background preloader

Heroin

Heroin /ˈhɛroʊɪn/ (diacetylmorphine or morphine diacetate, also known as diamorphine (BAN, INN[4]) and commonly known by its street names of H, smack, boy, horse, brown, black, tar, and others[5] is an opioid analgesic originally synthesized by C.R. Alder Wright in 1874 by adding two acetyl groups to the molecule morphine, which is found naturally in the opium poppy. It is the 3,6-diacetyl ester of morphine. Administered intravenously by injection, heroin is two to four times more potent than morphine and is faster in its onset of action.[6] Illicit heroin is sometimes available in freebase form, dulling the sheen and consistency to a matte-white powder.[7] Because of its lower boiling point, the freebase form of heroin is also smokable. As with other opioids, diacetylmorphine is used as both a legal, medically prescribed drug (e.g., as an analgesic, cough suppressant and as an anti-diarrhea drug) and a recreational drug, in which case the user is seeking euphoria. Usage Medical use Oral

Morphine Morphine (INN) (/ˈmɔrfiːn/) (sold under nearly a hundred trade names) is an opioid analgesic drug, and the main psychoactive chemical in opium. In clinical medicine, morphine is regarded as the gold standard of analgesics used to relieve intense pain. Like other opioids, such as oxycodone, hydromorphone, and diacetylmorphine (heroin), morphine acts directly on the central nervous system (CNS) to relieve pain. Morphine has a high potential for addiction; tolerance and psychological dependence develop rapidly, although physiological dependence may take several months to develop. Tolerance to respiratory depression and euphoria develops more rapidly than tolerance to analgesia, and many chronic pain patients are therefore maintained on a stable dose for years. However, its effects can also reverse fairly rapidly, worsening pain through hyperalgesia. Morphine is the most abundant opiate found in opium, the dried latex from unripe seedpods of Papaver somniferum (the opium poppy).

Vt. woman arrested on heroin charges | The Recorder BERNARDSTON — Police took more than 80 bags of heroin off the streets after an Interstate 91 traffic stop. Mariah Gagne, 24, of Springfield, Vt., was arrested on charges of possession of heroin with intent to distribute, and possession of a Class B substance, as well as a license plate violation, after she was pulled over Friday afternoon. “When I pulled her over, I noticed her pupils were constricted, and she wore a tank top, making multiple track marks very visible on both of her arms,” said trooper Michael McNally. He said the woman had hidden the heroin in a body cavity in an attempt to avoid detection. McNally said Gagne first stated she was coming from Holyoke, then changed her mind and said she was on the way back from Pittsfield. He believes she was taking the heroin back to her home state. He said heroin is often purchased in the Springfield and Holyoke areas and taken back to Vermont to be sold for a profit.

Sativa - Cannabis sativa Common uses[edit] A sack made from hemp fiber Its seeds are chiefly used to make hempseed oil which can be used for cooking, lamps, lacquers, or paints. They can also used as caged-bird feed, as they provide a moderate source of nutrients for most birds. Plant physiology[edit] The flowers of the female plant are arranged in racemes and can produce hundreds of seeds. A Cannabis plant in the vegetative growth phase of its life requires more than 12–13 hours of light per day to stay vegetative. In soil, the optimum pH for the plant is 6.3 to 6.8. Cultivars[edit] Broadly, there are three main Cultivar Groups of cannabis that are cultivated today: Cultivars primarily cultivated for their fiber, characterized by long stems and little branching.Cultivars grown for seed which can be eaten entirely raw or from which hemp oil is extracted.Cultivars grown for medicinal or recreational purposes. Pharmacology[edit] The flower of a hybrid Cannabis indica plant Cannabis sativa, scientific drawing from c1900

Opium Made Easy - Michael Pollan We may not hear as much now about the war on drugs as we did in the days of Nancy Reagan, William Bennett, and "Just Say No." But in fact the drug war continues unabated; if anything, the Clinton Administration is waging it even more intensely than its predecessors, having spent a record $15 billion on drug enforcement last year and added federal death penalties for so-called drug kingpins - a category defined to include large-scale growers of marijuana. Every autumn, police helicopters equipped with infrared sensors trace regular flight paths over the farm fields in my comer of New England; just the other day they spotted thirty marijuana plants tucked into a cornfield up the road from me, less than a hundred yards, as the crow flies, from my garden. Overflights and other such measures have certainly proved an effective deterrent with me. And anyway, the few times I've had access to marijuana in the last few years, my biggest problem was always finding the time to smoke it. "Poppies?

Heroin Use, Addiction, Effects, Withdrawal, and More Both dangerous and deadly, heroin is becoming more and more widely used. Here's what you need to know. What Is Heroin? Heroin comes from a flower, the opium poppy, which grows in Mexico, Asia, and South America. The drug is highly addictive and has been illegal in the United States since 1924. How Heroin Is Used No matter how you get it into your system, heroin gets to the brain quickly. You can smoke or snort it, but most users inject it into their veins to get the quickest high. How Does It Make You Feel? Right after taking heroin, you get a rush of good feelings and happiness. In an Illinois study of suburban heroin users, some described the feeling as “covered in a warm blanket, where worries are gone.” The drug can cause nausea and vomiting. Many people use heroin to treat their anxiety, worries, and other stressors. Continued Why Are More People Using Heroin Today? Use of heroin nearly doubled between 2007 and 2012. Sometimes it's laced with other drugs. What Are the Effects of Heroin?

Diphenhydramine Diphenhydramine (/ˌdaɪfɛnˈhaɪdrəmiːn/; abbreviated DPH, sometimes DHM) is a first-generation antihistamine possessing anticholinergic, antitussive, antiemetic, and sedative properties that is mainly used to treat allergies. It is also used in the management of drug-induced parkinsonism and other extrapyramidal symptoms. The drug has a strong hypnotic effect and is FDA-approved as a non-prescription sleep aid, especially in the form of diphenhydramine citrate. It is produced and marketed under the trade name Benadryl by McNeil-PPC (a division of Johnson & Johnson) in the U.S., Canada and South Africa (trade names in other countries include Dimedrol, Daedalon and Nytol). Medical uses[edit] Diphenhydramine is a first-generation antihistamine used to treat a number of conditions including allergic symptoms and itchiness, the common cold, insomnia, motion sickness, and extrapyramidal symptoms.[5][6] Adverse effects[edit] Diphenhydramine is a potent anticholinergic agent. Pharmacokinetics[edit]

Vermont mom busted as 5-year-old sits on alleged heroin stash WESTMINSTER,VT— A 33-year-old mother is being held in a southern Vermont jail after police accuse her of carrying a large quantity of heroin that her 5 year old sat on as the two traveled up Interstate 91on Saturday. Vermont State Trooper Ryan Wood reported that Eugenia Emerson of Springfield, Vt., was stopped in the northbound lane of I-91 in Westminster at approximately 6:30 p.m. Saturday for a lane violation and reported defective equipment. During the stop, a state police K-9 unit conducted an exterior scan of the car, and the dog allegedly detected the presence of illegal drugs. Emerson reportedly agreed to a search of the car, and police said they found 690 bags of heroin under the seat cushion where her child was sitting. Emerson was arrested and charged with trafficking heroin. That state's Gov.

Ecstasy - MDMA MDMA (3,4-methylenedioxy-N-methylamphetamine) is an empathogenic drug of the phenethylamine and amphetamine classes of drugs. MDMA has become widely known as "ecstasy" (shortened to "E", "X", or "XTC"), usually referring to its street form, although this term may also include the presence of possible adulterants. The UK term "Mandy" and the US term "Molly" colloquially refer to MDMA that is relatively free of adulterants.[3] MDMA can induce euphoria, a sense of intimacy with others, diminished anxiety, and mild psychedelia. Regulatory authorities in several locations around the world have approved scientific studies administering MDMA to humans to examine its therapeutic potential and its effects.[9] Medical use[edit] In the year 2000, Doctor Jose Carlos Bouso performed the first clinical trial of MDMA for use in treating Post Traumatic Stress Disorder.[16] Since 2009, two randomized, controlled trials of MDMA-assisted psychotherapy for post-traumatic stress disorder were published.

Codeine Codeine or 3-methylmorphine (a naturally occurring methylated morphine) is an opiate used for its analgesic, antitussive, antidiarrheal, antihypertensive, anxiolytic, antidepressant, sedative and hypnotic properties. It is also used to suppress premature labor contractions, myocardial infarction, and has many other potential and indicated uses. It is often sold as a salt in the form of either codeine sulfate or codeine phosphate. Codeine is the second-most predominant alkaloid in opium, at up to three percent. Although codeine can be extracted from natural sources, a semi-synthetic process is the primary source of codeine for pharmaceutical use. Medical uses[edit] Formulations[edit] Codeine is marketed as both a single-ingredient drug and in combination preparations with paracetamol (as co-codamol: e.g., brands Paracod, Panadeine, and the Tylenol-with-codeine series, including Tylenol 3 and 1,2,4); with aspirin; (as co-codaprin); or with ibuprofen (as Nurofen Plus). Adverse effects[edit]

Canada: Giant 40ft Deep Sinkhole Swallows Road in Downtown Ottawa A 40ft sinkhole has opened up on Waller Street in OttawaTwitter/John Holtby A giant 40ft deep sinkhole has opened up on Waller street in downtown Ottawa. The section of the street collapsed and closed the intersection between Laurier Avenue East and Waller Street. The cause of the sinkhole is still a mystery, but has suspended tunnelling work on the East Portal of the city's Light Rail Transit project. Crews from the Rideau Transit Group (RTG) were working on the site at the time the hole appeared, but nobody was injured. Round-the-clock tunnelling work had just begun on the LRT East Portal site when the incidentb occurred. City officials have confirmed crews were filling the sinkhole with concrete in order to stabilise it. The hole left residents along Laurier Avenue without water, as well as causing traffic chaos in and around the area with the closure of many roads. Several sinkholes have also appeared in the UK after floods, causing injuries and homes to be evacuated.

Crack - Crack cocaine Crack cocaine ‘rocks’. Appearance and characteristics In purer forms, crack rocks appear as off-white nuggets with jagged edges,[3] with a slightly higher density than candle wax. Purer forms of crack resemble a hard brittle plastic, in crystalline form[3] (snaps when broken). A crack rock acts as a local anesthetic (see: cocaine), numbing the tongue or mouth only where directly placed. Crack cocaine as sold on the streets may be adulterated or "cut" with other substances mimicking the appearance of crack cocaine to increase bulk. Chemistry In order for cocaine (in plastic bag at bottom) to be converted to crack, several supplies are needed. A close up of the "cooking" process that creates crack. Sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3, common baking soda) is a base used in preparation of crack, although other weak bases may substitute for it. Coc-H+Cl− + NaHCO3 → Coc + H2O + CO2 + NaCl With Ammonium bicarbonate: Coc-H+Cl− + NH4HCO3 → Coc + NH4Cl + CO2 + H2O With Ammonium carbonate: Psychological effects

Oxycodone Oxycodone is a semisynthetic opioid synthesized from thebaine, an opioid alkaloid found in the Persian poppy and one of the many opioid alkaloids found in the opium poppy. It is an analgesic generally indicated for relief of moderate to severe pain. It was developed in 1917 in Germany[4][5] as one of several new semi-synthetic opioids in an attempt to improve on the existing opioids.[1] Oxycodone is available as single-ingredient medication in immediate release and controlled release. Medical uses[edit] Oxycodone has been in clinical use since 1916,[1] and it is used for managing moderate to moderately severe acute or chronic pain.[7] It has been found to improve quality of life for those with many types of pain. Controlled-release oral tablet form is intended to be taken every 12 hours.[9] As is the case with other opioids, oxycodone is clearly useful for acute pain and in some instances of chronic cancer pain. Administration[edit] Side effects[edit] Hormone imbalance[edit] [edit]

HAARP The most prominent instrument at the HAARP Station is the Ionospheric Research Instrument (IRI), a high-power radio frequency transmitter facility operating in the high frequency (HF) band. The IRI is used to temporarily excite a limited area of the Ionosphere. Other instruments, such as a VHF and a UHF radar, a fluxgate magnetometer, a digisonde (an ionospheric sounding device), and an induction magnetometer, are used to study the physical processes that occur in the excited region. Work on the HAARP Station began in 1993. HAARP is a target of conspiracy theorists, who claim that it is capable of modifying weather, disabling satellites and exerting mind control over people, and that it is being used as a weapon against terrorists. Overview[edit] HAARP antenna array The HAARP project directs a 3.6 MW signal, in the 2.8–10 MHz region of the HF (high-frequency) band, into the ionosphere. The HAARP program began in 1990. Research[edit] Some of the main scientific findings from HAARP include

Related: