Methylphenidate Methylphenidate (trade names Concerta, Methylin, Ritalin, Equasym XL) is a psychostimulant drug and substituted phenethylamine approved for treatment of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), postural orthostatic tachycardia syndrome and narcolepsy. The original patent was owned by CIBA, now Novartis Corporation. It was first licensed by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) in 1955 for treating what was then known as hyperactivity. Uses Medical MPH is a commonly prescribed psychostimulant and works by increasing the activity of the central nervous system. It produces such effects as increasing or maintaining alertness, combating fatigue, and improving attention. The short-term benefits and cost effectiveness of methylphenidate are well established, although long-term effects are unknown. The long term effects of methylphenidate on the developing brain are unknown. Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder Mechanisms of ADHD Other
Understand - a novelette by Ted Chiang I 'm in the middle of retouching a holograph when the phone rings. I waver between the phone and the console, and reluctantly opt for the phone. I'd normally have the answering machine take any calls when I'm editing, but I need to let people know I'm working again. I lost a lot of business when I was in the hospital: one of the risks of being a freelancer. "Hey Leon, it's Jerry." "Hi Jerry. "You interested in seeing a movie tonight? "Tonight? "What's that?" "It's called . "Is this some kind of Shakespearean soliloquy?" Too much: with that lighting, the outer edges will be too bright. "I didn't know you were such a fan of poetry." After checking all the numbers once more, I let the computer recalculate the interference pattern. "Thanks, but I think we'll stick with the movie." "Okay, you guys have fun. Suddenly it occurs to me what's just happened. Will the surprises never end? And now I find I can concentrate on two things at once; something I never would have predicted. "Good," says Dr.
Marginal utility Marginality The term marginal refers to a small change, starting from some baseline level. As Philip Wicksteed explained the term, "Marginal considerations are considerations which concern a slight increase or diminution of the stock of anything which we possess or are considering" In practice the smallest relevant division may be quite large. Utility Depending on which theory of utility is used, the interpretation of marginal utility can be meaningful or not. Contemporary mainstream economic theory frequently defers metaphysical questions, and merely notes or assumes that preference structures conforming to certain rules can be usefully proxied by associating goods, services, or their uses with quantities, and defines "utility" as such a quantification. Though generally pursued outside of the mainstream methods, there are conceptions of utility that do not rely on quantification. Diminishing marginal utility Marginalist theory Adam Smith to state is Moreover, if and
Executive functions Executive functions (also known as cognitive control and supervisory attentional system) is an umbrella term for the management (regulation, control) of cognitive processes, including working memory, reasoning, flexibility, and problem solving as well as planning and execution. The prefrontal areas of the frontal lobe are necessary but not solely sufficient for executive functions. Neuroanatomy Historically, the executive functions have been seen as regulated by the prefrontal regions of the frontal lobes, but it is still a matter of ongoing debate if that really is the case. Even though articles on prefrontal lobe lesions commonly refer to disturbances of executive functions and vice versa, a review found indications for the sensitivity but not for the specificity of executive function measures to frontal lobe functioning. This means that both frontal and non-frontal brain regions are necessary for intact executive functions. Hypothesized role Development
Parkinson's Law UK First edition book cover Originally, Parkinson's law is the adage that "work expands so as to fill the time available for its completion", and the title of a book which made it well-known. However, in current understanding, Parkinson's law is a reference to the self-satisfying uncontrolled growth of the bureaucratic apparatus in an organization. History Articulated by Cyril Northcote Parkinson as part of the first sentence of a humorous essay published in The Economist in 1955 and since republished online, it was reprinted with other essays in the book Parkinson's Law: The Pursuit of Progress (London, John Murray, 1958). A current form of the law is not the one Parkinson refers to by that name in the article, but a mathematical equation describing the rate at which bureaucracies expand over time. Parkinson's Law was translated into many languages. Corollaries If you wait until the last minute, it only takes a minute to do. the Asimov corollary to Parkinson's law:
Dramaturgy (sociology) Dramaturgy is a sociological perspective starting from symbolic interactionism and commonly used in microsociological accounts of social interaction in everyday life. The term was first adapted into sociology from the theatre by Erving Goffman, who developed most of the related terminology and ideas in his 1959 book, The Presentation of Self in Everyday Life. Kenneth Burke, whom Goffman would later acknowledge as an influence, had earlier presented his notions of dramatism in 1945, which in turn derives from Shakespeare. If we imagine ourselves as directors observing what goes on in the theatre of everyday life, we are doing what Goffman called dramaturgical analysis, the study of social interaction in terms of theatrical performance. Dramaturgical perspective is one of several sociological paradigms separated from other sociological theories because it does not examine the cause of human behavior but it analyzes the context. Dark secrets. Roles that mix front and back region up:
Граффити мертвого города 25 лет без людей и поддержания жизни. Улицы и проспекты практически полностью заросли деревьями, дома-коробки со сквозняками и ветрами... Город постепенно разрушается. Конечно же сам факт появления граффити в Припяти неоднозначен. Я был в Припяти несколько лет назад, эти граффити нарисованы немецкими художниками (возможно, эта информация недостоверна). Это, наверное, самый растиражированный в интернете сюжет Это граффити на крыше самого высотного здания в городе. Это самое высокое здание в городе: Вид с крыши: на заднем плане 4й энергоблок Чернобыльской АЭС: Рядом с 4м энергоблоком Чернобыльской АЭС: Улицы Припяти: Вот этот текст о предстоящей эвакуации звучал из мегафонов города вечером 26 апреля 1986 года: Для справки: текущий радиационный фон по состоянию на 17.04.2011 (www.pripyat.com):Значения указаны в микрорентгенах в час (μР/ч). ЧАЭС 62 μР/чПрипять 69 μР/чЧернобыль 27μР/чДитятки 10 μР/чКиев 11 μР/чМосква 11 μР/ч Также читайте о том, как сейчас выглядит город Припять в деталях:
Long Ring Fingers Are Attached to Good Looking Guys | Sex, Hormoes & Attractivenessn If you want to know how attractive a guy is, look down … at his hands, that is. The ratio between the length of his right index and ring fingers is linked to facial attractiveness, a new study finds. The ratio, called the 2D:4D because it compares the length of the second digit with the fourth digit, makes sense since that ratio is driven by the sex hormone testosterone, the researchers say "What we found was that 2D:4D ratio can predict face attractiveness. The more masculine the 2D:4D is, the more attractive is the face," said study researcher Camille Ferdenzi at the University of Geneva in Switzerland. "The amount of sex hormones you are exposed to before birth contributes to how your face develops and how attractive it becomes." Oddly enough, this is because of the amount of testosterone that a fetus is exposed to in the end of the first trimester, when the testes start to develop. Diggin' digits Developmental or adult?
The Accidental Tourist Plot summary Set in Baltimore, Maryland, the plot revolves around Macon Leary, a writer of travel guides whose son has been killed in a shooting at a fast-food restaurant. He and his wife Sarah, separately lost in grief, find their marriage disintegrating until she eventually moves out. When he becomes incapacitated due to a fall, he returns to the family home to stay with his eccentric siblings—sister Rose and brothers Porter and Charles—whose odd habits include alphabetizing the groceries in the kitchen cabinets and ignoring the ringing telephone. When his publisher, Julian, comes to visit, Julian finds himself attracted to Rose. Macon hires Muriel Pritchett, a quirky young woman with a sickly son, to train his unruly dog, and soon finds himself drifting into a relationship with the two of them. Reception References External links Innocent with an Explanation, The Accidental Tourist by Anne Tyler Review by Time Magazine
Antonio Gramsci Antonio Gramsci (Italian: [anˈtɔːnjo ˈɡramʃi]; 22 January 1891 – 27 April 1937) was an Italian Marxist theoretician and politician. He wrote on political theory, sociology and linguistics. He was a founding member and one-time leader of the Communist Party of Italy and was imprisoned by Benito Mussolini's Fascist regime. Gramsci was one of the most important thinkers of the 20th century. He is a notable figure within modern European thought and his writings analyse culture and political leadership. He is best-known for his theory of cultural hegemony, which describes how states use cultural institutions to maintain power in capitalist societies. Life Early life In 1898 Francesco was convicted of embezzlement and imprisoned, reducing his family to destitution. Gramsci completed secondary school in Cagliari, where he lodged with his elder brother Gennaro, a former soldier whose time on the mainland had made him a militant socialist. Turin Imprisonment and death
Cultural hegemony The Communist intellectual Antonio Gramsci (1891–1937) developed the theory of cultural hegemony to further the establishment of a working-class worldview. Background Etymology The etymologic and historical evolution of the Greek word hegemony, and of its denotations, has proceeded thus: Historical In 1848, Karl Marx proposed that the economic recessions and practical contradictions of a capitalist economy would provoke the working class to proletarian revolution, depose capitalism, restructure social institutions (economic, political, social) per the rational models of socialism, and thus begin the transition to a communist society. To that end, Antonio Gramsci proposed a strategic distinction, between a War of Position and a War of Manœuvre. As a result of their different social purposes, the classes will be able to coalesce into a society with a greater social mission. Intellectuals and cultural hegemony Gramsci's intellectual influence See also
Economy of Israel The economy of Israel is a market economy. As of 2012[update], Israel ranks 16th among 187 nations on the UN's Human Development Index, which places it in the category of "Very Highly Developed". The major industrial sectors include high-technology products, metal products, electronic and biomedical equipment, agricultural products, processed foods, chemicals, and transport equipment; the Israeli diamond industry is one of the world's centers for diamond cutting and polishing. In September 2010, Israel was invited to join the OECD. Israel has also signed free trade agreements with the European Union, the United States, the European Free Trade Association, Turkey, Mexico, Canada, Jordan, Egypt, and on 18 December 2007, became the first non-Latin-American country to sign a free trade agreement with the Mercosur trade bloc. History From 1924, trade fairs were held in Tel Aviv. After independence After statehood, Israel faced a deep economic crisis. Challenges
Venture capital In addition to angel investing and other seed funding options, venture capital is attractive for new companies with limited operating history that are too small to raise capital in the public markets and have not reached the point where they are able to secure a bank loan or complete a debt offering. In exchange for the high risk that venture capitalists assume by investing in smaller and less mature companies, venture capitalists usually get significant control over company decisions, in addition to a significant portion of the company's ownership (and consequently value). Venture capital is also associated with job creation (accounting for 2% of US GDP), the knowledge economy, and used as a proxy measure of innovation within an economic sector or geography. Every year, there are nearly 2 million businesses created in the USA, and 600–800 get venture capital funding. History Origins of modern private equity J.H. Early venture capital and the growth of Silicon Valley