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Wars of the Roses

Wars of the Roses
The Wars of the Roses were a series of dynastic wars for the throne of England. They were fought between supporters of two rival branches of the royal House of Plantagenet, the houses of Lancaster and York. They were fought in several sporadic episodes between 1455 and 1487, although there was related fighting before and after this period. The final victory went to a Lancastrian claimant, Henry Tudor, who defeated the last Yorkist king, Richard III, at the Battle of Bosworth Field. Name and symbols[edit] The name Wars of the Roses refers to the Heraldic badges associated with the two royal houses, the White Rose of York and the Red Rose of Lancaster. Though the names of the rival houses derive from the cities of York and Lancaster, the corresponding duchies had little to do with these cities. Summary of events[edit] Summary of events - Wars of the Roses York returned to the country and became Protector of England, but was dissuaded from claiming the throne. Origins of the conflict[edit] Related:  Wikipedia ALittérature

Gilbert du Motier, Marquis de Lafayette In the American Revolution, La Fayette served as a major-general in the Continental Army under George Washington. Wounded during the Battle of Brandywine, he still managed to organize a successful retreat. He served with distinction in the Battle of Rhode Island. In the middle of the war, he returned to France to negotiate an increase in French support. La Fayette returned to France after Napoleon Bonaparte secured his release from prison in 1797. He became an American citizen during his lifetime, and he received honorary United States citizenship in 2002.[5] For his accomplishments in the service of both France and the United States, he is known as "The Hero of the Two Worlds". Early life[edit] La Fayette's father, struck by a cannonball at the Battle of Minden in Westphalia, died on 1 August 1759.[11] La Fayette became Lord of Chavaniac, but the estate went to his mother. Departure from France[edit] Joining the American War[edit] Departure for America[edit] American Revolution[edit]

The Shock Doctrine The Shock Doctrine: The Rise of Disaster Capitalism is a 2007 book by the Canadian author Naomi Klein, and is the basis of a 2009 documentary by the same name directed by Michael Winterbottom.[1] The book argues that libertarian free market policies (as advocated by the economist Milton Friedman) have risen to prominence in some developed countries because of a deliberate strategy by some political leaders. These leaders exploit crises to push through controversial exploitative policies while citizens are too emotionally and physically distracted by disasters or upheavals to mount an effective resistance. The book implies that some man-made crises, such as the Iraq war, may have been created with the intention of pushing through these unpopular policies in their wake. Synopsis[edit] The book has an introduction, a main body and a conclusion, divided into seven parts with a total of 21 chapters. [edit] Favorable[edit] Paul B. Mixed[edit] Unfavorable[edit] Awards[edit] See also[edit]

Category:Counterculture of the 1960s From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Subcategories This category has the following 2 subcategories, out of 2 total. Pages in category "Counterculture of the 1960s" The following 200 pages are in this category, out of 403 total. (previous 200) (next 200)(previous 200) (next 200)

Song of Songs The Song of Songs, also known as the Song of Solomon or Canticles (Hebrew: שִׁיר הַשִּׁירִים Šîr HašŠîrîm ; Greek: ᾎσμα ᾈσμάτων Asma Asmaton, both meaning "song of songs"), is a book of the Bible accepted as holy scripture by Jews and Christians. Since the earliest recorded sources, it has been considered a book of the Old Testament by Christians, and since the 8th century AD it has been considered one of the megillot (scrolls) of the Ketuvim (the "Writings", the last section of the Tanakh or Hebrew Bible). Scripturally, the Song of Songs is unique in that it makes no reference to "Law" or "Covenant". Nor does it refer to Yahweh, the God of Israel. And it does not explore "wisdom" in the manner of Proverbs or Ecclesiastes (although it does have some affinities to Wisdom literature, as the ascription to Solomon suggests). Instead, it celebrates sexual love. Structure[edit] Illustration for the first verse, a minstrel playing before Solomon (15th century Rothschild Mahzor) Summary[edit]

The New York Trilogy The New York Trilogy is a series of novels by Paul Auster. Originally published sequentially as City of Glass (1985), Ghosts (1986) and The Locked Room (1986), it has since been collected into a single volume. Plot introduction[edit] Ostensibly presented as detective fiction, the stories of The New York Trilogy have been described as "meta-detective-fiction", "anti-detective fiction", "mysteries about mysteries", a "strangely humorous working of the detective novel", "very soft-boiled", a "metamystery" and a "mixture between the detective story and the nouveau roman"[citation needed]. This may classify Auster as a postmodern writer whose works are influenced by the "classical literary movement" of American postmodernism through the 1960s and 70s[citation needed]. A 2006 reissue by Penguin Books is fronted by new pulp magazine-style covers by comic book illustrator Art Spiegelman. City of Glass[edit] "City of Glass" has an intertextual relationship with Cervantes' Don Quixote. Ghosts[edit]

Three Kingdoms The Three Kingdoms (CE 220–280),[1] a tripartite between the states of Wei (魏), Shu (蜀), and Wu (吳),[2][3] followed the loss of the de facto power of the Han dynasty in China, ushering in the start of the Period of Disunity.[1] To further distinguish the three states from other historical Chinese states of the same name, historians have added a relevant character: Wei is also known as Cao Wei (曹魏), Shu is also known as Shu Han (蜀漢), and Wu is also known as Dong (or Eastern) Wu (東吳). The term "Three Kingdoms" itself is something of a mistranslation, since each state was eventually headed not by a king, but by an emperor who claimed legitimate succession from the Han dynasty. Nevertheless, the term "Three Kingdoms" has become standard among sinologists. Although relatively short, this historical period has been greatly romanticized in the cultures of China, Japan, Korea, and Vietnam. §Periodization[edit] There is no set time period for the era, and many arbitrary definitions are given.

Wesleyan University Wesleyan University is a private liberal arts college in Middletown, Connecticut, United States, founded in 1831. Wesleyan is the only Baccalaureate College in the nation that emphasizes undergraduate instruction in the arts and sciences, provides graduate research in many academic disciplines, and grants PhD degrees primarily in the sciences and mathematics.[4][5][6][7] Wesleyan is the second most productive liberal arts college in the United States with respect to the number of undergraduates who go on to earn PhDs in all fields of study.[8][9][10][11] Founded under the auspices of the Methodist Episcopal Church and with the support of prominent residents of Middletown, the now secular university was the first institution of higher education to be named after John Wesley, the founder of Methodism. History[edit] The rear of 'College Row'. Two histories of Wesleyan have been published, Wesleyan's First Century by Carl F. Campus[edit] Undergraduate[edit] The Butterfield Colleges Music[edit]

Something Wicked This Way Comes (novel) Something Wicked This Way Comes is a 1962 fantasy novel by Ray Bradbury. It is about 13-year-old best friends, Jim Nightshade and William Halloway, and their nightmarish experience with a traveling carnival that comes to their Midwestern town on one October. The carnival's leader is the mysterious "Mr. Dark" who seemingly wields the power to grant the citizenry's secret desires. In reality, Dark is a malevolent being who lures these individuals into binding themselves in servitude to him. The novel combines elements of fantasy and horror, analyzing the conflicting natures of good and evil which exist within all individuals. One of the events in Ray Bradbury's childhood that inspired him to become a writer was an encounter with a carnival magician named Mr. The novel originated in 1955 when Bradbury suggested to his friend Gene Kelly that they collaborate on a movie for Kelly to direct. The novel opens on an overcast October 23. They follow Mr. William "Will" Halloway Charles Halloway G.

History of modern Western subcultures The history of Western Subculture 1900- The 20th century saw the rise and fall of many subcultures. §1900-World War I[edit] §World War I[edit] §1920s and 1930s[edit] Jazz music, previously restricted to mainly poor African-Americans, broke out as the musical craze of the 1920s. In the 1920s, American jazz music and motor cars were at the centre of a European subculture which began to break the rules of social etiquette and the class system (See also Swing Kids). The German nudist movement gained prominence in the 1920s, but was suppressed during the Nazi Gleichschaltung after Adolf Hitler came to power. In the art world, Surrealism was attempting to shock the world with their games and bizarre behavior. In North America, the Great Depression caused widespread unemployment and poverty, and a consequent malaise among adolescents that found its expression in urban youth gangs—the so-called "dead end kids." §1940s[edit] §1950s[edit] British youth divided into factions. §1960s[edit]

Founding Fathers of the United States Terminology[edit] Within the large group known as the "Founding Fathers", there are two key subsets, those who signed the Declaration of Independence in 1776 and those who framed the Constitution in 1787. A further subset includes those who signed the Articles of Confederation.[1] Some historians define the "Founding Fathers" to mean a larger group, including not only the Signers and the Framers but also all those who, whether as politicians, jurists, statesmen, soldiers, diplomats, or ordinary citizens, took part in winning American independence and creating the United States of America.[2] Historian Richard B. Morris in 1973 identified the following seven figures as the key Founding Fathers: John Adams, Benjamin Franklin, Alexander Hamilton, John Jay, Thomas Jefferson, James Madison, and George Washington.[3] Three of these (Hamilton, Madison and Jay) were authors of the The Federalist Papers, advocating ratification of the Constitution. Background[edit] Political experience[edit]

Flowers for Algernon Flowers for Algernon is a science fiction short story and subsequent novel written by Daniel Keyes. The short story, written in 1958 and first published in the April 1959 issue of The Magazine of Fantasy & Science Fiction, won the Hugo Award for Best Short Story in 1960.[2] The novel was published in 1966 and was joint winner of that year's Nebula Award for Best Novel (with Babel-17).[3] The eponymous Algernon is a laboratory mouse who has undergone surgery to increase his intelligence by artificial means. The story is told by a series of progress reports written by Charlie Gordon, the first human test subject for the surgery, and it touches upon many different ethical and moral themes such as the treatment of the mentally disabled.[4][5] Background[edit] Different characters in the book were also based on people in Keyes's life. Publication history[edit] Synopsis[edit] Short story[edit] Novel[edit] Charlie Gordon, 32 years of age, suffers from phenylketonuria and has an IQ of 68. Style[edit]