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Methamphetamine[note 1] (pronunciation: /ˌmɛθæmˈfɛtəmiːn/; contracted from N-methyl-alpha-methylphenethylamine) is a neurotoxin and potent psychostimulant of the phenethylamine and amphetamine classes that is used to treat attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and obesity. Methamphetamine exists as two enantiomers, dextrorotary and levorotary.[note 2] Dextromethamphetamine is a stronger central nervous system (CNS) stimulant than levomethamphetamine; however, both are addictive and produce the same toxicity symptoms at high doses. Methamphetamine may be sold illegally, either as pure dextromethamphetamine or in an equal parts mixture of the right and left handed molecules (i.e., 50% levomethamphetamine and 50% dextromethamphetamine). In low doses, methamphetamine can cause an elevated mood and increase alertness, concentration, and energy in fatigued individuals. Uses Medical Recreational Desoxyn tablets – pharmaceutical methamphetamine hydrochloride Contraindications Side effects

Methcathinone Psychoactive stimulant Methcathinone (α-methylamino-propiophenone or ephedrone) (sometimes called "cat" or "jeff" or "catnip" or "M-Kat" or "kat" or "intash" ) is a monoamine alkaloid and psychoactive stimulant, a substituted cathinone. It is used as a recreational drug due to its potent stimulant and euphoric effects and is considered to be addictive, with both physical and psychological withdrawal occurring if its use is discontinued after prolonged or high-dosage administration.[1] It is usually snorted, but can be smoked, injected, or taken orally. Methcathinone is listed as a Schedule I controlled substance by the Convention on Psychotropic Substances and the United States' Controlled Substances Act, and as such it is not considered to be safe or effective in the treatment, diagnosis, prevention, or cure of any disease, and has no approved medical use. History[edit] Chemistry[edit] Methcathinone possesses a chiral carbon atom, and therefore two enantiomers are possible. Effects[edit]

Methoxetamine Dissociative drug Methoxetamine, abbreviated as MXE, is a dissociative hallucinogen that has been sold as a designer drug.[3][4] It differs from many dissociatives such as ketamine and phencyclidine (PCP) that were developed as pharmaceutical drugs for use as general anesthetics in that it was designed specifically for recreational use.[4][5] Due to its structural similarity to ketamine, it is no longer produced in sizeable quantities due to near-global bans. It is a rare example of a drug being so widely controlled without having an existing medical use. MXE is an arylcyclohexylamine.[6] It acts mainly as an NMDA receptor antagonist, similarly to other arylcyclohexylamines like ketamine and PCP.[6] Recreational use[edit] Effects[edit] Pharmacology[edit] Pharmacodynamics[edit] Pharmacokinetics[edit] MXE has a longer duration of action than that of ketamine.[17] Chemistry[edit] Methoxetamine and related arylcyclohexylamines. MXE hydrochloride is soluble in ethanol up to 10 mg/ml at 25 °C.[18] Utah

Methadone Opioid medication used for pain; also to treat dependency on opioids Methadone, sold under the brand names Dolophine and Methadose among others, is a synthetic opioid agonist used for chronic pain and also for opioid dependence.[5] It is used to treat chronic pain, and it is also used to treat addiction to heroin or other opioids.[8][9] Prescribed for daily use, the medicine relieves cravings and removes withdrawal symptoms.[10] Detoxification using methadone can be accomplished in less than a month, or it may be done gradually over as long as six months.[5] While a single dose has a rapid effect, maximum effect can take up to five days of use.[5] The pain-relieving effects last about six hours after a single dose.[5][11] After long-term use, in people with normal liver function, effects last 8 to 36 hours.[5][7] Methadone is usually taken by mouth and rarely by injection into a muscle or vein.[5] Medical uses[edit] Opioid addiction[edit] Pain[edit] Adverse effects[edit] Physical symptoms

5-Methoxymethylone Chemical compound of the cathinone class Legal Status[edit] 5-Methoxymethylone is listed as an illegal drug under the name 2-A1MP in Hungary.[5] See also[edit] References[edit] MDMA MDMA (3,4-methylenedioxy-N-methylamphetamine) is an empathogenic drug of the phenethylamine and amphetamine classes of drugs. MDMA has become widely known as "ecstasy" (shortened to "E", "X", or "XTC"), usually referring to its street form, although this term may also include the presence of possible adulterants. The UK term "Mandy" and the US term "Molly" colloquially refer to MDMA that is relatively free of adulterants.[3] MDMA can induce euphoria, a sense of intimacy with others, diminished anxiety, and mild psychedelia. Many studies, particularly in the fields of psychology and cognitive therapy, have suggested MDMA has therapeutic benefits and facilitates therapy sessions in certain individuals, a practice for which it had been formally used in the past. Clinical trials are now testing the therapeutic potential of MDMA for post-traumatic stress disorder, anxiety associated with terminal cancer[4][5] and addiction.[6] Medical use[edit] Recreational use[edit] Tablets containing MDMA

4-Methylaminorex Group of stereoisomers 4-Methylaminorex (4-MAR, 4-MAX) is a stimulant drug of the 2-amino-5-aryloxazoline class that was first synthesized in 1960 by McNeil Laboratories.[1] It is also known by its street names "U4Euh" ("Euphoria") and "Ice". It is banned in many countries as a stimulant. 4-Methylaminorex has effects comparable to methamphetamine but with a longer duration. The results of animal experiments conducted with this drug suggest that it has an abuse liability similar to cocaine and amphetamine. Chemistry[edit] 4-Methylaminorex exists as four stereoisomers : (±)-cis and (±)-trans. Dosage[edit] There is a patent about the use of 4-methylaminorex "as a nasal decongestant which, when administered orally, does not produce adverse central nervous system stimulant effects as experienced with other decongestants and anorexiants." Effects[edit] There has been one reported death due to 4-methylaminorex and diazepam. Neurotoxicity studies[edit] References[edit] External links[edit]

List of fentanyl analogues This is a list of fentanyl analogues (sometimes referred to as Fentalogs),[1][2][3] including both compounds developed by pharmaceutical companies for legitimate medical use, and those which have been sold as designer drugs and reported to national drug control agencies such as the DEA, or transnational agencies such as the EMCDDA and UNODC.[4][5][6][7][8][9] This is not a comprehensive listing of fentanyl analogues, as more than 1400 compounds from this family have been described in the scientific and patent literature,[10][11][12][13][14] but it includes all notable compounds that have reached late-stage human clinical trials, or which have been identified as having been sold as designer drugs, as well as representative examples of significant structural variations reported in the scientific and patent literature. Chemical structures of various fentanyl analogues[edit] Analogue controls[edit] (a) an acetyl, propionyl, butenoyl or butanoyl radical, attached to the aniline nitrogen atom:

3,4-Methylenedioxyamphetamine Empathogen-entactogen, psychostimulant, and psychedelic drug of the amphetamine family 3,4-Methylenedioxyamphetamine (also known as MDA and sass) is an empathogen-entactogen, psychostimulant, and psychedelic drug of the amphetamine family that is encountered mainly as a recreational drug. In terms of pharmacology, MDA acts most importantly as a serotonin–norepinephrine–dopamine releasing agent (SNDRA). In most countries, the drug is a controlled substance and its possession and sale are illegal. MDA is rarely sought after as a recreational drug compared to other drugs in the amphetamine family; however, it remains an important and widely used drug due to it being a primary metabolite,[1] the product of hepatic N-dealkylation,[2] of MDMA (ecstasy). Uses[edit] Medical[edit] MDA currently has no accepted medical use. Recreational[edit] Adverse effects[edit] Overdose[edit] Pharmacology[edit] Pharmacodynamics[edit] Pharmacokinetics[edit] Chemistry[edit] Synonyms[edit] Synthesis[edit] Derivatives[edit]

Lisdexamfetamine CNS stimulant (prodrug) Lisdexamfetamine, sold under the brand name Vyvanse among others, is a stimulant medication that is mainly used to treat attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in people over the age of five as well as moderate-to-severe binge eating disorder in adults.[11] Lisdexamfetamine is taken by mouth. Its effects generally begin within 2 hours and last for up to 14 hours.[11][12] In the United Kingdom, it is usually less preferred than methylphenidate for the treatment of children.[13] Lisdexamfetamine is an inactive prodrug that works after being converted by the body into dextroamphetamine, a central nervous system (CNS) stimulant.[11][15] Chemically, lisdexamfetamine is composed of the amino acid L-lysine, attached to dextroamphetamine.[16] Uses[edit] Medical[edit] Part of this section is transcluded from amphetamine. Enhancing performance[edit] Cognitive performance[edit] Physical performance[edit] Available forms[edit] Contraindications[edit] Adverse effects[edit]

3,4-Methylenedioxy-N-ethylamphetamine Chemical compound 3,4-Methylenedioxy-N-ethylamphetamine (MDEA; also called MDE and colloquially, Eve) is an empathogenic psychoactive drug. MDEA is a substituted amphetamine and a substituted methylenedioxyphenethylamine. MDEA acts as a serotonin, norepinephrine, and dopamine releasing agent and reuptake inhibitor.[1] Possession of MDEA is illegal in most countries. Some limited exceptions exist for scientific and medical research. Uses[edit] Medical[edit] MDEA currently has no accepted medical uses. Recreational[edit] Adverse effects[edit] Reported adverse effects from MDEA include the following: Overdose[edit] Reported overdose symptoms of MDEA include the following: Chemistry[edit] Synthesis[edit] MDEA is typically synthesized from essential oils such as safrole or piperonal. History, society, and culture[edit] Alexander Shulgin conducted research on methylenedioxy compounds in the 1960s. See also[edit] References[edit]

Methylenedioxycathinone Chemical compound Methylenedioxycathinone has been investigated as antidepressant and antiparkinson agent.[4] See also[edit] References[edit] Methylenedioxypyrovalerone Chemical compound Appearance[edit] The hydrochloride salt exists as a very fine crystalline powder; it is hygroscopic and thus tends to form clumps, resembling something like powdered sugar. Pharmacology[edit] Methylenedioxypyrovalerone has no record of FDA approved medical use.[7] It has been shown to produce robust reinforcing effects and compulsive self-administration in rats, though this had already been provisionally established by a number of documented cases of misuse and addiction in humans before the animal tests were carried out.[8][9] MDPV is the 3,4-methylenedioxy ring-substituted analog of the compound pyrovalerone, developed in the 1960s, which has been used for the treatment of chronic fatigue and as an anorectic, but caused problems of abuse and dependence.[10] Effects[edit] MDPV acts as a stimulant and has been reported to produce effects similar to those of cocaine, methylphenidate, and amphetamines.[11] Long-term effects[edit] [edit] Detection in biological specimens[edit]

Levorphanol Chemical compound Levorphanol (brand name Levo-Dromoran) is an opioid medication used to treat moderate to severe pain.[1][2][3] It is one of two enantiomers of the compound racemorphan. It was first described in Germany in 1946.[4] The drug has been in medical use in the United States since 1953.[5] Pharmacology[edit] Levorphanol acts predominantly as an agonist of the μ-opioid receptor (MOR), but is also an agonist of the δ-opioid receptor (DOR), κ-opioid receptor (KOR), and the nociceptin receptor (NOP), as well as an NMDA receptor antagonist and a serotonin-norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor (SNRI).[5] Levorphanol, similarly to certain other opioids, also acts as a glycine receptor antagonist and GABA receptor antagonist at very high concentrations.[6] Levorphanol is 6 to 8 times as potent as morphine at the MOR. Chemistry[edit] Levorphanol and its stereoisomer dextrorphan, the enantiomers of the racemic mixture racemorphan. Society and culture[edit] Name[edit] Availability[edit]