How We Think: John Dewey on the Art of Reflection and Fruitful Curiosity in an Age of Instant Opinions and Information Overload by Maria Popova “To maintain the state of doubt and to carry on systematic and protracted inquiry — these are the essentials of thinking.” Decades before Carl Sagan published his now-legendary Baloney Detection Kit for critical thinking, the great philosopher, psychologist, and education reformer John Dewey penned the definitive treatise on the subject — a subject all the more urgently relevant today, in our age of snap judgments and instant opinions. In his 1910 masterwork How We Think (free download; public library), Dewey examines what separates thinking, a basic human faculty we take for granted, from thinking well, what it takes to train ourselves into mastering the art of thinking, and how we can channel our natural curiosity in a productive way when confronted with an overflow of information. Dewey begins with the foundation of reflective thought, the defining quality of the fruitful, creative mind: This is where the art of critical thinking becomes crucial.
6 Habits of True Strategic Thinkers In the beginning, there was just you and your partners. You did every job. You coded, you met with investors, you emptied the trash and phoned in the midnight pizza. Now you have others to do all that and it's time for you to "be strategic." Whatever that means. If you find yourself resisting "being strategic," because it sounds like a fast track to irrelevance, or vaguely like an excuse to slack off, you're not alone. This is a tough job, make no mistake. After two decades of advising organizations large and small, my colleagues and I have formed a clear idea of what's required of you in this role. Anticipate Most of the focus at most companies is on what’s directly ahead. Look for game-changing information at the periphery of your industrySearch beyond the current boundaries of your businessBuild wide external networks to help you scan the horizon better Think Critically “Conventional wisdom” opens you to fewer raised eyebrows and second guessing. Interpret Ambiguity is unsettling. Decide
Standards of Critical Thinking What is critical thinking? According to my favorite critical thinking text , it is This involves identifying and analyzing arguments and truth claims, discovering and overcoming prejudices and biases , developing your own reasons and arguments in favor of what you believe, considering objections to your beliefs, and making rational choices about what to do based on your beliefs. is an important standard of critical thought. Clarity of communication is one aspect of this.We must be clear in how we communicate our thoughts, beliefs, and reasons for those beliefs. involves working hard at getting the issue under consideration before our minds in a particular way. is unquestionably essential to critical thinking. means that the information and ideas discussed must be logically relevant to the issue being discussed. is a key aspect of critical thinking. The last 3 standards are logical correctness, completeness, and fairness.
How To Use APA Format in Powerpoint Much like how citations in term papers are organized based on formal rules, citations in PowerPoint presentations follow the APA format. Whether the references are based on printed text or online sources, the APA format is essential for researchers to track the origins of the facts mentioned in the presentation. Here are the steps for using the APA format in PowerPoint. Mention an author’s name and the date of publication after you use his research in your slide. Note that citing sources will also protect the presenter with accusations of plagiarism.
How to Think & Learn When I applied for my faculty job at the MIT Media Lab, I had to write a teaching statement. One of the things I proposed was to teach a class called “How to Think,” which would focus on how to be creative, thoughtful, and powerful in a world where problems are extremely complex, targets are continuously moving, and our brains often seem like nodes of enormous networks that constantly reconfigure. In the process of thinking about this, I composed 10 rules, which I sometimes share with students. I’ve listed them here, followed by some practical advice on implementation. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. Two practical notes. The second practical note: I find it really useful to write and draw while talking with someone, composing conversation summaries on pieces of paper or pages of notepads.
150 Free Textbooks: A Meta Collection Free textbooks (aka open textbooks) written by knowledgable scholars are a relatively new phenomenon. Below, find a meta list of 200 Free Textbooks, and check back often for new additions. Also see our online collection, 1,500 Free Online Courses from Top Universities. Art History A Textbook of the History of Painting by John Charles Van Dyke, Rutgers Biology Anatomy and Physiology - Edited by various profs at OpenStaxBiology - Edited by various profs at OpenStaxBiology Pages, John W. Business and Management Business Ethics by Jose A. Chemistry Chemistry, Grades 10-12, Created by the FHSST Project (Free High School Science Texts)Chemistry Virtual Textbooks by Stephen Lower, Simon Fraser UniversityCK-12 Chemistry (Grades 9-12) by multiple authors. Classics Computer Science & Information Systems Earth Science CK-12 Earth Science for Middle School by multiple authors.Earth Systems, an Earth Science Course (Grades 9-10). Economics & Finance Education Electrical Engineering Engineering History Languages
Strategy List: 35 Dimensions of Critical Thought S-1 Thinking Independently Principle: Critical thinking is independent thinking, thinking for oneself. Many of our beliefs are acquired at an early age, when we have a strong tendency to form beliefs for irrational reasons (because we want to believe, because we are praised or rewarded for believing). In forming new beliefs, critical thinkers do not passively accept the beliefs of others; rather, they try to figure things out for themselves, reject unjustified authorities, and recognize the contributions of genuine authorities. If they find that a set of categories or distinctions is more appropriate than that used by another, they will use it. Independent thinkers strive to incorporate all known relevant knowledge and insight into their thought and behavior. S-2 Developing Insight Into Egocentricity or Sociocentricity Principle: Egocentricity means confusing what we see and think with reality. As people are socialized, egocentricity partly evolves into sociocentricity. Go to top
Starting A Business From Home Base ...Will Fail Unless You Match 5 Characteristics by Arturo F Munoz Starting a business from home means something very specific at this website. In fact, there is as much in common between setting up a home and then using it to host your business as there is in getting married and having some children. To What May We Compare Starting A Business From Home? Starting a business from home is like homeschooling. Homeschooling is about educational freedom. In homeschooling you start with collaborating with your children in the selection of resources that become your homeschool learning plan. Here's the key principle. Why do they fail? They fail because they trade their freedom for a sense of conventionality. The same can be said for most business models. A home business is a business designed specifically to operate from the home in collaboration with those who find value in receiving services from one centered there, and it is a business in no way under the control of an outsider.
Critical Thinking in Everyday Life: 9 Strategies Most of us are not what we could be. We are less. We have great capacity. Development in thinking requires a gradual process requiring plateaus of learning and just plain hard work. How, then, can we develop as critical thinkers? First, we must understand that there are stages required for development as a critical thinker: Stage One: The Unreflective Thinker (we are unaware of significant problems in our thinking) Stage Two: The Challenged Thinker (we become aware of problems in our thinking) Stage Three: The Beginning Thinker (we try to improve but without regular practice) Stage Four: The Practicing Thinker (we recognize the necessity of regular practice) Stage Five: The Advanced Thinker (we advance in accordance with our practice) Stage Six: The Master Thinker (skilled & insightful thinking become second nature to us) We develop through these stages if we: In this article, we will explain 9 strategies that any motivated person can use to develop as a thinker. Go to top
Developing as Rational Persons: Viewing Our Develo Humans are capable of developing into rational beings. This is our ultimate assumption. At some level all of us want to effectively analyze and solve our problems. We want to live significant, meaningful lives. We want to be persons of integrity. We did not consciously choose to be selfish and egocentric, any more than we consciously chose to think unclearly, inaccurately, irrelevantly, superficially, narrow-mindedly, or illogically. In this paper, we focus on one multi-faceted tool — a theory of the stages required for rational development. Stage One We Begin as Unreflective Thinkers We all begin as largely unreflective thinkers, fundamentally unaware of the determining role that thinking is playing in our lives. At this stage, we may think well intuitively within certain domains of our lives. We begin to move beyond this stage when we develop real insight into the "flawed" nature of our own thinking. We cannot solve a problem we do not admit to. I see what my mind is doing.
How Thinking Works: 10 Brilliant Cognitive Psychology Studies Everyone Should Know How experts think, the power of framing, the miracle of attention, the weird world of cognitive biases and more… Fifty years ago there was a revolution in psychology which changed the way we think about the mind. The ‘cognitive revolution’ inspired psychologists to start thinking of the mind as a kind of organic computer, rather than as an impenetrable black box which would never be understood. This metaphor has motivated psychologists to investigate the software central to our everyday functioning, opening the way to insights into how we think, reason, learn, remember and produce language. Here are 10 classic cognitive psychology studies that have helped reveal how thinking works. 1. Without experts the human race would be sunk. The answer is in how experts think about problems, compared with novices. That’s what Chi et al. (1981) found when they compared how experts and novices represented physics problems. 2. Short-term memory is a lot shorter than many think. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10.