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Methamphetamine

Methamphetamine[note 1] (pronunciation: /ˌmɛθæmˈfɛtəmiːn/; contracted from N-methyl-alpha-methylphenethylamine) is a neurotoxin and potent psychostimulant of the phenethylamine and amphetamine classes that is used to treat attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and obesity. Methamphetamine exists as two enantiomers, dextrorotary and levorotary.[note 2] Dextromethamphetamine is a stronger central nervous system (CNS) stimulant than levomethamphetamine; however, both are addictive and produce the same toxicity symptoms at high doses. Methamphetamine may be sold illegally, either as pure dextromethamphetamine or in an equal parts mixture of the right and left handed molecules (i.e., 50% levomethamphetamine and 50% dextromethamphetamine). In low doses, methamphetamine can cause an elevated mood and increase alertness, concentration, and energy in fatigued individuals. Uses Medical Recreational Desoxyn tablets – pharmaceutical methamphetamine hydrochloride Contraindications Side effects

Methylphenidate Methylphenidate (trade names Concerta, Methylin, Ritalin, Equasym XL) is a psychostimulant drug and substituted phenethylamine approved for treatment of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), postural orthostatic tachycardia syndrome and narcolepsy. The original patent was owned by CIBA, now Novartis Corporation. It was first licensed by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) in 1955 for treating what was then known as hyperactivity. Uses[edit] Medical[edit] MPH is a commonly prescribed psychostimulant and works by increasing the activity of the central nervous system.[5] It produces such effects as increasing or maintaining alertness, combating fatigue, and improving attention.[6] The short-term benefits and cost effectiveness of methylphenidate are well established, although long-term effects are unknown.[7][8] The long term effects of methylphenidate on the developing brain are unknown. Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder[edit] Mechanisms of ADHD[edit] Other[edit]

Methylhexanamine Chemical compound Methylhexanamine (also known as methylhexamine, 1,3-dimethylamylamine, 1,3-DMAA, dimethylamylamine, and DMAA; trade names Forthane and Geranamine) is an indirect sympathomimetic drug invented and developed by Eli Lilly and Company and marketed as an inhaled nasal decongestant from 1948 until it was voluntarily withdrawn from the market in the 1970s.[2] Since 2006 methylhexanamine has been sold extensively under many names as a stimulant or energy-boosting dietary supplement under the claim that it is similar to certain compounds found in geraniums, but its safety has been questioned as a number of adverse events and at least five deaths have been associated with methylhexanamine-containing supplements.[3] It is banned by many sports authorities and governmental agencies. History[edit] Marketing as dietary supplement[edit] Patrick Arnold reintroduced methylhexanamine in 2006 as a dietary supplement,[7][8] after the final ban of ephedrine in the United States in 2005.

The Good Drug Guide : new mood-brighteners and antidepressants Understand - a novelette by Ted Chiang I 'm in the middle of retouching a holograph when the phone rings. I waver between the phone and the console, and reluctantly opt for the phone. I'd normally have the answering machine take any calls when I'm editing, but I need to let people know I'm working again. I lost a lot of business when I was in the hospital: one of the risks of being a freelancer. "Hey Leon, it's Jerry." "Hi Jerry. "You interested in seeing a movie tonight? "Tonight? "What's that?" "It's called . "Is this some kind of Shakespearean soliloquy?" Too much: with that lighting, the outer edges will be too bright. "I didn't know you were such a fan of poetry." After checking all the numbers once more, I let the computer recalculate the interference pattern. "Thanks, but I think we'll stick with the movie." "Okay, you guys have fun. Suddenly it occurs to me what's just happened. Will the surprises never end? And now I find I can concentrate on two things at once; something I never would have predicted. "Good," says Dr.

Mephedrone Synthetic stimulant drug Mephedrone, also known as 4-methylmethcathinone, 4-MMC, and 4-methylephedrone, is a synthetic stimulant drug of the amphetamine and cathinone classes. Slang names include drone,[3] M-CAT,[4] White Magic,[5] and meow meow.[6] It is chemically similar to the cathinone compounds found in the khat plant of eastern Africa.[3][7] It comes in the form of tablets or crystals,[8] which users can swallow, snort or inject, producing effects similar to those of MDMA, amphetamines and cocaine. In addition to its stimulant effects, mephedrone produces side effects, of which bruxism is the most common. Mephedrone was first synthesised in 1929, but did not become widely known until it was rediscovered in 1999–2000 at which point it was legal to produce and possess in many countries. Uses[edit] Recreational[edit] Available forms[edit] Purity[edit] Adverse effects[edit] Short-term effects[edit] Neurotoxicity[edit] Reinforcement disorders[edit] Overdose[edit] Toxicity[edit] Deaths[edit]

The Creative Process and Entheogens by Alex Grey The Creative Process and Entheogens by Alex Grey adapted from The Mission of Art PDF version of this document Twenty-five years ago I took my first dose of LSD. The experience was so rich and profound, coupled as it was with the meeting of my future wife, Allyson, that there seemed nothing more important than this revelation of infinite love and unity. Being an artist, I felt that this was the only subject worthy of my time and attention. Due to its visionary richness, I think the entheogenic experience has great importance for fueling an artistic and cultural renaissance. Oscar Janiger's studies of LSD and creativity showed that many artists felt the work done while tripping or post-tripping was more inventive and inspired work than their previous work. "How can we bring the insights of the entheogenic state into our lives?" First Effects: 1). Beginning to Surrender to a Higher Power: 3). Transpersonal Stages: 4). The Creative Process: 1). Notes: 1.

Marginal utility Marginality[edit] The term marginal refers to a small change, starting from some baseline level. As Philip Wicksteed explained the term, "Marginal considerations are considerations which concern a slight increase or diminution of the stock of anything which we possess or are considering"[2] In practice the smallest relevant division may be quite large. Utility[edit] Depending on which theory of utility is used, the interpretation of marginal utility can be meaningful or not. Contemporary mainstream economic theory frequently defers metaphysical questions, and merely notes or assumes that preference structures conforming to certain rules can be usefully proxied by associating goods, services, or their uses with quantities, and defines "utility" as such a quantification.[5] Though generally pursued outside of the mainstream methods, there are conceptions of utility that do not rely on quantification. Diminishing marginal utility[edit] Marginalist theory[edit] Adam Smith to state is Moreover, if and

p-Hydroxynorephedrine p-Hydroxynorephedrine (PHN), or 4-hydroxynorephedrine, is the para-hydroxy analog of norephedrine and an active sympathomimetic metabolite of amphetamine in humans.[1][2] When it occurs as a metabolite of amphetamine, it is produced from both p-hydroxyamphetamine and norephedrine.[2][3][4] [edit] Notes[edit] ^ 4-Hydroxyamphetamine has been shown to be metabolized into 4-hydroxynorephedrine by dopamine beta-hydroxylase (DBH) in vitro and it is presumed to be metabolized similarly in vivo.[6][11] Evidence from studies that measured the effect of serum DBH concentrations on 4-hydroxyamphetamine metabolism in humans suggests that a different enzyme may mediate the conversion of 4-hydroxyamphetamine to 4-hydroxynorephedrine;[11][13] however, other evidence from animal studies suggests that this reaction is catalyzed by DBH in synaptic vesicles within noradrenergic neurons in the brain.[14][15] See also[edit] Hydroxynorephedrine References[edit] References[edit] External links[edit]

History of LSD The psychedelic drug (or entheogen) lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD) was first synthesized on November 16, 1938 by the Swiss chemist Albert Hofmann in the Sandoz (now Novartis) laboratories in Basel, Switzerland.[1] It was not until five years later on April 19, 1943, that the psychedelic properties were found.[2] Discovery[edit] Albert Hofmann, born in Cyprus, joined the pharmaceutical-chemical department of Sandoz Laboratories, located in Basel as a co-worker with professor Arthur Stoll, founder and director of the pharmaceutical department.[3] He began studying the medicinal plant squill and the fungus ergot as part of a program to purify and synthesize active constituents for use as pharmaceuticals. ... affected by a remarkable restlessness, combined with a slight dizziness. At home I lay down and sank into a not unpleasant intoxicated-like condition, characterized by an extremely stimulated imagination. "Bicycle Day"[edit] Bicycle Day Celebration Blotter Psychiatric use[edit] R. Dr.

Executive functions Executive functions (also known as cognitive control and supervisory attentional system) is an umbrella term for the management (regulation, control) of cognitive processes, including working memory, reasoning, flexibility, and problem solving as well as planning and execution.[1][2][3] The prefrontal areas of the frontal lobe are necessary but not solely sufficient for executive functions. Neuroanatomy[edit] Historically, the executive functions have been seen as regulated by the prefrontal regions of the frontal lobes, but it is still a matter of ongoing debate if that really is the case. Even though articles on prefrontal lobe lesions commonly refer to disturbances of executive functions and vice versa, a review found indications for the sensitivity but not for the specificity of executive function measures to frontal lobe functioning. This means that both frontal and non-frontal brain regions are necessary for intact executive functions. Hypothesized role[edit] Development[edit]

4-Hydroxyamphetamine Group of stereoisomers 4-Hydroxyamphetamine (4HA), also known as hydroxyamfetamine, hydroxyamphetamine, oxamphetamine, norpholedrine, para-hydroxyamphetamine, and α-methyltyramine, is a drug that stimulates the sympathetic nervous system. It is used medically in eye drops to dilate the pupil (a process called mydriasis), so that the back of the eye can be examined. It is also a major metabolite of amphetamine and certain substituted amphetamines. Medical use[edit] 4-Hydroxyamphetamine is used in eye drops to dilate the pupil (a process called mydriasis) so that the back of the eye can be examined. 4-hydroxyamphetamine has some limitations to its use as a diagnostic tool. Pharmacology[edit] Like amphetamine, 4-hydroxyamphetamine is an agonist of human TAAR1.[4] 4-Hydroxyamphetamine acts as an indirect sympathomimetic and causes the release of norepinephrine from nerve synapses which leads to mydriasis (pupil dilation).[3][5] Commercialization[edit] See also[edit] Notes[edit] References[edit]

Parkinson's Law UK First edition book cover Originally, Parkinson's law is the adage that "work expands so as to fill the time available for its completion", and the title of a book which made it well-known. However, in current understanding, Parkinson's law is a reference to the self-satisfying uncontrolled growth of the bureaucratic apparatus in an organization. History[edit] Articulated by Cyril Northcote Parkinson as part of the first sentence of a humorous essay published in The Economist in 1955 and since republished online,[1][2] it was reprinted with other essays in the book Parkinson's Law: The Pursuit of Progress (London, John Murray, 1958). A current form of the law is not the one Parkinson refers to by that name in the article, but a mathematical equation describing the rate at which bureaucracies expand over time. Parkinson's Law was translated into many languages. Corollaries[edit] If you wait until the last minute, it only takes a minute to do.[5] the Asimov corollary to Parkinson's law:

Ethylnorepinephrine Ethylnorepinephrine (Etanor, Bronkephrine, Butanefrine) is a sympathomimetic and bronchodilator related to norepinephrine.[1][2][3] It activates both α and β adrenergic receptors.[4] See also[edit] Norepinephrine References[edit]

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