Norway Norway ( i/ˈnɔrweɪ/; Norwegian: Norge (Bokmål) or Noreg (Nynorsk)), officially the Kingdom of Norway, is a Scandinavian unitary constitutional monarchy whose territory comprises the western portion of the Scandinavian Peninsula, Jan Mayen, the Arctic archipelago of Svalbard, and the sub-Antarctic Bouvet Island. Delelinjen is part of the maritime border with Russia. At this demarcation line's South end, Norway borders the Fedynsky natural resources field. To its North lies the Central Barents field. To its North lies the Perseevsky field. Etymology Etymologists believe the country's name means "the northward route" (the "way north" or the "north way"), which in Old Norse would have been nor veg or *norð vegr. Around 890 AD, Ohthere of Hålogaland distinguished "Norwegians" ("nordmenn", the people of Norvegr) from Sami people and Danes. History Prehistory In the southern part of the country are dwelling sites dating from about 5,000 BC. Bronze Age
Malmö Malmö (Swedish pronunciation: [ˈmalːˈmøː] ( )) is Sweden's third largest city by population, after Stockholm and Gothenburg. It is the capital of Skåne County. Together with Copenhagen, it constitutes the transnational Öresund Region. Malmö was one of the earliest and most industrialized towns of Scandinavia, but it struggled with the adaptation to post-industrialism. The administrative entity for most of the city is Malmö Municipality which, as of 31 March 2013, has 309,105 inhabitants in eight different localities. History Malmö is thought to have been founded in 1275, as a fortified quay or ferry berth of the Archbishop of Lund, some 20 kilometres (12 miles) to the north-east. In the 15th century, Malmö became one of Denmark's largest and most frequented cities, reaching a population of approximately 5,000 inhabitants. In 1434, a new citadel was constructed at the beach south of the town. In the 17th century, Malmö and the Scanian region (Skåneland) came into Swedish possession.
Switzerland Switzerland (German: Schweiz[note 3] [ˈʃvaɪts]; French: Suisse [sɥis]; Italian: Svizzera [ˈzvittsera]; Romansh: Svizra [ˈʒviːtsrɐ] or [ˈʒviːtsʁːɐ]), officially the Swiss Confederation (Latin: Confoederatio Helvetica, hence its abbreviation CH), is a federal parliamentary republic consisting of 26 cantons, with Bern as the seat of the federal authorities, the so-called Bundesstadt aka "federal city". The country is situated in Western and Central Europe,[note 4] where it is bordered by Italy to the south, France to the west, Germany to the north, and Austria and Liechtenstein to the east. Switzerland is a landlocked country geographically divided between the Alps, the Swiss Plateau and the Jura, spanning an area of 41,285 km2 (15,940 sq mi). While the Alps occupy the greater part of the territory, the Swiss population of approximately 8 million people is concentrated mostly on the Plateau, where the largest cities are to be found. Etymology History Early history
Faroe Islands Coordinates: The Faroe Islands (/ˈfɛəroʊ/; Faroese: Føroyar pronounced [ˈfœɹjaɹ]; Danish: Færøerne Danish pronunciation: [ˈfæɐ̯øːˀɐnə]) is an archipelago and autonomous country within the Kingdom of Denmark, situated between the Norwegian Sea and the North Atlantic Ocean, approximately halfway between Norway and Iceland, at about 320 kilometres (200 mi) north-north-west of mainland Scotland. The total area is approximately 1,400 km2 (540 sq mi) with a 2010 population of almost 50,000 people. The islands were associated with and taxed by Norway, then the Union of Kalmar, and then Denmark-Norway until 1814, when Norway was united with Sweden. Scandinavia was in political turmoil following the Sixth Coalition of the Napoleonic Wars, when the Treaty of Kiel granted Denmark control over the Faroes, Iceland and Greenland in 1814. The Danish trade monopoly ended in 1856. History More pertinent is the account by Dicuil, an Irish monk of the early 9th century. Geography
Stockholm Stockholm (Swedish pronunciation: [ˈstɔkːˈhɔlm, ˈstɔkːˈɔlm, ˈstɔkːɔlm] ( listen to the second one)) is the capital of Sweden. Stockholm is the most populous city in Sweden and Scandinavia, with 897,700 people living in the municipality and a total population of 2,163,042 in the metropolitan area, accounting for 22% of the Swedish population in 2013. Stockholm is an important global city, placed in the "alpha-" category by the GaWC, and ranked 27th in the world, 12th in Europe and first in Scandinavia by the Global Cities Index in 2012. In 2013, Stockholm was named the 8th most competitive city in the world by the Economist Intelligence Unit. Founded in c. 1250, possibly as early as 1187, Stockholm has long been one of Sweden's cultural, media, political, and economic centres. Its strategic location spread across 14 islands on the coast in the south-east of Sweden at the mouth of Lake Mälaren, by the Stockholm archipelago, has been historically important. History
Denmark Denmark ( i/ˈdɛnmɑrk/; Danish: Danmark)[N 10] is a Scandinavian country in Northern Europe. The southernmost of the Nordic countries, it is located southwest of Sweden and south of Norway, and bordered to the south by Germany. The Kingdom of Denmark[N 11] is a sovereign state that comprises Denmark and two autonomous constituent countries in the North Atlantic Ocean: the Faroe Islands and Greenland. Denmark proper has an area of 43,094 square kilometres (16,639 sq mi), and a population of 5,659,715 (January 2015). The country consists of a peninsula, Jutland, and the Danish archipelago of 443 named islands, of which around 70 are inhabited. The Constitution of Denmark was signed on 5 June 1849, ending the absolute monarchy which had begun in 1660. Etymology The first recorded use of the word Danmark within Denmark itself is found on the two Jelling stones, which are runestones believed to have been erected by Gorm the Old (c. 955) and Harald Bluetooth (c. 965). Government
?land Islands The Åland Islands or Åland (Swedish: Åland, Swedish pronunciation: [ˈoːland]; Finnish: Ahvenanmaa) is an autonomous, demilitarised, monolingually Swedish-speaking region of Finland that consists of an archipelago lying at the entrance to the Gulf of Bothnia in the Baltic Sea. Collectively, the islands in the archipelago form the smallest region of Finland, constituting 0.49% of its land area and 0.50% of its population. Åland comprises Fasta Åland ("Main Island", on which 90% of the population resides) and a further 6,500 skerries and islands to its east. Fasta Åland is separated from the coast of Sweden by 38 kilometres (24 mi) of open water to the west. In the east, the Åland archipelago is contiguous with the Finnish Archipelago Sea. Åland's only land border is located on the uninhabited skerry of Märket, which it shares with Sweden. Autonomy The autonomous status of the islands was affirmed by a decision made by the League of Nations in 1921 following the Åland crisis.
Copenhagen Copenhagen (IPA /ˈkoʊpənheɪɡən/ or /ˈkoʊpənhɑːɡən/; Danish: København [kʰøb̥m̩ˈhɑʊ̯ˀn] ( listen)) is the capital and most populous city of Denmark, with an urban population of 1,230,728 and a metropolitan population of 1,967,727 (as of 1 October 2013[update]). It is situated on the eastern coast of Zealand, 42 km (26 mi) northwest of Malmö, Sweden and 164 km (102 mi) northeast of Odense. The city stretches across parts of the island of Amager and also contains the enclave of Frederiksberg, a municipality in its own right. Originally a Viking fishing village founded in the 10th century, Copenhagen became the capital of Denmark in the early 15th century. During the 17th century, under the reign of Christian IV, it developed into an important regional centre, consolidating its position as capital of Denmark and Norway with its institutions, defences and armed forces. Etymology History Early history Reconstruction of Copenhagen as of c. 1500 Middle Ages 18th century
Austria Austria ( i/ˈɔːstriə/ or /ˈɒstriə/; German: Österreich [ˈøːstɐˌʁaɪç] ( )), officially the Republic of Austria (German: Republik Österreich ), is a federal republic and a landlocked country of roughly 8.47 million people in Central Europe. The origins of modern-day Austria date back to the time of the Habsburg dynasty when the vast majority of the country was a part of the Holy Roman Empire. Etymology First appearance of the word "ostarrichi", circled in red. The German name for Austria, Österreich, means "eastern realm" or "eastern empire", and is cognate with the word Ostarrîchi, which first appears in the "Ostarrîchi document" of 996. This word is probably a translation of Medieval Latin Marchia orientalis into a local (Bavarian) dialect. History Settled in ancient times, the Central European land that is now Austria was occupied in pre-Roman times by various Celtic tribes. Middle Ages The Habsburgs began also to accumulate lands far from the hereditary lands.
Greenland Greenland (Greenlandic: Kalaallit Nunaat [kaˈlaːɬit ˈnunaːt]) is an autonomous country within the Kingdom of Denmark, located between the Arctic and Atlantic Oceans, east of the Canadian Arctic Archipelago. Though physiographically a part of the continent of North America, Greenland has been politically and culturally associated with Europe (specifically Norway and Denmark, the colonial powers) for more than a millennium. In 2008, the people of Greenland passed a referendum supporting greater autonomy; 75% of votes cast were in favour. Greenland is, in area, the world's largest island, over three-quarters of which is covered by the only contemporary ice sheet outside of Antarctica. With a population of about 56,370 (2013), it is the least densely populated country in the world. Having been claimed by Denmark–Norway for centuries, Greenland (Danish: Grønland) became a Danish colony in 1814, and a part of the Danish Realm in 1953 under the Constitution of Denmark.
Gothenburg Gothenburg (Swedish: Göteborg [jœtəˈbɔrj] ( )) is the second largest city in Sweden and the fifth largest in the Nordic countries. Situated by the Kattegat, on the west coast of Sweden, the city proper has a population of 533,260, with 549,839 in the urban area and about one million inhabitants in the metropolitan area. Gothenburg is classified as a global city by GaWC, with a ranking of Gamma−. The city was ranked as the 12th most inventive city in the world by Forbes (2013). Gothenburg was founded by royal charter in 1621 by King Gustavus Adolphus. Gothenburg is home to many students, as the city includes both the University of Gothenburg and Chalmers University of Technology. Gothenburg is served by Göteborg Landvetter Airport, located 30 km (18.64 mi) southeast of the city centre, and by Göteborg City Airport, located 15 km (9.32 mi) from the city centre. The city is known for hosting some of the largest annual events in Scandinavia. Name History Geography
Finland Finland ( i/ˈfɪnlənd/; Finnish: Suomi [suomi]; Swedish: Finland [ˈfɪnland]), officially the Republic of Finland, is a Nordic country in Northern Europe bordered by Sweden to the west, Norway to the north and Russia to the east; Estonia lies to the south across the Gulf of Finland. Finland is part of the geographic region of Fennoscandia, which also includes Scandinavia and parts of Russia. In 2013, Finland's population was around 5.5 million, with the majority living in its southern regions. In terms of area, it is the eighth largest country in Europe and the most sparsely populated country in the European Union. Etymology and concept of Finland Etymology The name Finland appears on three rune-stones. Suomi Concept The modern boundaries of Finland actually came to use only after the end of Sweden-Finland. History Prehistory Swedish era Russian Empire era In 1906, universal suffrage was adopted in the Grand Duchy of Finland. World War II
Bucharest Bucharest (/ˈbuːkərɛst/; Romanian: București, pronounced [bukuˈreʃtʲ]) is the capital municipality, cultural, industrial, and financial centre of Romania. It is the largest city in Romania, located in the southeast of the country, at WikiMiniAtlas 44°25′57″N 26°06′14″E / 44.43250°N 26.10389°E / 44.43250; 26.10389Coordinates: 44°25′57″N 26°06′14″E / 44.43250°N 26.10389°E / 44.43250; 26.10389, lies on the banks of the Dâmbovița River, less than 70 kilometres (43 mi) north of the Danube River. Economically, Bucharest is the most prosperous city in Romania and is one of the main industrial centres and transportation hubs of Eastern Europe. The city proper is administratively known as "The Municipality of Bucharest" (Municipiul București), and has the same administrative level as that of a national county, being further subdivided into six sectors. Etymology The official city name in full is "The Municipality of Bucharest" (Romanian: Municipiul București). History I.C.