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Master Muscle List Home Page American Experience | Partners of the Heart | Early Years African American Medical Pioneers Vivien Thomas followed in the footsteps of other African Americans who made advances in medicine and helped to improve people's lives. Explore the profiles of six pioneers who held themselves to a standard of excellence, although the odds were stacked against them. Charles DrewPlasma researcher Dr. Daniel Hale WilliamsFirst successful open heart surgery Dr. Mary Eliza MahoneyFirst African American nurse Ms. James McCune SmithFirst American to earn a medical degree Dr. Rebecca Lee CrumplerFirst African American woman to earn a medical degree Dr. William Augustus HintonInternationally renowned researcher and the first black doctor to teach at Harvard Dr.

Spirituality in Cancer Care (PDQ®) Religious and spiritual values are important to patients coping with cancer. Studies have shown that religious and spiritual values are important to Americans. Most American adults say that they believe in God and that their religious beliefs affect how they live their lives. However, people have different ideas about life after death, belief in miracles, and other religious beliefs. Many patients with cancer rely on spiritual or religious beliefs and practices to help them cope with their disease. Some studies show that doctors' support of spiritual well-being in very ill patients helps improve their quality of life. Spirituality and religion may have different meanings. The terms spirituality and religion are often used in place of each other, but for many people they have different meanings. Serious illness, such as cancer, may cause spiritual distress. This summary is about spirituality and religion in adults with cancer.

Brain Atlas - Introduction The central nervous system (CNS) consists of the brain and the spinal cord, immersed in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). Weighing about 3 pounds (1.4 kilograms), the brain consists of three main structures: the cerebrum, the cerebellum and the brainstem. Cerebrum - divided into two hemispheres (left and right), each consists of four lobes (frontal, parietal, occipital and temporal). The outer layer of the brain is known as the cerebral cortex or the ‘grey matter’. – closely packed neuron cell bodies form the grey matter of the brain. Cerebellum – responsible for psychomotor function, the cerebellum co-ordinates sensory input from the inner ear and the muscles to provide accurate control of position and movement. Brainstem – found at the base of the brain, it forms the link between the cerebral cortex, white matter and the spinal cord. Other important areas in the brain include the basal ganglia, thalamus, hypothalamus, ventricles, limbic system, and the reticular activating system. Neurons

Yoga for Health On this page: Yoga is a mind and body practice with historical origins in ancient Indian philosophy. Like other meditative movement practices used for health purposes, various styles of yoga typically combine physical postures, breathing techniques, and meditation or relaxation. Key Facts Recent studies in people with chronic low-back pain suggest that a carefully adapted set of yoga poses may help reduce pain and improve function (the ability to walk and move). About Yoga Yoga in its full form combines physical postures, breathing exercises, meditation, and a distinct philosophy. Side Effects and Risks Yoga is generally low-impact and safe for healthy people when practiced appropriately under the guidance of a well-trained instructor.Overall, those who practice yoga have a low rate of side effects, and the risk of serious injury from yoga is quite low. Use of Yoga for Health in the United States What the Science Says About Yoga The video from NCCAM includes: NCCAM-Funded Research

Glutamate by Niels Chr. Danbolt For more references and more information, see: Danbolt, 2001: Prog. Neurobiol. 65, 1-105. Glutamate Outside the community of biomedical scientists, glutamate is probably best known as "monosodium glutamate" or "MSG" which is used as a flavor or taste enhancer in food. Glutamate is the major excitatory transmitter in the brain The main motivation for the ongoing World Wide research on glutamate is due to the role of glutamate in the signal transduction in the nervous systems of apparently all complex living organisms, including man. Glutamate is toxic, not in spite of its importance, but because of it Glutamate does not only mediate a lot of information, but also information which regulates brain development and information which determines cellular survival, differentiation and elimination as well as formation and elimination of nerve contacts (synapses). Glutamate is taken up into both glial cells and nerve terminals. Types of glutamate transporting proteins

Reiki: An Introduction On this page: Introduction Reiki is a complementary health approach in which practitioners place their hands lightly on or just above a person, with the goal of facilitating the person’s own healing response. There is a lack of high-quality research in this field. However, this fact sheet provides basic information about Reiki and suggests sources for additional information. Top Key Points Do not use Reiki to replace conventional care or to postpone seeing a health care provider about a health problem.Overall there is a lack of high-quality research on Reiki, and studies that have been done show conflicting results.Tell all your health care providers about any complementary health approaches you use. Overview Reiki is based on an Eastern belief in an energy that supports the body’s innate or natural healing abilities. Use in the United States The Status of Reiki Research There has been limited clinical research (studies in people) on Reiki. Side Effects and Risks Training

Complementary and Alternative Medicine Complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) is the term for medical products and practices that are not part of standard care. Standard care is what medical doctors, doctors of osteopathy, and allied health professionals, such as nurses and physical therapists, practice. Complementary medicine is used together with standard medical care. An example is using acupuncture to help with side effects of cancer treatment. Alternative medicine is used in place of standard medical care. The claims that CAM treatment providers make can sound promising. To minimize the health risks of a CAM treatment Discuss it with your doctor. NIH: National Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine