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Welcome to the Natural Standard Research Collaboration Master Muscle List Home Page American Experience | Partners of the Heart | Early Years African American Medical Pioneers Vivien Thomas followed in the footsteps of other African Americans who made advances in medicine and helped to improve people's lives. Explore the profiles of six pioneers who held themselves to a standard of excellence, although the odds were stacked against them. Charles DrewPlasma researcher Dr. Daniel Hale WilliamsFirst successful open heart surgery Dr. Mary Eliza MahoneyFirst African American nurse Ms. James McCune SmithFirst American to earn a medical degree Dr. Rebecca Lee CrumplerFirst African American woman to earn a medical degree Dr. William Augustus HintonInternationally renowned researcher and the first black doctor to teach at Harvard Dr.

Enema easy as 123 {A} The most important thing you need to know about receiving an enema is too. "Relax" Relaxation is a key ingredient for taking and receiving a good enema. {B} Another is Communication if self administering. {C} Consideration is another important part of enemas. Steps for a Warm Water Enema (1) Choose a warm comfortable place for your enema. (2) Fill enema container with warm filtered water (water should be 103°F) make sure tubing clamp is closed, Lubricate the nozzle/rectal tube, Their are many possible positions for administering or receiving an enema. If you feel cramping, clamp the tubing off and wait for cramping to subside, this should only take a few seconds then resume the flow. When receiving the enema: Massage abdomen in a counter-clockwise direction this will help move the solution higher into the colon. Massaging the abdomen during the administration of an enema will help the recipient except more of the enema solution. Enemas are NOT dirty, weird or wrong ! Main Page

Brain Atlas - Introduction The central nervous system (CNS) consists of the brain and the spinal cord, immersed in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). Weighing about 3 pounds (1.4 kilograms), the brain consists of three main structures: the cerebrum, the cerebellum and the brainstem. Cerebrum - divided into two hemispheres (left and right), each consists of four lobes (frontal, parietal, occipital and temporal). The outer layer of the brain is known as the cerebral cortex or the ‘grey matter’. – closely packed neuron cell bodies form the grey matter of the brain. Cerebellum – responsible for psychomotor function, the cerebellum co-ordinates sensory input from the inner ear and the muscles to provide accurate control of position and movement. Brainstem – found at the base of the brain, it forms the link between the cerebral cortex, white matter and the spinal cord. Other important areas in the brain include the basal ganglia, thalamus, hypothalamus, ventricles, limbic system, and the reticular activating system. Neurons

Glutamate by Niels Chr. Danbolt For more references and more information, see: Danbolt, 2001: Prog. Neurobiol. 65, 1-105. Glutamate Outside the community of biomedical scientists, glutamate is probably best known as "monosodium glutamate" or "MSG" which is used as a flavor or taste enhancer in food. Glutamate is the major excitatory transmitter in the brain The main motivation for the ongoing World Wide research on glutamate is due to the role of glutamate in the signal transduction in the nervous systems of apparently all complex living organisms, including man. Glutamate is toxic, not in spite of its importance, but because of it Glutamate does not only mediate a lot of information, but also information which regulates brain development and information which determines cellular survival, differentiation and elimination as well as formation and elimination of nerve contacts (synapses). Glutamate is taken up into both glial cells and nerve terminals. Types of glutamate transporting proteins