Quantum Chromodynamics, the quantum field theory of the strong interactions. The principal and manifest consequence of this symmetry breaking is the generation of 99% of the mass of nucleons, and hence the bulk of all visible matter, out of very light quarks.[1] For example, for the proton, of mass mp= 938 MeV, the bound quarks, with mu ≈ 2 MeV , md ≈ 5 MeV, only contribute about 9 MeV to its mass, the bulk of it arising out of QCD chiral symmetry breaking, instead.[2] Yoichiro Nambu was awarded the 2008 Nobel prize in physics for his understanding of this phenomenon. The origin of the symmetry breaking may be described as an analog to magnetization, the fermion condensate (vacuum condensate of bilinear expressions involving the quarks in the QCD vacuum), formed through nonperturbative action of QCD gluons, with v ≈ −(250 MeV)3. .

Quantum spacetime In mathematical physics, the concept of quantum spacetime is a generalization of the usual concept of spacetime in which some variables that ordinarily commute are assumed not to commute and form a different Lie algebra. The choice of that algebra still varies from theory to theory. As a result of this change some variables that are usually continuous may become discrete. Often only such discrete variables are called "quantized"; usage varies. The idea of quantum spacetime was proposed in the early days of quantum theory by Heisenberg and Ivanenko as a way to eliminate infinities from quantum field theory. The germ of the idea passed from Heisenberg to Rudolf Peierls, who noted that electrons in a magnetic field can be regarded as moving in a quantum space-time, and to Robert Oppenheimer, who carried it to Hartland Snyder, who published the first concrete example.[1] Snyder's Lie algebra was made simple by C. The Lie algebra should be semisimple (Yang, I. for the spatial variables . .

Matrix mechanics Matrix mechanics is a formulation of quantum mechanics created by Werner Heisenberg, Max Born, and Pascual Jordan in 1925. In some contrast to the wave formulation, it produces spectra of energy operators by purely algebraic, ladder operator, methods.[1] Relying on these methods, Pauli derived the hydrogen atom spectrum in 1926,[2] before the development of wave mechanics. Development of matrix mechanics[edit] In 1925, Werner Heisenberg, Max Born, and Pascual Jordan formulated the matrix mechanics representation of quantum mechanics. Epiphany at Helgoland[edit] In 1925 Werner Heisenberg was working in Göttingen on the problem of calculating the spectral lines of hydrogen. "It was about three o' clock at night when the final result of the calculation lay before me. The Three Fundamental Papers[edit] After Heisenberg returned to Göttingen, he showed Wolfgang Pauli his calculations, commenting at one point:[4] In the paper, Heisenberg formulated quantum theory without sharp electron orbits. W.

Planck constant Plaque at the Humboldt University of Berlin: "Max Planck, discoverer of the elementary quantum of action h, taught in this building from 1889 to 1928." In 1905 the value (E), the energy of a charged atomic oscillator, was theoretically associated with the energy of the electromagnetic wave itself, representing the minimum amount of energy required to form an electromagnetic field (a "quantum"). Further investigation of quanta revealed behaviour associated with an independent unit ("particle") as opposed to an electromagnetic wave and was eventually given the term photon. The Planck relation now describes the energy of each photon in terms of the photon's frequency. This energy is extremely small in terms of ordinary experience. Since the frequency , wavelength λ, and speed of light c are related by λν = c, the Planck relation for a photon can also be expressed as The above equation leads to another relationship involving the Planck constant. Value[edit] Significance of the value[edit]

Yang–Mills existence and mass gap In mathematical physics, the Yang–Mills existence and mass gap problem is an unsolved problem and one of the seven Millennium Prize Problems defined by the Clay Mathematics Institute which has offered a prize of US$1,000,000 to the one who solves it. The problem is phrased as follows: Yang–Mills Existence and Mass Gap. Prove that for any compact simple gauge group G, a non-trivial quantum Yang–Mills theory exists on and has a mass gap Δ > 0. Existence includes establishing axiomatic properties at least as strong as those cited in Streater & Wightman (1964), Osterwalder & Schrader (1973) and Osterwalder & Schrader (1975). In this statement, Yang–Mills theory is the (non-Abelian) quantum field theory underlying the Standard Model of particle physics; is Euclidean 4-space; the mass gap Δ is the mass of the least massive particle predicted by the theory. Background[edit] See also[edit] References[edit] Arthur Jaffe and Edward Witten "Quantum Yang-Mills theory." External links[edit]

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