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Methamphetamine

Methamphetamine[note 1] (pronunciation: /ˌmɛθæmˈfɛtəmiːn/; contracted from N-methyl-alpha-methylphenethylamine) is a neurotoxin and potent psychostimulant of the phenethylamine and amphetamine classes that is used to treat attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and obesity. Methamphetamine exists as two enantiomers, dextrorotary and levorotary.[note 2] Dextromethamphetamine is a stronger central nervous system (CNS) stimulant than levomethamphetamine; however, both are addictive and produce the same toxicity symptoms at high doses. Methamphetamine may be sold illegally, either as pure dextromethamphetamine or in an equal parts mixture of the right and left handed molecules (i.e., 50% levomethamphetamine and 50% dextromethamphetamine). In low doses, methamphetamine can cause an elevated mood and increase alertness, concentration, and energy in fatigued individuals. Uses Medical Recreational Desoxyn tablets – pharmaceutical methamphetamine hydrochloride Contraindications Side effects Related:  psychostimulantsmedical

Substituted amphetamine Substituted amphetamines are a chemical class of stimulants, entactogens, hallucinogens, and other drugs. They feature a phenethylamine core with a methyl group attached to the alpha carbon resulting in amphetamine, along with additional substitutions. Examples of amphetamines are amphetamine (itself), methamphetamine, ephedrine, cathinone, MDMA ("Ecstasy"), and DOM ("STP"). List of substituted amphetamines[edit] Structural formula of amphetamine History[edit] Although the basic compound of the class, amphetamine, was synthesized earlier, Ephedra was used 5000 years ago in China as a medicinal plant; its active ingredients are alkaloids ephedrine, pseudoephedrine, norephedrine (phenylpropanolamine) and norpseudoephedrine (cathine). Amphetamine was first synthesized in 1887 by Romanian chemist Lazăr Edeleanu and did not attract special attention.[2] MDMA was produced in 1912 (according to other sources in 1914[3]) as an intermediate product. Structure[edit] Legal status[edit] See also[edit]

Chemotherapy Chemotherapy (often abbreviated to chemo and sometimes CTX or CTx) is the treatment of cancer with one or more cytotoxic anti-neoplastic drugs (chemotherapeutic agents) as part of a standardized regimen. Chemotherapy may be given with a curative intent or it may aim to prolong life or to palliate symptoms. It is often used in conjunction with other cancer treatments, such as radiation therapy, surgery, and/or hyperthermia therapy. Traditional chemotherapeutic agents act by killing cells that divide rapidly, one of the main properties of most cancer cells. Some newer anticancer drugs (for example, various monoclonal antibodies) are not indiscriminately cytotoxic, but rather target proteins that are abnormally expressed in cancer cells and that are essential for their growth. Chemotherapy may use one drug at a time (single-agent chemotherapy) or several drugs at once (combination chemotherapy or polychemotherapy). History[edit] The term chemotherapy[edit] Types[edit] Alkylating agents[edit]

Ephedrine Ephedrine (/ɨˈfɛdrɪn/ or /ˈɛfɨdriːn/; not to be confused with ephedrone) is a sympathomimetic amine commonly used as a stimulant, appetite suppressant, concentration aid, decongestant, and to treat hypotension associated with anaesthesia. The herb má huáng (麻黄, Ephedra sinica), used in traditional Chinese medicine, contains ephedrine and pseudoephedrine as its principal active constituents. The same may be true of other herbal products containing extracts from other Ephedra species. History[edit] Ephedrine in its natural form, known as má huáng (麻黄) in traditional Chinese medicine, has been documented in China since the Han Dynasty (206 BC – 220 AD) as an antiasthmatic and stimulant.[2] The chemical synthesis of ephedrine was first accomplished by Japanese organic chemist Nagai Nagayoshi in 1885. Chemistry[edit] The four stereoisomers of ephedrine. Ephedrine exhibits optical isomerism and has two chiral centres, giving rise to four stereoisomers. Nomenclature[edit] Agricultural sources[edit]

Ricin Toxicity[edit] Castor beans The seeds can be crushed in an oil press to extract castor oil. This leaves behind the spent crushed seeds, called variously the 'cake', 'oil cake', and 'press cake'. While the oil cake from coconut, peanuts, and sometimes cotton seeds can be used as either cattle feed and/or fertilizer, the toxic nature of castor precludes them from being used as feed.[11] Accidental ingestion of Ricinus communis cake to be used as fertilizer has been reported to be responsible for fatal ricin poisoning in animals.[4][12] Overdose[edit] Most acute poisoning episodes in humans are the result of oral ingestion of castor beans, 5–20 of which could prove fatal to an adult. Biochemistry[edit] Ricin is classified as a type 2 ribosome-inactivating protein (RIP). Biosynthesis[edit] Structure[edit] Many plants such as barley have the A chain but not the B chain. Entry into the Cytoplasm[edit] Ribosome inactivation[edit] [edit] Manufacture[edit] Castor oil plant, fruits

Pseudoephedrine Pseudoephedrine (/ˌsjuːdoʊ.ɨˈfɛdrɪn/ or /ˌsjuːdoʊˈɛfɨdriːn/; PSE) is a sympathomimetic drug of the phenethylamine and amphetamine chemical classes. It may be used as a nasal/sinus decongestant, as a stimulant,[2] or as a wakefulness-promoting agent.[3] Chemistry[edit] Pseudoephedrine is a diastereomer of ephedrine and is readily reduced into methamphetamine or oxidized into methcathinone. Nomenclature[edit] The dextrorotary (+)- or d- enantiomer is (1S,2S)-pseudoephedrine, whereas the levorotating (−)- or l- form is (1R,2R)-pseudoephedrine. In the outdated d/l system (+)-pseudoephedrine is also referred to as l-pseudoephedrine and (−)-pseudoephedrine as d-pseudoephedrine (in the Fisher projection then the phenyl ring is drawn at bottom).[4][5] Often the d/l system (with small caps) and the d/l system (with lower-case) are confused. The IUPAC names of the two enantiomers are (1S,2S)- respectively (1R,2R)-2-methylamino-1-phenylpropan-1-ol. Synthesis[edit] Mechanism of action[edit]

Cerebral palsy Cerebral palsy (CP) is a general term for a group of permanent, non-progressive movement disorders that cause physical disability,[1] mainly in the areas of body movement.[2] There may also be problems with sensation, depth perception, and communication ability. Difficulty with cognition and epilepsy is found in about one-third of cases. There are a number of subtypes including a type characterized by spasticity, a type characterized by poor co-ordination, and types which feature both symptoms or neither. Cerebral palsy is caused by damage to the motor control centers of the developing brain and can occur during pregnancy, during childbirth, or after birth up to about age three.[3][4] About 2% of all cerebral palsy cases are believed to be due to a genetic cause.[5] Cerebral palsy is not an infectious disease and is not contagious. Most cases are diagnosed at a young age rather than during adolescence or adulthood. Signs and symptoms[edit] Language[edit] Skeleton[edit] Pain and sleep[edit]

Cathinone Cathinone /ˈkæθɨnoʊn/, benzoylethanamine, or β-ketone-amphetamine also known as hagigat (Hebrew: חגיגת‎) in Israel,[2] is a monoamine alkaloid found in the shrub Catha edulis (khat) and is chemically similar to ephedrine, cathine, methcathinone and other amphetamines. Cathinone induces the release of dopamine from striatal preparations that are prelabelled either with dopamine or its precursors.[3] It is probably the main contributor to the stimulant effect of Catha edulis. Cathinone differs from many other amphetamines in that it has a ketone functional group. Internationally, cathinone is a Schedule I drug under the Convention on Psychotropic Substances.[4] Circa 1993, the DEA added cathinone to the Controlled Substances Act's Schedule I. Chemistry[edit] The molecular structure of cathinone. Cathinone is structurally related to methcathinone, in much the same way as amphetamine is related to methamphetamine. See also[edit] Substituted cathinone References[edit] External links[edit]

Fibromyalgia The treatment of fibromyalgia can be difficult. Recommendations often include getting enough sleep, exercising regularly, and eating a healthy diet.[4] Cognitive behavioral therapy may also be helpful.[3] The medications duloxetine, milnacipran, or pregabalin may be used.[4] Use of opioid pain medication is controversial with some stating their use is poorly supported by evidence[4][7] and others saying that weak opioids may be reasonable if other medications are not effective.[8] Dietary supplements also lack evidence to support their use. While fibromyalgia can last a long time, it does not result in death or tissue damage.[4] Fibromyalgia is estimated to affect 2–8% of the population. Classification[edit] Differences in psychological and autonomic nervous system profiles among affected individuals may indicate the existence of fibromyalgia subtypes. Signs and symptoms[edit] Cause[edit] The cause of fibromyalgia is unknown. Genetics[edit] Lifestyle[edit] Sleep disturbances[edit] Notes[edit]

Methcathinone Methcathinone (α-methylamino-propiophenone or ephedrone) (sometimes called "cat" or "jeff") is a monoamine alkaloid and psychoactive stimulant, a substituted cathinone. It is used as a recreational drug and considered to be addictive.[1] It is usually snorted, but can be smoked, injected, or taken orally. Methcathinone is listed as a Schedule I controlled substance by the Convention on Psychotropic Substances and the United States' Controlled Substances Act. History[edit] Methcathinone was first synthesized in 1928 in the United States[2] and was patented by Parke Davis in 1957.[3] It was used in the Soviet Union during the 1930s and 1940s as an anti-depressant (under the name Эфедрон—ephedrone). Methcathinone has long been used as a drug of abuse in the Soviet Union and Russia. Circa 1994, the United States government recommended to the UN Secretary-General that methcathinone should be listed as a Schedule I controlled substance in the Convention on Psychotropic Substances.[4]

Infectious mononucleosis Infectious mononucleosis (IM; also known as mono, glandular fever, Pfeiffer's disease, Filatov's disease,[1] and sometimes colloquially as the kissing disease (from its oral transmission) is an infectious, widespread viral disease caused by the Epstein–Barr virus (EBV), one type of herpes virus, against which over 90% of adults are likely to have acquired immunity by the age of 40.[2][3] Occasionally, the symptoms can recur at a later period.[2] Most people are exposed to the virus as children, when the disease produces no noticeable or only flu-like symptoms. In developing countries, people are exposed to the virus in early childhood more often than in developed countries. As a result, the disease in its observable form is more common in developed countries. Signs and symptoms[edit] Main symptoms of infectious mononucleosis[4] The signs and symptoms of infectious mononucleosis vary with age. Adolescents and young adults[edit] Older adults[edit] Children[edit] Incubation period[edit]

3,4-Methylenedioxyamphetamine Medical use[edit] There are no currently accepted medical uses for MDA. However, researchers have investigated many possible uses in the past. It was first ingested in July 1930 by Gordon Alles who then licensed the drug to Smith Kline and French.[1] MDA was first used in animal tests in 1939, and human trials began in 1941 in the exploration of possible therapies for Parkinson's disease. Recreational use[edit] MDA began to appear on the recreational drug scene around 1963 to 1964. Effects[edit] The MDA molecule A recreational dose of MDA is commonly between 100 and 160 mg. MDA is thought to be similar in pharmacological mechanism of action and phenomenological effects to its more widely used N-methyl analog, MDMA. MDA is said to share the entactogenic effects of MDMA. References[edit] Jump up ^ The First MDA trip and the measurement of ‘mystical experience’ after MDA, LSD, and Psilocybin External links[edit]

Lobotomy Lobotomy (Greek: λοβός – lobos: "lobe (of brain)"; τομή – tomē: "cut/slice") is a neurosurgical procedure, a form of psychosurgery, also known as a leukotomy or leucotomy (from the Greek λευκός – leukos: "clear/white" and tome). It consists of cutting or scraping away most of the connections to and from the prefrontal cortex, the anterior part of the frontal lobes of the brain. While the procedure, initially termed a leucotomy, has been controversial since its inception in 1935, it was a mainstream procedure for more than two decades, prescribed for psychiatric (and occasionally other) conditions – this despite general recognition of frequent and serious side-effects. Context[edit] In the early 20th century, the number of patients residing in mental hospitals increased significantly[n 2] while little in the way of effective medical treatment was available. Early psychosurgery[edit] Gottlieb Burckhardt (1836–1907). Ludvig Puusepp c. 1920 The development of leucotomy[edit] Egas Moniz

MDMA MDMA (3,4-methylenedioxy-N-methylamphetamine) is an empathogenic drug of the phenethylamine and amphetamine classes of drugs. MDMA has become widely known as "ecstasy" (shortened to "E", "X", or "XTC"), usually referring to its street form, although this term may also include the presence of possible adulterants. The UK term "Mandy" and the US term "Molly" colloquially refer to MDMA that is relatively free of adulterants.[3] MDMA can induce euphoria, a sense of intimacy with others, diminished anxiety, and mild psychedelia. Many studies, particularly in the fields of psychology and cognitive therapy, have suggested MDMA has therapeutic benefits and facilitates therapy sessions in certain individuals, a practice for which it had been formally used in the past. Clinical trials are now testing the therapeutic potential of MDMA for post-traumatic stress disorder, anxiety associated with terminal cancer[4][5] and addiction.[6] Medical use[edit] Recreational use[edit] Tablets containing MDMA

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