background preloader


Methamphetamine[note 1] (pronunciation: /ˌmɛθæmˈfɛtəmiːn/; contracted from N-methyl-alpha-methylphenethylamine) is a neurotoxin and potent psychostimulant of the phenethylamine and amphetamine classes that is used to treat attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and obesity. Methamphetamine exists as two enantiomers, dextrorotary and levorotary.[note 2] Dextromethamphetamine is a stronger central nervous system (CNS) stimulant than levomethamphetamine; however, both are addictive and produce the same toxicity symptoms at high doses. Methamphetamine may be sold illegally, either as pure dextromethamphetamine or in an equal parts mixture of the right and left handed molecules (i.e., 50% levomethamphetamine and 50% dextromethamphetamine). In low doses, methamphetamine can cause an elevated mood and increase alertness, concentration, and energy in fatigued individuals. Uses Medical Recreational Desoxyn tablets – pharmaceutical methamphetamine hydrochloride Contraindications Side effects

Methylphenidate Methylphenidate (trade names Concerta, Methylin, Ritalin, Equasym XL) is a psychostimulant drug and substituted phenethylamine approved for treatment of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), postural orthostatic tachycardia syndrome and narcolepsy. The original patent was owned by CIBA, now Novartis Corporation. It was first licensed by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) in 1955 for treating what was then known as hyperactivity. Uses[edit] Medical[edit] MPH is a commonly prescribed psychostimulant and works by increasing the activity of the central nervous system.[5] It produces such effects as increasing or maintaining alertness, combating fatigue, and improving attention.[6] The short-term benefits and cost effectiveness of methylphenidate are well established, although long-term effects are unknown.[7][8] The long term effects of methylphenidate on the developing brain are unknown. Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder[edit] Mechanisms of ADHD[edit] Other[edit]

Methcathinone Psychoactive stimulant Methcathinone (α-methylamino-propiophenone or ephedrone) (sometimes called "cat" or "jeff" or "catnip" or "M-Kat" or "kat" or "intash" ) is a monoamine alkaloid and psychoactive stimulant, a substituted cathinone. It is used as a recreational drug due to its potent stimulant and euphoric effects and is considered to be addictive, with both physical and psychological withdrawal occurring if its use is discontinued after prolonged or high-dosage administration.[1] It is usually snorted, but can be smoked, injected, or taken orally. Methcathinone is listed as a Schedule I controlled substance by the Convention on Psychotropic Substances and the United States' Controlled Substances Act, and as such it is not considered to be safe or effective in the treatment, diagnosis, prevention, or cure of any disease, and has no approved medical use. History[edit] Chemistry[edit] Methcathinone possesses a chiral carbon atom, and therefore two enantiomers are possible. Effects[edit]

Understand - a novelette by Ted Chiang I 'm in the middle of retouching a holograph when the phone rings. I waver between the phone and the console, and reluctantly opt for the phone. I'd normally have the answering machine take any calls when I'm editing, but I need to let people know I'm working again. I lost a lot of business when I was in the hospital: one of the risks of being a freelancer. "Hey Leon, it's Jerry." "Hi Jerry. "You interested in seeing a movie tonight? "Tonight? "What's that?" "It's called . "Is this some kind of Shakespearean soliloquy?" Too much: with that lighting, the outer edges will be too bright. "I didn't know you were such a fan of poetry." After checking all the numbers once more, I let the computer recalculate the interference pattern. "Thanks, but I think we'll stick with the movie." "Okay, you guys have fun. Suddenly it occurs to me what's just happened. Will the surprises never end? And now I find I can concentrate on two things at once; something I never would have predicted. "Good," says Dr.

Methoxetamine Dissociative drug Methoxetamine, abbreviated as MXE, is a dissociative hallucinogen that has been sold as a designer drug.[3][4] It differs from many dissociatives such as ketamine and phencyclidine (PCP) that were developed as pharmaceutical drugs for use as general anesthetics in that it was designed specifically for recreational use.[4][5] Due to its structural similarity to ketamine, it is no longer produced in sizeable quantities due to near-global bans. It is a rare example of a drug being so widely controlled without having an existing medical use. MXE is an arylcyclohexylamine.[6] It acts mainly as an NMDA receptor antagonist, similarly to other arylcyclohexylamines like ketamine and PCP.[6] Recreational use[edit] Effects[edit] Pharmacology[edit] Pharmacodynamics[edit] Pharmacokinetics[edit] MXE has a longer duration of action than that of ketamine.[17] Chemistry[edit] Methoxetamine and related arylcyclohexylamines. MXE hydrochloride is soluble in ethanol up to 10 mg/ml at 25 °C.[18] Utah

Marginal utility Marginality[edit] The term marginal refers to a small change, starting from some baseline level. As Philip Wicksteed explained the term, "Marginal considerations are considerations which concern a slight increase or diminution of the stock of anything which we possess or are considering"[2] In practice the smallest relevant division may be quite large. Utility[edit] Depending on which theory of utility is used, the interpretation of marginal utility can be meaningful or not. Contemporary mainstream economic theory frequently defers metaphysical questions, and merely notes or assumes that preference structures conforming to certain rules can be usefully proxied by associating goods, services, or their uses with quantities, and defines "utility" as such a quantification.[5] Though generally pursued outside of the mainstream methods, there are conceptions of utility that do not rely on quantification. Diminishing marginal utility[edit] Marginalist theory[edit] Adam Smith to state is Moreover, if and

Methadone Opioid medication used for pain; also to treat dependency on opioids Methadone, sold under the brand names Dolophine and Methadose among others, is a synthetic opioid agonist used for chronic pain and also for opioid dependence.[5] It is used to treat chronic pain, and it is also used to treat addiction to heroin or other opioids.[8][9] Prescribed for daily use, the medicine relieves cravings and removes withdrawal symptoms.[10] Detoxification using methadone can be accomplished in less than a month, or it may be done gradually over as long as six months.[5] While a single dose has a rapid effect, maximum effect can take up to five days of use.[5] The pain-relieving effects last about six hours after a single dose.[5][11] After long-term use, in people with normal liver function, effects last 8 to 36 hours.[5][7] Methadone is usually taken by mouth and rarely by injection into a muscle or vein.[5] Medical uses[edit] Opioid addiction[edit] Pain[edit] Adverse effects[edit] Physical symptoms

Executive functions Executive functions (also known as cognitive control and supervisory attentional system) is an umbrella term for the management (regulation, control) of cognitive processes, including working memory, reasoning, flexibility, and problem solving as well as planning and execution.[1][2][3] The prefrontal areas of the frontal lobe are necessary but not solely sufficient for executive functions. Neuroanatomy[edit] Historically, the executive functions have been seen as regulated by the prefrontal regions of the frontal lobes, but it is still a matter of ongoing debate if that really is the case. Even though articles on prefrontal lobe lesions commonly refer to disturbances of executive functions and vice versa, a review found indications for the sensitivity but not for the specificity of executive function measures to frontal lobe functioning. This means that both frontal and non-frontal brain regions are necessary for intact executive functions. Hypothesized role[edit] Development[edit]

5-Methoxymethylone Chemical compound of the cathinone class Legal Status[edit] 5-Methoxymethylone is listed as an illegal drug under the name 2-A1MP in Hungary.[5] See also[edit] References[edit] Parkinson's Law UK First edition book cover Originally, Parkinson's law is the adage that "work expands so as to fill the time available for its completion", and the title of a book which made it well-known. However, in current understanding, Parkinson's law is a reference to the self-satisfying uncontrolled growth of the bureaucratic apparatus in an organization. History[edit] Articulated by Cyril Northcote Parkinson as part of the first sentence of a humorous essay published in The Economist in 1955 and since republished online,[1][2] it was reprinted with other essays in the book Parkinson's Law: The Pursuit of Progress (London, John Murray, 1958). A current form of the law is not the one Parkinson refers to by that name in the article, but a mathematical equation describing the rate at which bureaucracies expand over time. Parkinson's Law was translated into many languages. Corollaries[edit] If you wait until the last minute, it only takes a minute to do.[5] the Asimov corollary to Parkinson's law:

MDMA MDMA (3,4-methylenedioxy-N-methylamphetamine) is an empathogenic drug of the phenethylamine and amphetamine classes of drugs. MDMA has become widely known as "ecstasy" (shortened to "E", "X", or "XTC"), usually referring to its street form, although this term may also include the presence of possible adulterants. The UK term "Mandy" and the US term "Molly" colloquially refer to MDMA that is relatively free of adulterants.[3] MDMA can induce euphoria, a sense of intimacy with others, diminished anxiety, and mild psychedelia. Many studies, particularly in the fields of psychology and cognitive therapy, have suggested MDMA has therapeutic benefits and facilitates therapy sessions in certain individuals, a practice for which it had been formally used in the past. Clinical trials are now testing the therapeutic potential of MDMA for post-traumatic stress disorder, anxiety associated with terminal cancer[4][5] and addiction.[6] Medical use[edit] Recreational use[edit] Tablets containing MDMA

Dramaturgy (sociology) Dramaturgy is a sociological perspective starting from symbolic interactionism and commonly used in microsociological accounts of social interaction in everyday life. The term was first adapted into sociology from the theatre by Erving Goffman, who developed most of the related terminology and ideas in his 1959 book, The Presentation of Self in Everyday Life. Kenneth Burke, whom Goffman would later acknowledge as an influence,[1] had earlier presented his notions of dramatism in 1945, which in turn derives from Shakespeare. If we imagine ourselves as directors observing what goes on in the theatre of everyday life, we are doing what Goffman called dramaturgical analysis, the study of social interaction in terms of theatrical performance.[2] Dramaturgical perspective is one of several sociological paradigms separated from other sociological theories because it does not examine the cause of human behavior but it analyzes the context. Dark secrets. Roles that mix front and back region up:

4-Methylaminorex Group of stereoisomers 4-Methylaminorex (4-MAR, 4-MAX) is a stimulant drug of the 2-amino-5-aryloxazoline class that was first synthesized in 1960 by McNeil Laboratories.[1] It is also known by its street names "U4Euh" ("Euphoria") and "Ice". It is banned in many countries as a stimulant. 4-Methylaminorex has effects comparable to methamphetamine but with a longer duration. The results of animal experiments conducted with this drug suggest that it has an abuse liability similar to cocaine and amphetamine. Chemistry[edit] 4-Methylaminorex exists as four stereoisomers : (±)-cis and (±)-trans. Dosage[edit] There is a patent about the use of 4-methylaminorex "as a nasal decongestant which, when administered orally, does not produce adverse central nervous system stimulant effects as experienced with other decongestants and anorexiants." Effects[edit] There has been one reported death due to 4-methylaminorex and diazepam. Neurotoxicity studies[edit] References[edit] External links[edit]

Граффити мертвого города 25 лет без людей и поддержания жизни. Улицы и проспекты практически полностью заросли деревьями, дома-коробки со сквозняками и ветрами... Город постепенно разрушается. Конечно же сам факт появления граффити в Припяти неоднозначен. Я был в Припяти несколько лет назад, эти граффити нарисованы немецкими художниками (возможно, эта информация недостоверна). Это, наверное, самый растиражированный в интернете сюжет Это граффити на крыше самого высотного здания в городе. Это самое высокое здание в городе: Вид с крыши: на заднем плане 4й энергоблок Чернобыльской АЭС: Рядом с 4м энергоблоком Чернобыльской АЭС: Улицы Припяти: Вот этот текст о предстоящей эвакуации звучал из мегафонов города вечером 26 апреля 1986 года: Для справки: текущий радиационный фон по состоянию на 17.04.2011 (Значения указаны в микрорентгенах в час (μР/ч). ЧАЭС 62 μР/чПрипять 69 μР/чЧернобыль 27μР/чДитятки 10 μР/чКиев 11 μР/чМосква 11 μР/ч Также читайте о том, как сейчас выглядит город Припять в деталях: