Codeine Codeine or 3-methylmorphine (a naturally occurring methylated morphine) is an opiate used for its analgesic, antitussive, antidiarrheal, antihypertensive, anxiolytic, antidepressant, sedative and hypnotic properties. It is also used to suppress premature labor contractions, myocardial infarction, and has many other potential and indicated uses. It is often sold as a salt in the form of either codeine sulfate or codeine phosphate. Codeine is the second-most predominant alkaloid in opium, at up to three percent.
Iproniazid Iproniazid (Euphozid, Iprazid, Ipronid, Ipronin, Marsilid, Rivivol) is a hydrazine drug used as an antidepressant. It acts as an irreversible and nonselective monoamine oxidase inhibitor (MAOI). Though it has been widely discontinued in most of the world, it is still used in France. As with all MAOIs, iproniazid is contraindicated in patients using SSRIs, SRAs, and serotonin agonists. History Muscimol Muscimol (agarin, pantherine) is the major psychoactive alkaloid present in many mushrooms of the Amanita genus. Muscimol is a potent, selective agonist for the GABAA receptors and displays sedative-hypnotic effects. Chemistry
Vt. woman arrested on heroin charges BERNARDSTON — Police took more than 80 bags of heroin off the streets after an Interstate 91 traffic stop. Mariah Gagne, 24, of Springfield, Vt., was arrested on charges of possession of heroin with intent to distribute, and possession of a Class B substance, as well as a license plate violation, after she was pulled over Friday afternoon. “When I pulled her over, I noticed her pupils were constricted, and she wore a tank top, making multiple track marks very visible on both of her arms,” said trooper Michael McNally. He said the woman had hidden the heroin in a body cavity in an attempt to avoid detection. McNally said Gagne first stated she was coming from Holyoke, then changed her mind and said she was on the way back from Pittsfield.
Addiction Addiction is the continued repetition of a behavior despite adverse consequences, or a neurological impairment leading to such behaviors. Addictions can include, but are not limited to, drug abuse, exercise addiction, food addiction, computer addiction and gambling. Classic hallmarks of addiction include impaired control over substances or behavior, preoccupation with substance or behavior, continued use despite consequences, and denial. Habits and patterns associated with addiction are typically characterized by immediate gratification (short-term reward), coupled with delayed deleterious effects (long-term costs). Substance dependence Substance dependence can be diagnosed with physiological dependence, evidence of tolerance or withdrawal, or without physiological dependence. DSM-IV substance dependencies include:
Zolpidem Zolpidem (brand names Ambien, Ambien CR, Intermezzo, Stilnox, Stilnoct, Sublinox, Hypnogen and Zolsana) is a prescription medication used for the treatment of insomnia and some brain disorders. It is a short-acting nonbenzodiazepine hypnotic of the imidazopyridine class that potentiates GABA, an inhibitory neurotransmitter, by binding to GABAA receptors at the same location as benzodiazepines. It works quickly, usually within 15 minutes, and has a short half-life of two to three hours. Zolpidem has not adequately demonstrated effectiveness in maintaining sleep, unless delivered in a controlled-release (CR) form. However, it is effective in initiating sleep. Its hypnotic effects are similar to those of the benzodiazepine class of drugs, but it is molecularly distinct from the classical benzodiazepine molecule and is classified as an imidazopyridine. Medical uses
Tranylcypromine Tranylcypromine (Parnate, Jatrosom) is a drug of the substituted phenethylamine and amphetamine classes which acts as a monoamine oxidase inhibitor (MAOI)—it is a nonselective and irreversible inhibitor of the enzyme monoamine oxidase (MAO). It is used as an antidepressant and anxiolytic agent in the clinical treatment of mood and anxiety disorders, respectively. History The drug was introduced by Smith, Kline and French in the United Kingdom in 1960, and approved in the United States in 1961. It was withdrawn from the market in February 1964 due to a number of patient deaths involving hypertensive crises with intracranial bleeding. However, it was reintroduced later that year with more limited indications and specific warnings of the risks.
Theophylline Theophylline extended-release tablets in Japan Theophylline, also known as 1,3-dimethylxanthine, is a methylxanthine drug used in therapy for respiratory diseases such as COPD and asthma under a variety of brand names. As a member of the xanthine family, it bears structural and pharmacological similarity to caffeine. Vermont mom busted as 5-year-old sits on alleged heroin stash WESTMINSTER,VT— A 33-year-old mother is being held in a southern Vermont jail after police accuse her of carrying a large quantity of heroin that her 5 year old sat on as the two traveled up Interstate 91on Saturday. Vermont State Trooper Ryan Wood reported that Eugenia Emerson of Springfield, Vt., was stopped in the northbound lane of I-91 in Westminster at approximately 6:30 p.m. Saturday for a lane violation and reported defective equipment. During the stop, a state police K-9 unit conducted an exterior scan of the car, and the dog allegedly detected the presence of illegal drugs.
Powder Trail: Tracing Vermont's Heroin Epidemic to Its Sources click to enlarge Matthew Thorsen Bulk heroin known as "fingers" of seized by Burlington police in an unidentified drug arrest Vermont police report that a staggering amount of heroin is flowing into the state right now. Saripidem Saripidem is a sedative and anxiolytic drug in the imidazopyridine family, which is related to the better known drugs zolpidem and alpidem. Saripidem has a similar pharmacological profile to the benzodiazepine family of drugs including sedative and anxiolytic properties, but its chemical structure is quite different from that of the benzodiazepine drugs, and saripidem is described as a nonbenzodiazepine. The mechanism of action by which saripidem produces its sedative and anxiolytic effects is by modulating the benzodiazepine binding site on GABAA receptors, however unlike many older GABAA agonists, saripidem is highly subtype selective and binds primarily to the ω1 subtype. Jump up ^ Sanger DJ (1995).
Yuremamine Yuremamine is a phytoindole alkaloid which was isolated and identified from the bark of Mimosa tenuiflora in 2005. As a pure compound, yuremamine is a purple amorphous solid. It represents an entirely new family of indole derivatives. Jump up ^ Vepsäläinen, J. J.; Auriola, S.; Tukiainen, M.; Ropponen, N. & Callaway, J. (2005). "Isolation and characterization of Yuremamine, a new phytoindole". Psilocybin Psilocybin[nb 1] (/ˌsɪləˈsaɪbɪn/ SIL-ə-SY-bin) is a naturally occurring psychedelic compound produced by more than 200 species of mushrooms, collectively known as psilocybin mushrooms. The most potent are members of the genus Psilocybe, such as P. azurescens, P. semilanceata, and P. cyanescens, but psilocybin has also been isolated from about a dozen other genera. As a prodrug, psilocybin is quickly converted by the body to psilocin, which has mind-altering effects similar (in some aspects) to those of LSD, mescaline, and DMT.