Substituted amphetamine Substituted amphetamines are a chemical class of stimulants, entactogens, hallucinogens, and other drugs. They feature a phenethylamine core with a methyl group attached to the alpha carbon resulting in amphetamine, along with additional substitutions. Examples of amphetamines are amphetamine (itself), methamphetamine, ephedrine, cathinone, MDMA ("Ecstasy"), and DOM ("STP"). List of substituted amphetamines Structural formula of amphetamine History Although the basic compound of the class, amphetamine, was synthesized earlier, Ephedra was used 5000 years ago in China as a medicinal plant; its active ingredients are alkaloids ephedrine, pseudoephedrine, norephedrine (phenylpropanolamine) and norpseudoephedrine (cathine). Amphetamine was first synthesized in 1887 by Romanian chemist Lazăr Edeleanu and did not attract special attention. MDMA was produced in 1912 (according to other sources in 1914) as an intermediate product. Structure Legal status See also
Monarchism Monarchism is defined as the advocacy of a monarch or monarchical rule. A monarchist is an individual who supports this form of government, independent from the person, the monarch. In this system, the monarch may be the person who sits on the throne, a pretender, or someone who would otherwise occupy the throne but has been deposed. History Absolutism continued to be the dominant political principle of sovereignty until the 1789 French Revolution and the regicide against Louis XVI, which established the concept of popular sovereignty upheld by Jean-Jacques Rousseau. Monarchy began to be contested by the Republican principe. Following the ousting of Napoleon I in 1814, the Coalition restored the Bourbon Dynasty in pushing Louis XVIII to the French throne. The Spring of Nations in 1848 then set the signal for a new wave of revolutions against the European monarchies. Constitutional monarchies Constitutional monarchies form the majority of the current monarchies. American German
Methamphetamine - I Wish Things Could Be as Simple as they Were on Meth - 20413 Citation: abnormallydizzy. "I Wish Things Could Be as Simple as they Were on Meth: An Experience with Methamphetamine (ID 20413)". Erowid.org. I was in the middle of my drug experimentation phase, in which I was trying every drug I could lay my hands on, save heroin or coke (Because of personal fears of danger and addiction. I no longer partake in any illegal drugs, only because of my progression into panic disorder. Anyway, I had a friend, Adam, who to me seemed *the* paragon of drug information. He was somewhat bewildered by my near constant desire to try different substances, and told me this after I'd bugged him for two days straight about this 'special stuff'. It hit me in full force as we went inside. As I was (and am) predisposed toward low self-esteem and bouts of extreme self-loathing, the feeling that nothing on earth, or even beyond, could touch my greatness was liberating in a way I could not have previously imagined. We had started the experience at around six p.m.
Chemotherapy Chemotherapy (often abbreviated to chemo and sometimes CTX or CTx) is the treatment of cancer with one or more cytotoxic anti-neoplastic drugs (chemotherapeutic agents) as part of a standardized regimen. Chemotherapy may be given with a curative intent or it may aim to prolong life or to palliate symptoms. It is often used in conjunction with other cancer treatments, such as radiation therapy, surgery, and/or hyperthermia therapy. Traditional chemotherapeutic agents act by killing cells that divide rapidly, one of the main properties of most cancer cells. Some newer anticancer drugs (for example, various monoclonal antibodies) are not indiscriminately cytotoxic, but rather target proteins that are abnormally expressed in cancer cells and that are essential for their growth. Chemotherapy may use one drug at a time (single-agent chemotherapy) or several drugs at once (combination chemotherapy or polychemotherapy). History The term chemotherapy Types Alkylating agents
Methylphenidate Methylphenidate (trade names Concerta, Methylin, Ritalin, Equasym XL) is a psychostimulant drug and substituted phenethylamine approved for treatment of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), postural orthostatic tachycardia syndrome and narcolepsy. The original patent was owned by CIBA, now Novartis Corporation. It was first licensed by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) in 1955 for treating what was then known as hyperactivity. Uses Medical MPH is a commonly prescribed psychostimulant and works by increasing the activity of the central nervous system. It produces such effects as increasing or maintaining alertness, combating fatigue, and improving attention. The short-term benefits and cost effectiveness of methylphenidate are well established, although long-term effects are unknown. The long term effects of methylphenidate on the developing brain are unknown. Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder Mechanisms of ADHD Other
Ephedrine Ephedrine (/ɨˈfɛdrɪn/ or /ˈɛfɨdriːn/; not to be confused with ephedrone) is a sympathomimetic amine commonly used as a stimulant, appetite suppressant, concentration aid, decongestant, and to treat hypotension associated with anaesthesia. The herb má huáng (麻黄, Ephedra sinica), used in traditional Chinese medicine, contains ephedrine and pseudoephedrine as its principal active constituents. The same may be true of other herbal products containing extracts from other Ephedra species. History Ephedrine in its natural form, known as má huáng (麻黄) in traditional Chinese medicine, has been documented in China since the Han Dynasty (206 BC – 220 AD) as an antiasthmatic and stimulant. The chemical synthesis of ephedrine was first accomplished by Japanese organic chemist Nagai Nagayoshi in 1885. Chemistry The four stereoisomers of ephedrine. Ephedrine exhibits optical isomerism and has two chiral centres, giving rise to four stereoisomers. Nomenclature Agricultural sources
Cocaine Cocaine (INN) (benzoylmethylecgonine, an ecgonine derivative) is a crystalline tropane alkaloid that is obtained from the leaves of the coca plant. The name comes from "coca" and the alkaloid suffix "-ine", forming "cocaine". It is a stimulant, an appetite suppressant, and a nonspecific voltage gated sodium channel blocker, which in turn causes it to produce anaesthesia at low doses. Biologically, cocaine acts as a serotonin–norepinephrine–dopamine reuptake inhibitor, also known as a triple reuptake inhibitor (TRI). It is addictive due to its effect on the mesolimbic reward pathway. It is markedly more dangerous than other CNS stimulants, including the entire amphetamine drug class, at high doses due to its effect on sodium channels, as blockade of Nav1.5 can cause sudden cardiac death. Unlike most molecules, cocaine has pockets[clarification needed] with both high hydrophilic and lipophilic efficiency, violating the rule of hydrophilic-lipophilic balance. Medical effects Acute
Methamphetamine - Shooting It Is the Devil - 63759 Citation: LLamarama. "Shooting It Is the Devil: An Experience with Methamphetamine (ID 63759)". Erowid.org. Jun 15, 2007. erowid.org/exp/63759 -The Day It was a Wednesday night and I had just gotten off work. -The Beginning We met some guy off the street who seemed perfectly normal. He got me a baggy and I did a line. -The Plan We started talking about shooting up. -The Syringe He was cleaning a syringe off with bleach and I said, 'hell no, you're getting me a new one' so he got me a new packaged one and found my vein. -The Shot I told him to only inject half of what he had in the syringe, I'm so sensitive to speed and I already had so much in my system. he tried injecting the full thing and I pushed the needle away as I lost the ability to breathe and stumbled on to the bed. -Sexual When I got back from peeing the Mississippi river, he was there, unclothed. -The Decline Here come the cold sweats. -The Illusions: -The Aftermath That was all Wednesday night.
Ricin Toxicity Castor beans The seeds can be crushed in an oil press to extract castor oil. This leaves behind the spent crushed seeds, called variously the 'cake', 'oil cake', and 'press cake'. While the oil cake from coconut, peanuts, and sometimes cotton seeds can be used as either cattle feed and/or fertilizer, the toxic nature of castor precludes them from being used as feed. Accidental ingestion of Ricinus communis cake to be used as fertilizer has been reported to be responsible for fatal ricin poisoning in animals. Overdose Most acute poisoning episodes in humans are the result of oral ingestion of castor beans, 5–20 of which could prove fatal to an adult. Biochemistry Ricin is classified as a type 2 ribosome-inactivating protein (RIP). Biosynthesis Structure Many plants such as barley have the A chain but not the B chain. Entry into the Cytoplasm Ribosome inactivation  Manufacture Castor oil plant, fruits
Understand - a novelette by Ted Chiang I 'm in the middle of retouching a holograph when the phone rings. I waver between the phone and the console, and reluctantly opt for the phone. I'd normally have the answering machine take any calls when I'm editing, but I need to let people know I'm working again. I lost a lot of business when I was in the hospital: one of the risks of being a freelancer. "Hey Leon, it's Jerry." "Hi Jerry. "You interested in seeing a movie tonight? "Tonight? "What's that?" "It's called . "Is this some kind of Shakespearean soliloquy?" Too much: with that lighting, the outer edges will be too bright. "I didn't know you were such a fan of poetry." After checking all the numbers once more, I let the computer recalculate the interference pattern. "Thanks, but I think we'll stick with the movie." "Okay, you guys have fun. Suddenly it occurs to me what's just happened. Will the surprises never end? And now I find I can concentrate on two things at once; something I never would have predicted. "Good," says Dr.
Pseudoephedrine Pseudoephedrine (/ˌsjuːdoʊ.ɨˈfɛdrɪn/ or /ˌsjuːdoʊˈɛfɨdriːn/; PSE) is a sympathomimetic drug of the phenethylamine and amphetamine chemical classes. It may be used as a nasal/sinus decongestant, as a stimulant, or as a wakefulness-promoting agent. Chemistry Pseudoephedrine is a diastereomer of ephedrine and is readily reduced into methamphetamine or oxidized into methcathinone. Nomenclature The dextrorotary (+)- or d- enantiomer is (1S,2S)-pseudoephedrine, whereas the levorotating (−)- or l- form is (1R,2R)-pseudoephedrine. In the outdated d/l system (+)-pseudoephedrine is also referred to as l-pseudoephedrine and (−)-pseudoephedrine as d-pseudoephedrine (in the Fisher projection then the phenyl ring is drawn at bottom). Often the d/l system (with small caps) and the d/l system (with lower-case) are confused. The IUPAC names of the two enantiomers are (1S,2S)- respectively (1R,2R)-2-methylamino-1-phenylpropan-1-ol. Synthesis Mechanism of action
Heroin Heroin /ˈhɛroʊɪn/ (diacetylmorphine or morphine diacetate, also known as diamorphine (BAN, INN) and commonly known by its street names of H, smack, boy, horse, brown, black, tar, and others is an opioid analgesic originally synthesized by C.R. Alder Wright in 1874 by adding two acetyl groups to the molecule morphine, which is found naturally in the opium poppy. It is the 3,6-diacetyl ester of morphine. Administered intravenously by injection, heroin is two to four times more potent than morphine and is faster in its onset of action. Illicit heroin is sometimes available in freebase form, dulling the sheen and consistency to a matte-white powder. Because of its lower boiling point, the freebase form of heroin is also smokable. As with other opioids, diacetylmorphine is used as both a legal, medically prescribed drug (e.g., as an analgesic, cough suppressant and as an anti-diarrhea drug) and a recreational drug, in which case the user is seeking euphoria. Usage Medical use Oral
Methamphetamine - One Year, from First Hit to Now - 35908 Citation: X. "One Year, from First Hit to Now: An Experience with Methamphetamine (ID 35908)". Erowid.org. Apr 30, 2006. erowid.org/exp/35908 Late August 2003 - Introduction to smoking meth amount smoked: minimal, two or three small puffs. sensations: slight elevation of alertness, already happy feelings were mildly enhanced by less self-consciouness (we were on a trip out of our small town for a weekend Gay Pride fiesta) mid October - second meth experience amount smoked: approx 20 to 50 mg throughout the night amount snorted: a small line of approx 20 mg sensations: much higher than the first time. Energy level was just right for a 5 hour dance marathon at a super fun dance party. A meth dealer who owed me money for pot fronted almost a year before gave me a partial payment of what he owed in the form of a $25 bag of meth (I didn't know what the measurement was, from what I remember, it looked like about three or four points (30 or 40 mg) Nov 15, 2003 2:41 am It was ok though, no arguments.