Gilbert du Motier, Marquis de Lafayette In the American Revolution, La Fayette served as a major-general in the Continental Army under George Washington. Wounded during the Battle of Brandywine, he still managed to organize a successful retreat. He served with distinction in the Battle of Rhode Island. In the middle of the war, he returned to France to negotiate an increase in French support. La Fayette returned to France after Napoleon Bonaparte secured his release from prison in 1797. He became an American citizen during his lifetime, and he received honorary United States citizenship in 2002. For his accomplishments in the service of both France and the United States, he is known as "The Hero of the Two Worlds". Early life La Fayette's father, struck by a cannonball at the Battle of Minden in Westphalia, died on 1 August 1759. La Fayette became Lord of Chavaniac, but the estate went to his mother. Departure from France Joining the American War Departure for America American Revolution
The Shock Doctrine The Shock Doctrine: The Rise of Disaster Capitalism is a 2007 book by the Canadian author Naomi Klein, and is the basis of a 2009 documentary by the same name directed by Michael Winterbottom. The book argues that libertarian free market policies (as advocated by the economist Milton Friedman) have risen to prominence in some developed countries because of a deliberate strategy by some political leaders. These leaders exploit crises to push through controversial exploitative policies while citizens are too emotionally and physically distracted by disasters or upheavals to mount an effective resistance. The book implies that some man-made crises, such as the Iraq war, may have been created with the intention of pushing through these unpopular policies in their wake. Synopsis The book has an introduction, a main body and a conclusion, divided into seven parts with a total of 21 chapters.  Favorable Paul B. Mixed Unfavorable Awards See also
Wars of the Roses - Medieval England for Kids! During the Hundred Years' War, the kings of England got into a big fight about who should be king, which caused a long civil war in England. One side was the Lancaster side, which took a red rose as its symbol. The other side was the York side, which took a white rose as its symbol. In 1399 AD, at the beginning of the civil war, Richard II was king of England - that was the Lancaster side. Richard III Henry V's son Henry VI succeeded him in turn, but he suffered from mental illness and couldn't rule very well. Richard, Duke of York thought he would be a good choice - and, like Henry V, Richard was also Edward III's great-grandson. But the Lancastrian cause was taken up by someone almost totally unrelated to any earlier king, from a new family: Henry VII, whose grandfather had been married to Henry V's widow. Henry VII Henry VII was a very strong king, and he weakened the power of the rich men so that he could stay in power. Learn by doing: Richard III What happened next? or
Battle of Ludford Bridge The Battle of Ludford Bridge was a largely bloodless battle fought in the early years of the Wars of the Roses. It took place on 12 October 1459, and resulted in a setback for the Yorkists. Although this seemed to be a triumph for the rival Lancastrians at the time, they had thrown away their advantage within six months. Background In the first pitched battle of the wars, the First Battle of St Albans in 1455, Richard of York had eliminated most of his rivals at court. He reaffirmed his allegiance to the King, Henry of Lancaster and was reappointed Lord Lieutenant of Ireland. Events were precipitated by some high-handed actions by Richard's nephew Richard Neville, 16th Earl of Warwick. Richard's forces began the campaign dispersed over the country. Battle Ludford Bridge with Lower Broad Street leading to Ludlow's Broad Gate. Richard retreated towards Ludlow, before making a stand at a fortified position near Ludford, Shropshire on 12 October. Aftermath Notes
Song of Songs The Song of Songs, also known as the Song of Solomon or Canticles (Hebrew: שִׁיר הַשִּׁירִים Šîr HašŠîrîm ; Greek: ᾎσμα ᾈσμάτων Asma Asmaton, both meaning "song of songs"), is a book of the Bible accepted as holy scripture by Jews and Christians. Since the earliest recorded sources, it has been considered a book of the Old Testament by Christians, and since the 8th century AD it has been considered one of the megillot (scrolls) of the Ketuvim (the "Writings", the last section of the Tanakh or Hebrew Bible). Scripturally, the Song of Songs is unique in that it makes no reference to "Law" or "Covenant". Nor does it refer to Yahweh, the God of Israel. And it does not explore "wisdom" in the manner of Proverbs or Ecclesiastes (although it does have some affinities to Wisdom literature, as the ascription to Solomon suggests). Instead, it celebrates sexual love. Structure Illustration for the first verse, a minstrel playing before Solomon (15th century Rothschild Mahzor) Summary
The New York Trilogy The New York Trilogy is a series of novels by Paul Auster. Originally published sequentially as City of Glass (1985), Ghosts (1986) and The Locked Room (1986), it has since been collected into a single volume. Plot introduction Ostensibly presented as detective fiction, the stories of The New York Trilogy have been described as "meta-detective-fiction", "anti-detective fiction", "mysteries about mysteries", a "strangely humorous working of the detective novel", "very soft-boiled", a "metamystery" and a "mixture between the detective story and the nouveau roman". This may classify Auster as a postmodern writer whose works are influenced by the "classical literary movement" of American postmodernism through the 1960s and 70s. A 2006 reissue by Penguin Books is fronted by new pulp magazine-style covers by comic book illustrator Art Spiegelman. City of Glass "City of Glass" has an intertextual relationship with Cervantes' Don Quixote. Ghosts
Battle of Bosworth - War of the Roses For thirty years, a bitter struggle for the English throne was waged between two branches on the same family, the House of York and the House of Lancaster, both descended from Edward lll. Each house was represented by a rose. The division between the two families became known as The Wars of the Roses. The first fighting broke out in May 1455. The War of the Roses ended when Henry Tudor, a Lancastrian, defeated King Richard III, a Yorkist at the battle of Bosworth Field on 22 August 1485. Richard III (on the right) and his flag bearer Tudor soldiers After the battle, Henry Tudor became King Henry Vll of England and Wales. Henry Vll (representing the Lancaster family) married Elizabeth of York (representing the York family). More information The Battle of Bosworth What do we really know about the battle? Back to the top
Marrying for Love: The Experience of Edward IV and Henry VIII | History Today Edward IVShould the monarch or heir to the throne marry for love? ‘Of course’ is the answer most people in Britain would give today, but history suggests otherwise. It is not just that the 1689 Bill of Rights and the 1701 Act of Settlement rule out marriage with a Roman Catholic. Monarchs and heirs to the throne have never had the freedom of choice which their subjects enjoy. Three basic principles have governed the choice of a royal consort. The story of Edward IV’s marriage is that in 1464 the twenty-four-year-old king stopped at Stony Stratford on a march north to counter Lancastrian threats. Henry VIII’s marriage to his first wife, Katherine of Aragon, was made in the cause of diplomacy and when it broke down Cardinal Wolsey proposed a French bride. This personal involvement started off the marriages of Edward IV and Henry VIII on a totally novel basis. Under these circumstances, emotional commitment was never a real possibility early in a conventional royal marriage.
Wesleyan University Wesleyan University is a private liberal arts college in Middletown, Connecticut, United States, founded in 1831. Wesleyan is the only Baccalaureate College in the nation that emphasizes undergraduate instruction in the arts and sciences, provides graduate research in many academic disciplines, and grants PhD degrees primarily in the sciences and mathematics. Wesleyan is the second most productive liberal arts college in the United States with respect to the number of undergraduates who go on to earn PhDs in all fields of study. Founded under the auspices of the Methodist Episcopal Church and with the support of prominent residents of Middletown, the now secular university was the first institution of higher education to be named after John Wesley, the founder of Methodism. History The rear of 'College Row'. Two histories of Wesleyan have been published, Wesleyan's First Century by Carl F. Campus Undergraduate The Butterfield Colleges Music
Something Wicked This Way Comes (novel) Something Wicked This Way Comes is a 1962 fantasy novel by Ray Bradbury. It is about 13-year-old best friends, Jim Nightshade and William Halloway, and their nightmarish experience with a traveling carnival that comes to their Midwestern town on one October. The carnival's leader is the mysterious "Mr. Dark" who seemingly wields the power to grant the citizenry's secret desires. In reality, Dark is a malevolent being who lures these individuals into binding themselves in servitude to him. The novel combines elements of fantasy and horror, analyzing the conflicting natures of good and evil which exist within all individuals. One of the events in Ray Bradbury's childhood that inspired him to become a writer was an encounter with a carnival magician named Mr. The novel originated in 1955 when Bradbury suggested to his friend Gene Kelly that they collaborate on a movie for Kelly to direct. The novel opens on an overcast October 23. They follow Mr. William "Will" Halloway Charles Halloway G.
The Tudors Homework Help for kids Five hundred years ago the world was a very different place. We were only just realizing that America existed and we had no idea about Australia. England (including the Principality of Wales) and Scotland were separate kingdoms, each with their own royal family. Who were the Tudors? The Tudors were a Welsh-English family that ruled England and Wales from 1485 to 1603 - one of the most exciting periods of British history. Henry VII 1485 - 1509 Henry VIII 1509 - 1547 Edward VI 1547 - 1553 Jane Grey 1553 - 1553 Mary I 1553 - 1558 Elizabeth I 1558 - 1603 Tudor England had two of the strongest monarchs ever to sit on the English throne: Henry VIII and his daughter Elizabeth I. The Tudors ruled England from 1485 to 1603. The first Tudor king was Henry Vll. They are famous for many things, including the Henry VIII and his six wives, the exploration of America and the plays of William Shakespeare. During the sixteenth century, England emerged from the medieval world. Life had many problems.