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Language and Gender ENGB1

Language and Gender ENGB1
Introduction This guide is written for students who are following GCE Advanced level (AS and A2) syllabuses in English Language. This resource may also be of general interest to language students on university degree courses, trainee teachers and anyone with a general interest in language science. On this page I use red type for emphasis. Back to top Language and gender - what is it all about? When you start to study language and gender, you may find it hard to discover what this subject, as a distinct area in the study of language, is about. To get you started, here is an outline of part of one exam board's Advanced level module on Language and Social Contexts - there are three subjects, one of which is Language and Gender. This is unobjectionable but not very helpful - essentially it tells you that you have to study spoken and written data. How language reveals, embodies and sustains attitudes to gender. Is it easy or hard? Studying language and gender is easy and hard at the same time.

Feminism "damages" our mother tongue (Gelernter) How can I teach my students to write decently when the English language has become a wholly-owned subsidiary of the Academic-Industrial Complex? Our language used to belong to all its speakers and readers and writers. But in the 1970s and '80s, arrogant ideologues began recasting English into heavy artillery to defend the borders of the New Feminist state. We have allowed ideologues to pocket a priceless property and walk away with it. Our ability to write and read good, clear English connects us to one another and to our common past. But our problem goes deeper than a few silly words and many tedious sentences. "He or she" is the proud marshal of this pathetic parade. When the style-smashers first announced, decades ago, that the neutral "he" meant "male" and excluded "female," they were lying and knew it. E.B. The use of he as a pronoun for nouns embracing both genders is a simple, practical convention rooted in the beginnings of the English language.

Women's Language Explanations > Gender > Women's Language These are ten elements of the language that women use, as identified by Robin Lakoff in 1975. Of course, not all women use all of this language all of the time, and some may question the whole. It would be interesting to do a duplicate study now and see how much of this has changed since the 1970s. 1. Hedging provides a way out, should disagreement occur, qualifying statements with non-absolute language, such as 'sort of', 'I guess', etc. Well, I sort of looked at him, and then he kind of looked back. 2. Politeness is taken to more extreme forms, either putting the speaker in an inferior position or seeking to be thoughtful and non-threatening towards the other person. Do excuse me, but I really appreciate it if if you could take a little time to help me. 3. Tag questions added to the end of a statement do not change the statement, although they do seek agreement. You would do that, wouldn't you? 4. You are so very kind. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10.

Feminism defined International Women's Day rally in Dhaka, Bangladesh, organized by the National Women Workers Trade Union Centre on 8 March 2005. Feminism is a collection of movements and ideologies aimed at defining, establishing, and defending equal political, economic, cultural, and social rights for women.[1][2] This includes seeking to establish equal opportunities for women in education and employment. A feminist advocates or supports the rights and equality of women.[3] Feminist theory, which emerged from feminist movements, aims to understand the nature of gender inequality by examining women's social roles and lived experience; it has developed theories in a variety of disciplines in order to respond to issues such as the social construction of sex and gender.[4][5] Some of the earlier forms of feminism have been criticized for taking into account only white, middle-class, educated perspectives. History Feminist Suffrage Parade in New York City, 6 May 1912. Mid-twentieth century

Gender Styles in Computer Meditated Communication Deborah Tannen:Men and Women in Conversation is Cross-Cultural Communication An excerpt from "Men and Women in Conversation: An Analysis of Gender Styles in Language" by SUSAN GITHENS Lafayette College May 1991 In You Just Don't Understand: Men and Women in Conversation, Deborah Tannen -- a professor of linguistics at Georgetown University -- addresses linguistic differences as they relate to intimate male/female relations. As a student of Robin Lakoff she had been introduced to Lakoff's research on gender and language. Tannen had already written a book on conversational styles, in which she devoted only one chapter to gender differences. Tannen claims that there are gender differences in ways of speaking, and we need to identify and understand them in order to avoid needlessly blaming "others or ourselves -- or the relationship -- for the otherwise mystifying and damaging effects of our contrasting conversational styles" (Tannen, p. 17).

Gender neutrality in English Gender-neutral language is a form of linguistic prescriptivism that aims to minimize assumptions about the gender or biological sex of people referred to in speech or writing. This article discusses aspects of gender neutrality as they relate to the English language. Rationale[edit] Proponents of gender-neutral language argue that the use of gender-specific language often implies male superiority or reflects an unequal state of society.[1][2] According to The Handbook of English Linguistics, generic masculine pronouns and gender-specific job titles are instances "where English linguistic convention has historically treated men as prototypical of the human species."[3] Words that refer to women often devolve in meaning, frequently taking on sexual overtones.[4] These differences in usage are criticized on two grounds: one, that they reflect a biased state of society,[5] and two, that they help to uphold that state. Areas[edit] Job titles[edit] Generic words for humans[edit] Pronouns[edit]

Level Up: English Language - Language and gender Language and Gender There are two different types of Language and Gender questions you could be asked about: representations of gender and gender in action. For instance, magazine articles, adverts and books all include representations of gender (usually stereotypes) and not what males and females are really like. Transcripts, however, will show you how gender differences affect language (unless they are faked, be careful!) A distinction you must understand: The big question in linguistics: does being female affect a person's language, or is it merely the attitude towards feminine that make us think there is a difference? Gender Researchers Many leading linguists have a thing or two to say about language and gender. Difference Theory As the title indicates, the difference theory is the idea that males and females really do converse differently. A big advocate of this approach is Deborah Tannen. She also said of males and females: Well... she's the researcher, I suppose, but..." Christine Howe

Feminist response to Gelernter by Jess McCabe // 26 February 2008, 20:06 One of the unexpected pleasures of reading right-wing tracts is the excuse to indulge in a heady few minutes of utopian fantasy. According to folk like David Gelernter of the American Enterprise Institute, the feminist revolution is a done deal. In this case, Gelernter sets out how feminists have ruined modern English for sexists such as himself, with our 'he or she' and our 'chairperson'. "College students and full-fledged young English teachers emerge from [a] feminist incubator in which they have spent their whole lives," Gelernter asserts. But his main concern, we are meant to believe, is not to return to a mythical time when men were men and women were women (and mended his socks), but the impact of feminism on written English. How can I (how can any teacher) get students to take the prime rule seriously when virtually the whole educational establishment teaches the opposite? The column is riddled with telling phrases, such as this: Permalink

Feminist Philosophy of Language (Stanford Encyclopedia) First published Fri Sep 3, 2004; substantive revision Tue Jun 15, 2010 Much of feminist philosophy of language so far can be described as critical—critical either of language itself or of philosophy of language, and calling for change on the basis of these criticisms. Those making these criticisms suggest that the changes are needed for the sake of feminist goals — either to better allow for feminist work to be done or, more frequently, to bring an end to certain key ways that women are disadvantaged. In this entry, I examine these criticisms. 1. False gender-neutrality There has been a great deal of feminist concern over the supposedly gender-neutral use of terms like ‘he’ and ‘man’. He drank the wine.A man went into a bar.When a student comes into the room, he should pick up a handout.Man is a primate. Feminists, however, have pointed out that even the supposed gender-neutral meanings of these terms are not really gender-neutral. 1.2 Invisibility of women 1.3 Maleness as norm 1.8 Metaphor

Academic response to Gelernter Lying feminist ideologues wreck English, says Yale prof The danger when encountering a misogynist prescriptive grammar rant as extreme as the one just published by David Gelernter in the Weekly Standard (vol. 13 no. 24, 03/03/2008) is that one might get as angry and fired up and beyond reason as he is. That would be a pity. His claims are apocalyptic. What, then, is the terrible thing that the style-smashers have done? Some writers now use either he or she, or singular they, or purportedly sex-neutral she, instead of purportedly sex-neutral he, to refer back to generic or quantified human antecedents that are not specifically marked as masculine. That's it; we're done. Gelernter insists on the beauty and clarity of "Shakespeare's most perfect phrases", calling them "miraculously simple and terse"; and of course he raves about E. Is it your brother or your sister who can hold his breath for four minutes? Why would it sound so weird if forms of the pronoun he could be sex-neutral?

Introduction to gender and simple tasks One aspect of English that is certainly easier than in some other languages is gender. In German, for example, nouns can be masculine, feminine or neuter, and the learner has to know which in order to choose the right article, pronoun and adjective ending. For example, and for no apparent reason, a spoon in German is a he (der Loeffel), a fork is a she (die Gabel) and a knife is an it (das Messer)! In English it is easy; males are a he, females and ships are a she, and everything else (including most animals) is an it. a. him b. her c. him or her d. her or him e. them If you know anyone who can help me, please ask .. to come to my room. Before deciding which pronoun is best, it is necessary to concern ourselves with a little social history, in particular with the influences of feminism on the English language. So which is the best pronoun to use in these kinds of sentences? Him or her is quite commonly used in such sentences, although more often in written than spoken language. Quiz

Politics of lang hurts women in business A (female) friend of mine recently sent me an article that made my blood proverbially boil. Its title: Do letters of recommendation actually hurt women when it comes to getting hired or promoted? Interesting question, and definitely one that strikes a chord with me. Ever since I finished high school, I have trodden mostly male-dominated educational and career paths — I have been among the female minority as an undergraduate math and finance major, as a New York investment banker, as a tech entrepreneur, and currently as an MBA student. According to this article, which cites ongoing research at Rice University, language might be the problem. “Funded by the National Science Foundation, Rice University professors Michelle Hebl and Randi Martin and graduate student Juan Madera, now an assistant professor at the University of Houston, reviewed 624 letters of recommendation for 194 applicants for eight junior faculty positions at a U.S. university. Source: 1. 2. 3. Like this:

Gender role Gender roles may be a means through which one may express their gender identity, but they may also be employed as a means of exerting social control, and individuals may experience negative social consequences for violating them.[2] Various groups have led efforts to change aspects of prevailing gender roles that they believe are oppressive or inaccurate, most notably the feminist movement. The term was first coined by John Money in 1955 during the course of his study of intersex individuals to describe the manners in which these individuals express their status as a male or female, in a situation where no clear biological assignment exists.[3] Background[edit] Some systems of classification, unlike the WHO, are non-binary or gender queer, listing multiple possible genders including transgender and intersex as distinct categories.[10][11] Gender roles are culturally specific, and while most cultures distinguish only two (boy and girl or man and woman), others recognize more. Dr. Islam Dr.

Health and Beauty sample Find past papers and mark schemes for your exams, and specimen papers for new courses. Can’t find your papers? Some question papers are not available online and older question papers and mark schemes are removed from our public website and Secure Key Materials (SKM) after three years because of copyright restrictions (except for Maths and Science).Not sure which exams you're taking? Ask your school or college.Following consultations with a cross section of teachers across subjects, we will now make all papers and mark schemes available on the AQA website free of charge from about 10 months after the exam (see what's available when). Students may find our Preparing for your exams webpages useful for their revision and exams. Teachers can get past papers earlier, starting 10 days after the exam, from Secure Key Materials.

Tone: A Matter of Attitude Gender-Specific Pronouns And we hope that the writer of the sentence above is working at an all-male school; otherwise, grief will follow him or her all his or her days. Our section on Pronouns already has a paragraph on avoiding gender problems with the singular "his," and we refer you to that document. Most gender problems can be avoided without the use of the clunky he or she/him or her construction or the more monstrous he/she by using the plural: "Students planning to graduate this spring should see their counselor at once." An occasional he or she is all right, but after a while it becomes too demanding of the reader's attention, and the device becomes more important than the message. Where a singular pronoun is necessary, use either the masculine or feminine consistently enough to avoid confusion. Avoid Sexist Terminology Avoid language based on hurtful assumptions about gender: The conversation above probably took place between some chap and the "girl" at the front desk.