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Amphetamine

Amphetamine
Amphetamine[note 1] (pronunciation: i/æmˈfɛtəmin/; contracted from alpha‑methylphenethylamine) is a potent central nervous system (CNS) stimulant of the phenethylamine class that is used in the treatment of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and narcolepsy. Amphetamine was discovered in 1887 and exists as two enantiomers: levoamphetamine and dextroamphetamine.[note 2] Amphetamine properly refers to the racemic free base, or equal parts of the enantiomers levoamphetamine and dextroamphetamine in their pure amine forms. Nonetheless, the term is frequently used informally to refer to any combination of the enantiomers, or to either of them alone. Historically, it has been used to treat nasal congestion, depression, and obesity. The first pharmaceutical amphetamine was Benzedrine, a brand of inhalers used to treat a variety of conditions. Much larger doses of amphetamine are likely to impair cognitive function and induce rapid muscle breakdown. Uses Medical Enhancing performance

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Iproniazid Iproniazid (Euphozid, Iprazid, Ipronid, Ipronin, Marsilid, Rivivol) is a hydrazine drug used as an antidepressant.[1] It acts as an irreversible and nonselective monoamine oxidase inhibitor (MAOI).[2] Though it has been widely discontinued in most of the world, it is still used in France. As with all MAOIs, iproniazid is contraindicated in patients using SSRIs, SRAs, and serotonin agonists. History[edit] Iproniazid was the first antidepressant ever marketed. Originally intended for the treatment of tuberculosis.[1] In 1952, its antidepressant properties were discovered when researchers noted that the patients given iproniazid became "inappropriately happy".[1] Subsequently N-isopropyl addition lead to development as an antidepressant and was approved for use in 1958.[1] It was later withdrawn in 1961 due to the unacceptable incidence of hepatitis and was replaced by less hepatotoxic drugs like isocarboxazid (Marplan), phenelzine (Nardil), and tranylcypromine (Parnate).[1]

Caffeine Caffeine is a central nervous system (CNS) stimulant of the methylxanthine class.[10] It is the world's most widely consumed psychoactive drug. Unlike many other psychoactive substances, it is legal and unregulated in nearly all parts of the world. There are several known mechanisms of action to explain the effects of caffeine. Substituted amphetamine Substituted amphetamines are a chemical class of stimulants, entactogens, hallucinogens, and other drugs. They feature a phenethylamine core with a methyl group attached to the alpha carbon resulting in amphetamine, along with additional substitutions. Examples of amphetamines are amphetamine (itself), methamphetamine, ephedrine, cathinone, MDMA ("Ecstasy"), and DOM ("STP"). List of substituted amphetamines[edit] Structural formula of amphetamine History[edit]

Colors and their symbolism - effect of sunlight and all colors on humanbeings, color calculator Sun is the source of light and heat to sustain life on our planet ‘earth’. This is the reason Sun is treated as ‘God’ in ancient Greek and Hindu scriptures. Sunlight appears to be in gold color but it contains 7 different colors visible to us. They are Violet, Indigo, Blue, Green, Yellow, Orange and Red. Cocaine Cocaine (INN) (benzoylmethylecgonine, an ecgonine derivative) is a crystalline tropane alkaloid that is obtained from the leaves of the coca plant.[5] The name comes from "coca" and the alkaloid suffix "-ine", forming "cocaine". It is a stimulant, an appetite suppressant, and a nonspecific voltage gated sodium channel blocker, which in turn causes it to produce anaesthesia at low doses. Biologically, cocaine acts as a serotonin–norepinephrine–dopamine reuptake inhibitor, also known as a triple reuptake inhibitor (TRI). It is addictive due to its effect on the mesolimbic reward pathway.[6] It is markedly more dangerous than other CNS stimulants, including the entire amphetamine drug class,[7] at high doses due to its effect on sodium channels, as blockade of Nav1.5 can cause sudden cardiac death.

Tranylcypromine Tranylcypromine (Parnate, Jatrosom) is a drug of the substituted phenethylamine and amphetamine classes which acts as a monoamine oxidase inhibitor (MAOI)—it is a nonselective and irreversible inhibitor of the enzyme monoamine oxidase (MAO).[1][2] It is used as an antidepressant and anxiolytic agent in the clinical treatment of mood and anxiety disorders, respectively. History[edit] The drug was introduced by Smith, Kline and French in the United Kingdom in 1960, and approved in the United States in 1961.[5] It was withdrawn from the market in February 1964 due to a number of patient deaths involving hypertensive crises with intracranial bleeding. However, it was reintroduced later that year with more limited indications and specific warnings of the risks.[6] Clinical use[edit] Effectiveness[edit]

Crack cocaine Crack cocaine ‘rocks’. Appearance and characteristics In purer forms, crack rocks appear as off-white nuggets with jagged edges,[3] with a slightly higher density than candle wax. Purer forms of crack resemble a hard brittle plastic, in crystalline form[3] (snaps when broken). A crack rock acts as a local anesthetic (see: cocaine), numbing the tongue or mouth only where directly placed. Purer forms of crack will sink in water or melt at the edges when near a flame (crack vaporizes at 90 °C, 194 °F).[2] Methamphetamine Methamphetamine[note 1] (pronunciation: /ˌmɛθæmˈfɛtəmiːn/; contracted from N-methyl-alpha-methylphenethylamine) is a neurotoxin and potent psychostimulant of the phenethylamine and amphetamine classes that is used to treat attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and obesity. Methamphetamine exists as two enantiomers, dextrorotary and levorotary.[note 2] Dextromethamphetamine is a stronger central nervous system (CNS) stimulant than levomethamphetamine; however, both are addictive and produce the same toxicity symptoms at high doses. Although rarely prescribed due to the potential risks, methamphetamine hydrochloride is approved by the United States Food and Drug Administration (USFDA) under the trade name Desoxyn. Recreationally, methamphetamine is used to increase sexual desire, lift the mood, and increase energy, allowing some users to engage in sexual activity continuously for several days straight. Uses

Welcome to Quirkology Ever wondered how your surname has influenced your life? Or wished that you could tell if someone is lying? Or wanted to understand more about seduction? Professor Richard Wiseman has spent twenty years exploring the backwaters of the human mind and going to places where mainstream scientists fear to tread. Barb - Barbiturate Barbiturates are drugs that act as central nervous system depressants, and can therefore produce a wide spectrum of effects, from mild sedation to total anesthesia. They are also effective as anxiolytics, hypnotics, and anticonvulsants. Barbiturates also have analgesic effects; however, these effects are somewhat weak, preventing barbiturates from being used in surgery in the absence of other analgesics. They have addiction potential, both physical and psychological. Barbiturates have now largely been replaced by benzodiazepines in routine medical practice – for example, in the treatment of anxiety and insomnia – mainly because benzodiazepines are significantly less dangerous in overdose. History[edit]

Muscimol Muscimol (agarin, pantherine) is the major psychoactive alkaloid present in many mushrooms of the Amanita genus. Muscimol is a potent, selective agonist for the GABAA receptors and displays sedative-hypnotic effects. Chemistry[edit] Muscimol is the psychoactive compound responsible for the effects of Amanita muscaria intoxication. Ibotenic acid, a neurotoxic secondary metabolite of Amanita muscaria, serves as a prodrug to muscimol when the mushroom is ingested or dried, converting to muscimol via decarboxylation.

MDMA MDMA (3,4-methylenedioxy-N-methylamphetamine) is an empathogenic drug of the phenethylamine and amphetamine classes of drugs. MDMA has become widely known as "ecstasy" (shortened to "E", "X", or "XTC"), usually referring to its street form, although this term may also include the presence of possible adulterants. The UK term "Mandy" and the US term "Molly" colloquially refer to MDMA that is relatively free of adulterants.[3] MDMA can induce euphoria, a sense of intimacy with others, diminished anxiety, and mild psychedelia. Many studies, particularly in the fields of psychology and cognitive therapy, have suggested MDMA has therapeutic benefits and facilitates therapy sessions in certain individuals, a practice for which it had been formally used in the past.

Ephedrine Ephedrine (/ɨˈfɛdrɪn/ or /ˈɛfɨdriːn/; not to be confused with ephedrone) is a sympathomimetic amine commonly used as a stimulant, appetite suppressant, concentration aid, decongestant, and to treat hypotension associated with anaesthesia. The herb má huáng (麻黄, Ephedra sinica), used in traditional Chinese medicine, contains ephedrine and pseudoephedrine as its principal active constituents. The same may be true of other herbal products containing extracts from other Ephedra species. How To Finish What You Start: 10 Important Tips by Celes on Nov 19, 2010 | ShareThis Email This Post Hi Celes, I am an enthusiastic starter and do all things necessary that would be required to make any endeavor successful such as efficient planning, detailing and execution focus.However, [after getting started,] I find my interest waning and the journey getting stretched to no end. This eventually affects the overall outcome.

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