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Carbon dioxide

Carbon dioxide
Carbon dioxide (chemical formula CO2) is a naturally occurring chemical compound composed of 2 oxygen atoms each covalently double bonded to a single carbon atom. It is a gas at standard temperature and pressure and exists in Earth's atmosphere in this state, as a trace gas at a concentration of 0.039 per cent by volume.[1] The environmental effects of carbon dioxide are of significant interest. Atmospheric carbon dioxide is the primary source of carbon in life on Earth and its concentration in Earth's pre-industrial atmosphere since late in the Precambrian eon was regulated by photosynthetic organisms. Carbon dioxide is an important greenhouse gas; burning of carbon-based fuels since the industrial revolution has rapidly increased the concentration, leading to global warming. History Chemical and physical properties Structure and bonding The carbon dioxide molecule is linear and centrosymmetric. In aqueous solution The hydration equilibrium constant of carbonic acid is (at 25 °C). . Uses Related:  Earth's Atmosphere

Carbon capture and storage Schematic showing both terrestrial and geological sequestration of carbon dioxide emissions from a coal-fired plant An integrated pilot-scale CCS power plant was to begin operating in September 2008 in the eastern German power plant Schwarze Pumpe run by utility Vattenfall, in the hope of answering questions about technological feasibility and economic efficiency. CCS applied to a modern conventional power plant could reduce CO2 emissions to the atmosphere by approximately 80–90% compared to a plant without CCS.[4] The IPCC estimates that the economic potential of CCS could be between 10% and 55% of the total carbon mitigation effort until year 2100.[4] Storage of the CO2 is envisaged either in deep geological formations, or in the form of mineral carbonates. Capture[edit] Concentrated CO2 from the combustion of coal in oxygen is relatively pure, and could be directly processed. An alternate method under development is chemical looping combustion (CLC). Transport[edit] Sequestration[edit]

Exhalation Exhalation (or expiration) is the flow of the respiratory current out of the organism. In humans it is the movement of air out of the bronchial tubes, through the airways, to the external environment during breathing. This happens due to elastic properties of the lungs, as well as the internal intercostal muscles which lower the rib cage and decrease thoracic volume. Exhaled air is rich in carbon dioxide, a waste product of cellular respiration during the production of energy, which is stored as ATP. Exhalation & Gas Exchange[edit] The main reason for exhalation is to rid the body of carbon dioxide, which is the waste product of gas exchange in humans. It is during exhalation that the olfaction contribution to flavor occurs in contrast to that of ordinary smell which occurs during the inhalation phase.[4] Spirometry[edit] Spirometry is used to measure lung function. TLC is the maximum amount of air in the lungs after maximum inhalation. Brain Involvement[edit] Voluntary Expiration[edit]

Greenhouse gas Since the beginning of the Industrial Revolution (taken as the year 1750), the burning of fossil fuels and extensive clearing of native forests has contributed to a 40% increase in the atmospheric concentration of carbon dioxide, from 280 ppm in 1750 to 392.6 ppm in 2012.[5][6] It has now reached 400 ppm in the northern hemisphere. In the Solar System, the atmospheres of Venus, Mars, and Titan also contain gases that cause a greenhouse effect, though Titan's atmosphere has an anti-greenhouse effect that reduces the warming. Gases in Earth's atmosphere[edit] Greenhouse gases[edit] Greenhouse gases are those that can absorb and emit infrared radiation,[1] but not radiation in or near the visible spectrum. Non-greenhouse gases[edit] Although contributing to many other physical and chemical reactions, the major atmospheric constituents, nitrogen (N 2), oxygen (O 2), and argon (Ar), are not greenhouse gases. Indirect radiative effects[edit] Impacts on the overall greenhouse effect[edit]

Wastewater Wastewater treatment plant in Cuxhaven, Germany Wastewater, also written as waste water, is any water that has been adversely affected in quality by anthropogenic influence. Municipal wastewater is usually conveyed in a combined sewer or sanitary sewer, and treated at a wastewater treatment plant. Sewage is the subset of wastewater that is contaminated with feces or urine, but is often used to mean any wastewater. Sewerage is the physical infrastructure, including pipes, pumps, screens, channels etc. used to convey sewage from its origin to the point of eventual treatment or disposal. Origin[edit] Wastewater or sewage can come from (text in brackets indicates likely inclusions or contaminants): Wastewater constituents[edit] The composition of wastewater varies widely. Wastewater quality indicators[edit] Any oxidizable material present in a natural waterway or in an industrial wastewater will be oxidized both by biochemical (bacterial) or chemical processes. Sewage disposal[edit]

Enhanced Oil Recovery Projects with CO2. Challenges, Standards and more | PowerPlantCCS Blog Read the rest of this entry » CO2 Enhanced Oil Recovery World over, many countries are grappling with the twin challenges of reducing dependence on foreign energy sources as well as decreasing emissions of greenhouse gases, the topic of carbon dioxide (CO2) enhanced oil recovery (EOR) has therefore received increased attention. Studies reveal that CO2 -EOR has a substantial immediate- to long-term role to play in both increasing domestic oil production in a responsible way, and in sequestering CO2 underground. Enhanced Oil Recovery (also known as improved oil recovery or tertiary oil recovery) is a technique that is employed to increase the recovery of crude oil by injecting carbon-dioxide into the pore spaces of the rocks to extract from an oil field. Now, how does injecting CO2 into the pore spaces of a rock aid in crude oil recovery? When carbon-dioxide is injected into an oil reservoir, it mixes readily with the residual crude oil/ stranded oil. Image Courtesy: NETL Break- up costs: No.

Oxygen Blue white glow from an oxygen discharge tube. Oxygen is an important part of the atmosphere, and is necessary to sustain most terrestrial life as it is used in respiration. However, it is too chemically reactive to remain a free element in Earth's atmosphere without being continuously replenished by the photosynthetic action of living organisms, which use the energy of sunlight to produce elemental oxygen from water. Oxygen was discovered independently by Carl Wilhelm Scheele, in Uppsala, in 1773 or earlier, and Joseph Priestley in Wiltshire, in 1774, but Priestley is often given priority because his work was published first. Characteristics Structure Oxygen O2 molecule. At standard temperature and pressure, oxygen is a colorless, odorless gas with the molecular formula O 2, in which the two oxygen atoms are chemically bonded to each other with a spin triplet electron configuration. A trickle of liquid oxygen is deflected by a magnetic field, illustrating its paramagnetic property

Ozone Ozone /ˈoʊzoʊn/ (systematically named 1λ1,3λ1-trioxidane and μ-oxidodioxygen), or trioxygen, is an inorganic molecule with the chemical formula O 3(μ-O) (also written [O(μ-O)O] or O 3). It is a pale blue gas with a distinctively pungent smell. It is an allotrope of oxygen that is much less stable than the diatomic allotrope O 2, breaking down in the lower atmosphere to normal dioxygen. Ozone is formed from dioxygen by the action of ultraviolet light and also atmospheric electrical discharges, and is present in low concentrations throughout the Earth's atmosphere. In total, ozone makes up only 0.6 ppm of the atmosphere. Ozone's odor is sharp, reminiscent of chlorine, and detectable by many people at concentrations of as little as 10 ppb in air. Ozone is a powerful oxidant (far more so than dioxygen) and has many industrial and consumer applications related to oxidation. Nomenclature[edit] The trivial name ozone is the most commonly used and preferred IUPAC name. History[edit] [edit] [edit]

Avatar Land History[edit] Design[edit] Attractions[edit] A flying E ticket simulator attraction, where guests will learn to fly with a mountain Banshee.A boat ride attraction showcasing the native fauna and flora of Pandora. It may include small drops. Location[edit] Avatar Land is being built in the former location of Camp Minnie-Mickey,[14] which was originally earmarked for the Beastly Kingdom, a never-built themed land which would have been based around mythological creatures.[7][15] See also[edit] References[edit] ^ Jump up to: a b c Staggs, Tom. External links[edit] Official announcement at the Disney Parks Blog