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Language and gender

Language and gender
Introduction This guide is written for students who are following GCE Advanced level (AS and A2) syllabuses in English Language. This resource may also be of general interest to language students on university degree courses, trainee teachers and anyone with a general interest in language science. On this page I use red type for emphasis. Back to top Language and gender - what is it all about? When you start to study language and gender, you may find it hard to discover what this subject, as a distinct area in the study of language, is about. To get you started, here is an outline of part of one exam board's Advanced level module on Language and Social Contexts - there are three subjects, one of which is Language and Gender. This is unobjectionable but not very helpful - essentially it tells you that you have to study spoken and written data. How language reveals, embodies and sustains attitudes to gender. Is it easy or hard? Studying language and gender is easy and hard at the same time. Related:  Language and genderdavebrown66

Rethinking Language and Gender Research: Theory and Practice - Victoria Bergvall Rethinking Language and Gender Research is the first book focusing on language and gender to explicitly challenge the dichotomy of female and male use of language. It represents a turning point in language and gender studies, addressing the political and social consequences of popular beliefs about women's language and men's language and proposing new ways of looking at language and gender. The essays take a fresh approach to the study of subjects such as language and sex and the use of language to produce and maintain power and prestige. Topics explored in this text include sex and the brain; the language of a rape hearing; teenage language; radio talk show exchanges; discourse strategies of African American women; political implications for language and gender studies; the relationship between sex and gender and the construction of identity through language.

Representing gender in children's reading materials would a boy have been shown with flowers in the 1970s? Are girls and boys portrayed differently in children’s reading materials today than in the past? During the 1970s and 80s, studies of children’s reading materials found that males not only featured more than females but also they tended to take the lead roles and were more active than their female counterparts, who were often restricted to traditional stereotyped roles. Many of these earlier studies of gender in children’s reading material analysed the texts based on their content, which meant that researchers made their own judgements about what was sexist and what was not. Macalister based his study on New Zealand’s School Journal, a multi-authored journal of prose, drama and poetry, published and distributed to New Zealand school children every year. In the first three issues of the Journal, Macalister found that ‘boy/s’ outnumbered ‘girl/s’.

From Lakoff to Today – The Gender Factor in Spoken Interaction | i love engli... Robin Lakoff’s Predictions: Robin Lakoff, in 1975, published an influential account of women’s language. This was the book Language and Woman’s Place. In a related article, Woman’s Language, she published a set of basic assumptions about what marks out the language of women. Among these are claims that women: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. William O’Barr and Bowman Atkins A 1980 study by William O’Barr and Bowman Atkins looked at courtroom cases and witnesses’ speech. “In an article entitled “‘Women’s Language’ or ‘Powerless Language’?” “O’Barr and Atkins concluded from their study that the quoted speech patterns were “neither characteristic of all women nor limited only to women” (McConnell-Ginet, et al., p. 102). Dominance and Difference Studies of language and gender often make use of two models or paradigms – that of dominance and that of difference. Dominance theory Deborah Tannen and Difference Status vs. support Independence vs. intimacy The male as norm

The genius of Jodie Foster's speech | Film Reading this on mobile? Click here to view the video It's a considerable thing to deliver a speech that is at once artfully put together and emotionally affecting. At the Golden Globes – where in accepting the Cecil B DeMille award for lifetime achievement, she made the first public acknowledgement of her sexuality – Jodie Foster managed both. What's striking is not what the speech gave away, but the control and delicacy with which it delivered its payload. The art of rhetoric is, at root, about the relationship between a speaker and an audience. But Foster didn't just take their attention for granted. She teased their expectations. By using anaphora (1) ("we've giggled ... we've punched") and polysyndeton (2) (all those ands), she made the sentence sound loose, spontaneous, a little out of control. Writ large, that's the same technique she used when she approached the meat of her speech. She teased it out. Big, nervous laugh from the audience. Finally her peroration (6).

Level Up: English Language - Language and gender Language and Gender There are two different types of Language and Gender questions you could be asked about: representations of gender and gender in action. For instance, magazine articles, adverts and books all include representations of gender (usually stereotypes) and not what males and females are really like. It's the perception of a gender difference, not a real gender difference. Transcripts, however, will show you how gender differences affect language (unless they are faked, be careful!) A distinction you must understand: The big question in linguistics: does being female affect a person's language, or is it merely the attitude towards feminine that make us think there is a difference? Gender Researchers Many leading linguists have a thing or two to say about language and gender. Difference Theory As the title indicates, the difference theory is the idea that males and females really do converse differently. A big advocate of this approach is Deborah Tannen. Christine Howe Women hedge.

John Dunford Consulting | Education Consultancy Language and Woman's Place: Text and Commentaries - Robin Tolmach Lakoff, Mary Bucholtz The 1975 publication of Robin Tolmach Lakoff's Language and Woman's Place, is widely recognized as having inaugurated feminist research on the relationship between language and gender, touching off a remarkable response among language scholars, feminists, and general readers. For the past thirty years, scholars of language and gender have been debating and developing Lakoff's initial observations. Arguing that language is fundamental to gender inequality, Lakoff pointed to two areas in which inequalities can be found: Language used about women, such as the asymmetries between seemingly parallel terms like master and mistress, and language used by women, which places women in a double bind between being appropriately feminine and being fully human. Lakoff's central argument that "women's language" expresses powerlessness triggered a controversy that continues to this day.

Men and women: are we really worlds apart? - Features Do women and men talk differently? And, if they do, why? Kitty Sadler explores the theories Kitty Sadler, 13 March 2011 Everybody knows men are from Mars and women are from Venus. There's no denying it: no education or social conditioning has succeeded in erasing the differences between the language of men and women. For Otto Jespersen and other linguists from the early 20th century, a woman is not a man's counterpart; she is his wife. Despite an investigation into memory in which women came out on top, it was still asserted that it was men who had the higher intellectual capacity - it was easier to succeed in the test when the subject was enough of an airhead that they could make use of "the vacant chambers of the mind". It's not just old men born in the 19th century who have supported deficiency theory. Lakoff stated that women use phatic (empty) language; apologise too much and can't tell jokes, for example. A stance many readers may find more palatable is the theory of dominance.

THE CASE OF THE MISSING MALE READER: IMPLICATIONS OF GENDERLECT AND THE REA...: Resource Finder Despite the increasing relationship between literacy and economic opportunities, the time young adult males spend reading has fallen during the last 20 years, with a corresponding decline in their reading levels. One important factor influencing the appeal of reading material to males is whether it is "real"--whether males see themselves and their concerns in the text. Language, an important constituent of gender, must be part of making text "real" for adolescent males. Economic opportunity and literacy are closely related, yet the amount of time older adolescents spend reading has declined during the last 20 years, more so for males than for females (Baker, 2002; Nippold, Duthie, & Larsen, 2005). To the extent that standardized test scores accurately reflect reading ability, 17-year-old American males seem to lag behind the increasing demands for literacy skills in the workplace. The Reading Preferences of Adolescent Males Fiction Versus Nonfiction Desirable Characteristics "You?" "Fuck."

Ralph Fiennes blames Twitter for 'eroding' language "I hear it, too, from people at drama schools, who say the younger intake find the density of a Shakespeare text a challenge in a way that, perhaps, (students) a few generations ago maybe wouldn't have." He said: "I think we're living in a time when our ears are attuned to a flattened and truncated sense of our English language, so this always begs the question, is Shakespeare relevant? But I love this language we have and what it can do, and aside from that I think the themes in his plays are always relevant." Fiennes, who does not use Twitter, is not alone in his theory. JP Davidson, the author of Planet Word and a linguistic expert, talked this week about longer words dying out in favour of shortened text message-style terms. “This could be viewed as regrettable, as there are some great descriptive words that are being lost and these words would make our everyday language much more colourful and fun if we were to use them.

Do men and women speak the same language? Do men and women speak the same language? Can they ever really communicate? These questions are not new, but since the early 1990s there has been a new surge of interest in them. Countless self-help and popular psychology books have been written portraying men and women as alien beings, and conversation between them as a catalogue of misunderstandings. The most successful exponents of this formula, such as Deborah Tannen, author of You Just Don't Understand, and John Gray, author of Men Are From Mars, Women Are From Venus, have topped the bestseller lists on both sides of the Atlantic. Readers who prefer something a little harder-edged can turn to a genre of popular science books with titles such as Brain Sex, Sex on the Brain, The Essential Difference, and Why Men Don't Iron. Yet before we applaud, we should perhaps pause to ask ourselves: since when has silence reigned about the differences between men and women? The passage reproduced above is a good example. © Deborah Cameron.

Teen slang: What's, like, so wrong with like? 28 September 2010Last updated at 15:50 By Denise Winterman BBC News Magazine Teenage slang - do I not like that? Actress Emma Thompson says young people make themselves sound stupid by speaking slang outside of school. "That's, like, so unfair." One response to Emma Thompson's comments likely to trigger a rush of steam from her ears. The Oscar winner has spoken out against the use of sloppy language. But is peppering one's sentences with "like" such a heinous crime against the English tongue? Language experts are more understanding of teen culture than Thompson, pointing out the word's many uses. But fillers are a way we all stall for time when speaking and historically always have. "It is not a lazy use of language, that is a common fallacy among non-linguists," he says. "We have always used words to plug gaps or make sentences run smoothly. But crucially, we often use non-word fillers, such at "um" and "ah". It is also commonly used to indicate a metaphor or exaggeration.

Giddens 7th Edition How far are the behaviour and communicative practices of women and men the result of biological differences? Some scientists hold that aspects of human biology, ranging from hormones to chromosomes to brain size to genetics, are responsible for innate differences in behaviour between men and women. Sociologists remain unconvinced by these arguments, which tend to be reductionist. All societies have sexual norms and prohibitions, but these vary widely. Human sexuality is symbolic and imbued with social, cultural and personal meaning. Sexual orientation derives from a complex interplay of biological, psychological, social and cultural factors. Sociologists draw a distinction between sex – anatomical and physiological differences – and gender – psychological, social and cultural differences between females and males. Socialist feminism builds upon the Marxist analysis of capitalism. Queer theory breaks with many conventional sociological ideas on identity.

Use It or Lose It: Why Language Changes over Time The words used the most in everyday language are the ones evolving at the slowest rate, say two new studies published in Nature. In one paper, researchers at Harvard University focused on the evolution of English verb conjugations over a 1,200-year period. In a separate study, a team at the University of Reading in England reviewed cognates (similar sounding words in different languages for the same object or meaning, such as "water" and the German "wasser") to determine how all Indo-European tongues progressed from a common ancestor that existed between 6,000 and 10,000 years ago. "What our frequency effect allows us to do is identify…ultraconserved linguistic elements," says Mark Pagel, an evolutionary biology professor at Reading, about his research. In their search for cognates, Pagel and his team examined some 200 words in 87 Indo-European languages, including those for "water," "two," "to die" and "where."