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Caffeine

Caffeine
Caffeine is a central nervous system (CNS) stimulant of the methylxanthine class.[10] It is the world's most widely consumed psychoactive drug. Unlike many other psychoactive substances, it is legal and unregulated in nearly all parts of the world. There are several known mechanisms of action to explain the effects of caffeine. The most prominent is that it reversibly blocks the action of adenosine on its receptor and consequently prevents the onset of drowsiness induced by adenosine. Caffeine is a bitter, white crystalline purine, a methylxanthine alkaloid, and is chemically related to the adenine and guanine bases of deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) and ribonucleic acid (RNA). Caffeine can have both positive and negative health effects. Caffeine is classified by the Food and Drug Administration as "generally recognized as safe" (GRAS). Uses Medical Caffeine is used in: Enhancing performance Specific populations Adolescents and adults Children Side effects Physical Psychological During pregnancy Tea Related:  Psychoactive Alkaloidspsychostimulants

Theobromine Theobromine, formerly known as xantheose,[1] is a bitter alkaloid of the cacao plant, with the chemical formula C7H8N4O2. It is found in chocolate, as well as in a number of other foods, including the leaves of the tea plant, and the kola (or cola) nut. It is classified as a xanthine alkaloid,[2] which also includes the similar compounds theophylline and caffeine.[1] The compounds differ in their degree of methylation. Theobromine is a slightly water-soluble (330 mg/L[5]), crystalline, bitter powder. Theobromine is white or colourless, but commercial samples can be yellowish.[6] It has a similar, but lesser, effect to caffeine in the human nervous system, making it a lesser homologue. Theobromine is an isomer of theophylline, as well as paraxanthine. Theobromine was first discovered in 1841[8] in cacao beans by Russian chemist Alexander Voskresensky.[9] Theobromine was first synthesized from xanthine by Hermann Emil Fischer.[10][11] Sources[edit] A chocolate bar and melted chocolate.

Nicotine In smaller doses (an average cigarette yields about 1 mg of absorbed nicotine), the substance acts as a stimulant in mammals, while high amounts (50–100 mg) can be harmful.[5][6][7] This stimulant effect is likely to be a major contributing factor to the dependence-forming properties of tobacco smoking, nicotine patches, nicotine gum, nicotine inhalers and liquid nicotine vaporizers.[citation needed] According to the American Heart Association, nicotine addiction has historically been one of the hardest addictions to break, while the pharmacological and behavioral characteristics that determine nicotine addiction are similar to those determining addiction to heroin and cocaine. The nicotine content of popular American-brand cigarettes has slowly increased over the years, and one study found that there was an average increase of 1.78% per year between the years of 1998 and 2005. This was found for all major market categories of cigarettes.[8] Psychoactive effects[edit] Medical uses[edit]

Theophylline Theophylline extended-release tablets in Japan Theophylline, also known as 1,3-dimethylxanthine, is a methylxanthine drug used in therapy for respiratory diseases such as COPD and asthma under a variety of brand names. As a member of the xanthine family, it bears structural and pharmacological similarity to caffeine. Natural occurrences[edit] Trace amounts of theophylline are also found in brewed tea, although brewed tea provides only about 1 mg/L,[2] which is significantly less than a therapeutic dose. Medical uses[edit] The main actions of theophylline involve: relaxing bronchial smooth muscleincreasing heart muscle contractility and efficiency; as a positive inotropicincreasing heart rate: (positive chronotropic)[3]increasing blood pressureincreasing renal blood flowanti-inflammatory effectscentral nervous system stimulatory effect mainly on the medullary respiratory center. The main therapeutic uses of theophylline are aimed at: Uses under investigation[edit] Adverse effects[edit] [edit]

Methylphenidate Methylphenidate (trade names Concerta, Methylin, Ritalin, Equasym XL) is a psychostimulant drug and substituted phenethylamine approved for treatment of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), postural orthostatic tachycardia syndrome and narcolepsy. The original patent was owned by CIBA, now Novartis Corporation. It was first licensed by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) in 1955 for treating what was then known as hyperactivity. Uses[edit] Medical[edit] MPH is a commonly prescribed psychostimulant and works by increasing the activity of the central nervous system.[5] It produces such effects as increasing or maintaining alertness, combating fatigue, and improving attention.[6] The short-term benefits and cost effectiveness of methylphenidate are well established, although long-term effects are unknown.[7][8] The long term effects of methylphenidate on the developing brain are unknown. Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder[edit] Mechanisms of ADHD[edit] Other[edit]

Phenethylamine Occurrence[edit] Phenethylamine is widely distributed throughout the plant kingdom.[5] Chemistry[edit] Synthesis[edit] One method for preparing β-phenethylamine, set forth in J. C. A much more convenient method for the synthesis of β-phenethylamine is the reduction of ω-nitrostyrene by lithium aluminum hydride in ether, whose successful execution was first reported by R. Pharmacology[edit] Phenethylamine, similar to amphetamine in its action, releases norepinephrine and dopamine.[9][10][11] When taken orally, though, it is rapidly metabolized.[12] Abnormally low concentrations of endogenous phenethylamine are found in those suffering from attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD),[13] whereas abnormally high concentrations have been discovered to have a strong, positive correlation with the incidence of schizophrenia.[14] Phenethylamine and amphetamine pharmacodynamics in a TAAR1–dopamine neuron Pharmacokinetics[edit] Toxicity[edit] See also[edit] References[edit]

Phencyclidine In chemical structure, PCP is an arylcyclohexylamine derivative, and, in pharmacology, it is a member of the family of dissociative anesthetics. PCP works primarily as an NMDA receptor antagonist, which blocks the activity of the NMDA receptor and, like most antiglutamatergic hallucinogens, is significantly more dangerous than other categories of hallucinogens.[1][2] Other NMDA receptor antagonists include ketamine, tiletamine, dextromethorphan and nitrous oxide. As a recreational drug, PCP may be ingested, smoked, inhaled or injected.[3] Biochemistry and pharmacology[edit] Pharmacodynamics[edit] PCP is well known for its primary action on ionotropic glutamate receptors, such as the NMDA receptor in rats and in rat brain homogenate.[4][5] As such, PCP is an NMDA receptor antagonist. Research also indicates that PCP inhibits nicotinic acetylcholine (nACh) receptors. Studies on rats indicate that PCP indirectly interacts with endorphin and enkephalin receptors to produce analgesia. [11] Notes

Bupropion Bupropion (/bjuːˈproʊpi.ɒn/ bew-PROH-pee-on) (BAN) or bupropion hydrochloride (USAN, BAN), also known as amfebutamone (INN), is a drug of the aminoketone family primarily used as an antidepressant and smoking cessation aid.[8][9][10] Marketed as Wellbutrin and other trade names, it is one of the most frequently prescribed antidepressants in the United States,[11] although in many English-speaking countries, including the United Kingdom, Australia and New Zealand, this is an off-label use.[12] It is also widely used, in a formulation marketed as Zyban, to aid people who are trying to quit smoking.[11] It is taken in the form of tablets, and in the United States and most other countries it is available only with a prescription.[11] Bupropion was synthesized by Nariman Mehta and patented by Burroughs Wellcome in 1969, which later became part of what is now GlaxoSmithKline. It was first approved for clinical use in the United States in 1989. Medical uses[edit] Depression[edit] Obesity[edit]

Stimulant Ritalin sustained-release (SR) 20 mg tablets Effects[edit] Medical uses[edit] Stimulants are used both individually and clinically for therapeutic purposes in the treatment of a number of indications, including the following: To counteract lethargy and fatigue throughout the day while at work or while doing other activitiesTo reduce sleepiness and to keep the person awake when necessary, as well as to treat narcolepsyTo decrease appetite and promote weight loss, as well as to treat obesityTo improve concentration and focus, and reduce restlessness and hyperactivity, especially for those with attentional disorders such as ADHDOccasionally, used off-label to treat clinical depression, in particular, non-typical depression and treatment-resistant depressionTo relieve nasal congestion and to treat orthostatic hypotension and postural orthostatic tachycardia syndrome.To aid in smoking cessation. ADHD drugs[edit] Stimulants are the most commonly prescribed medications for ADHD. Ampakines[edit]

Thujone Thujone ( i/ˈθuːdʒoʊn/[1]) is a ketone and a monoterpene that occurs naturally in two diastereomeric forms: (−)-α-thujone and (+)-β-thujone.[2][3] It has a menthol odor. Even though it is best known as a chemical compound in the spirit absinthe, recent studies reveal that absinthe contains only small quantities of thujone, and therefore it is unlikely that thujone is responsible for absinthe's alleged psychedelic effects. In addition to the naturally occurring (−)-α-thujone and (+)-β-thujone, there are two other enantiomeric forms possible; (+)-α-thujone and (−)-β-thujone: Sources[edit] Pharmacology[edit] Research grade thujone A toxicology study in mice of alpha-thujone, the more active of the two isomers, found that the median lethal dose, or LD50, is around 45 mg/kg, with 0% mortality rate at 30 mg/kg and 100% at 60 mg/kg. Researchers at the University of Heidelberg [10] tested attention performance with low and high doses of thujone in alcohol. Thujone in absinthe[edit] History[edit]

Arecoline Arecoline (/əˈrɛkəliːn/) is an alkaloid found in the areca nut, the fruit of the areca palm (Areca catechu).[1] It is an odourless oily liquid. Chemistry[edit] Arecoline is a strong base, with pKa ~ 6.8.[2] Arecoline is volatile in steam, miscible with most organic solvents and water, but extractable from the latter by ether in presence of dissolved salts. Being basic, arecoline forms salts with acids. Biological Action[edit] In many Asian cultures, the areca nut is chewed along with betel leaf to obtain a stimulating effect.[3] Arecoline is the primary active ingredient responsible for the central nervous system effects of the areca nut. LD50: 100 mg/kg, administered subcutaneously in mouse.[2] Uses[edit] Owing to its muscarinic and nicotinic agonist properties, arecoline has shown improvement in the learning ability of healthy volunteers. Arecoline has also been used medicinally as an antihelmintic (a drug against parasitic worms).[8] References[edit]

Substituted amphetamine Substituted amphetamines are a chemical class of stimulants, entactogens, hallucinogens, and other drugs. They feature a phenethylamine core with a methyl group attached to the alpha carbon resulting in amphetamine, along with additional substitutions. Examples of amphetamines are amphetamine (itself), methamphetamine, ephedrine, cathinone, MDMA ("Ecstasy"), and DOM ("STP"). List of substituted amphetamines[edit] Structural formula of amphetamine History[edit] Although the basic compound of the class, amphetamine, was synthesized earlier, Ephedra was used 5000 years ago in China as a medicinal plant; its active ingredients are alkaloids ephedrine, pseudoephedrine, norephedrine (phenylpropanolamine) and norpseudoephedrine (cathine). Amphetamine was first synthesized in 1887 by Romanian chemist Lazăr Edeleanu and did not attract special attention.[2] MDMA was produced in 1912 (according to other sources in 1914[3]) as an intermediate product. Structure[edit] Legal status[edit] See also[edit]

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