Minkowski space
In theoretical physics, Minkowski space is often contrasted with Euclidean space. While a Euclidean space has only spacelike dimensions, a Minkowski space also has one timelike dimension. The isometry group of a Euclidean space is the Euclidean group and for a Minkowski space it is the Poincaré group. History[edit] In 1905 (published 1906) it was noted by Henri Poincaré that, by taking time to be the imaginary part of the fourth spacetime coordinate √−1 ct, a Lorentz transformation can be regarded as a rotation of coordinates in a four-dimensional Euclidean space with three real coordinates representing space, and one imaginary coordinate, representing time, as the fourth dimension. The views of space and time which I wish to lay before you have sprung from the soil of experimental physics, and therein lies their strength. For further historical information see references Galison (1979), Corry (1997), Walter (1999). Structure[edit] The Minkowski inner product[edit] Standard basis[edit] where

Octave
Executable versions of GNU Octave for GNU/Linux systems are provided by the individual distributions. Distributions known to package Octave include Debian, Ubuntu, Fedora, Gentoo, and openSUSE. These packages are created by volunteers. The Octave Wiki has instructions for installing Octave on macOS systems. Executable versions of Octave for BSD systems are provided by the individual distributions. The latest released version of Octave is always available from

Banach space
Definition[edit] or equivalently: All norms on a finite-dimensional vector space are equivalent. Every finite-dimensional normed space is a Banach space.[3] General theory[edit] Linear operators, isomorphisms[edit] For Y a Banach space, the space B(X, Y) is a Banach space with respect to this norm. If X is a Banach space, the space B(X) = B(X, X) forms a unital Banach algebra; the multiplication operation is given by the composition of linear maps. If X and Y are normed spaces, they are isomorphic normed spaces if there exists a linear bijection T : X → Y such that T and its inverse T −1 are continuous. Basic notions[edit] Every normed space X can be isometrically embedded in a Banach space. This Banach space Y is the completion of the normed space X. The cartesian product X × Y of two normed spaces is not canonically equipped with a norm. and give rise to isomorphic normed spaces. If M is a closed linear subspace of a normed space X, there is a natural norm on the quotient space X / M, where

Eigenvalues and eigenvectors
If the vector space V is finite-dimensional, then the linear transformation T can be represented as a square matrix A, and the vector v by a column vector, rendering the above mapping as a matrix multiplication on the left hand side and a scaling of the column vector on the right hand side in the equation There is a direct correspondence between n-by-n square matrices and linear transformations from an n-dimensional vector space to itself, given any basis of the vector space. For this reason, it is equivalent to define eigenvalues and eigenvectors using either the language of matrices or the language of linear transformations.[1][2] Geometrically an eigenvector, corresponding to a real nonzero eigenvalue, points in a direction that is stretched by the transformation and the eigenvalue is the factor by which it is stretched. Overview[edit] In essence, an eigenvector v of a linear transformation T is a non-zero vector that, when T is applied to it, does not change direction. History[edit] or

Pascal's law
Pascal's law or the principle of transmission of fluid-pressure is a principle in fluid mechanics that states that pressure exerted anywhere in a confined incompressible fluid is transmitted equally in all directions throughout the fluid such that the pressure variations (initial differences) remain the same.[1] The law was established by French mathematician Blaise Pascal.[2] Definition[edit] Pressure in water and air. Pascal's law applies only for fluids. Pascal's principle is defined as A change in pressure at any point in an enclosed fluid at rest is transmitted undiminished to all points in the fluid This principle is stated mathematically as: ρ is the fluid density (in kilograms per cubic meter in the SI system); g is acceleration due to gravity (normally using the sea level acceleration due to Earth's gravity in metres per second squared); Explanation[edit] Pascal's principle applies to all fluids, whether gases or liquids. Applications[edit] See also[edit] References[edit]

Big O notation
Example of Big O notation: f(x) ∈ O(g(x)) as there exists c > 0 (e.g., c = 1) and x0 (e.g., x0 = 5) such that f(x) < cg(x) whenever x > x0. Big O notation characterizes functions according to their growth rates: different functions with the same growth rate may be represented using the same O notation. The letter O is used because the growth rate of a function is also referred to as order of the function. Big O notation is also used in many other fields to provide similar estimates. Formal definition[edit] Let f and g be two functions defined on some subset of the real numbers. if and only if there is a positive constant M such that for all sufficiently large values of x, the absolute value of f(x) is at most M multiplied by the absolute value of g(x). In many contexts, the assumption that we are interested in the growth rate as the variable x goes to infinity is left unstated, and one writes more simply that f(x) = O(g(x)). if and only if there exist positive numbers δ and M such that so

Inner product space
Geometric interpretation of the angle between two vectors defined using an inner product Definition[edit] Formally, an inner product space is a vector space V over the field F together with an inner product, i.e., with a map that satisfies the following three axioms for all vectors and all scalars Conjugate symmetry: Note that when F = R, conjugate symmetry reduces to symmetry. for F = R; while for F = C, is equal to the complex conjugate[Note 1] of the number Linearity in the first argument: Together with conjugate symmetry, this implies conjugate linearity in the second argument (below). Positive-definiteness: Alternative definitions, notations and remarks[edit] Some authors, especially in physics and matrix algebra, prefer to define the inner product and the sesquilinear form with linearity in the second argument rather than the first. as (the bra–ket notation of quantum mechanics), respectively to be conjugate linear in x rather than y. and is only required to be non-negative. implies x = 0. if

Wave function
Comparison of classical and quantum harmonic oscillator conceptions for a single spinless particle. The two processes differ greatly. The classical process (A–B) is represented as the motion of a particle along a trajectory. Wavefunctions of the electron of a hydrogen atom at different energies. According to the superposition principle of quantum mechanics, wave functions can be added together and multiplied by complex numbers to form new wave functions and form a Hilbert space. Historical background[edit] In 1905, Einstein postulated the proportionality between the frequency of a photon and its energy , [11] and in 1916 the corresponding relation between photon's momentum and wavelength [12], where is the Planck constant. , now called the De Broglie relation, holds for massive particles, the chief clue being Lorentz invariance,[13] and this can be viewed as the starting point for the modern development of quantum mechanics. Wave functions and wave equations in modern theories[edit] thus and