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Sumerian Myths

Sumerian Myths
Sumerian civilization originated in what is now southern Iraq, just upriver from the mouths of the Tigris and Euphrates rivers. "Civilization" in this context means a settled town or city-dwelling people who possess a stable agricultural technology (including domesticated animals) and have developed a hierarchical system of social classes (peasants, laborers, slaves, craftsmen [smiths, masons, carpenters, potters, etc.], farmers, fishermen, merchants, doctors, architects, priests and temple attendants, bureaucrats, scribes, advisers, priest-kings). Since the climate of southern Iraq is hot and dry, agriculture requires an extensive irrigation system of canals and dikes. Often, the Sumerians wrote as if their civilization (agricultural techniques, cities, classes of people) came first, and people later. (Why do you think they thought this way?) Map of Mesopotamian Archeological Sites (Oriental Institute, University of Chicago) The Creation of Humans Sumerian Creation Questions1. 2. 3. 4.

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Translation of the Sumerian Cuneiform - KHARSAG - HEAD ENCLOSURE - Barton 1914 - Hilprecht - Poebel - Babylonian Text Translation of the Sumerian CuneiformExtract from The Genius of the Few by Christian and Barbara Joy O'Brien - Page 37 - 39 The Anannage, therefore, were the Sumerian equivalents of the biblical Angels. Only after they had disappeared from the Middle Eastern scene were they worshipped in the religious sense; and they were then so enveloped in supernatural trappings that their intrinsic characteristics were swamped in a morass of pseudo-religious adulation. Before the advent of Semitic influence, the Sumerians had no shrines, and built no temples.

Polish archaeologists in Sudan claim 'unique' human settlement discovery PR dla Zagranicy Nick Hodge 20.02.2013 14:32 Polish archaeologists working in Sudan have found remains of human settlements that appear to date back as far as 70,000 years. Photo: archeosudan.org If confirmed, the discovery in the Affad Basin of northern Sudan will challenge existing theories that our distant ancestors only began building permanent residences on leaving Africa and settling in Europe and Asia. “The Middle Palaeolithic discoveries in Affad are absolutely unique,” enthused Dr Marta Osypinska, one of the members of the team, in an interview with the Polish Press Agency (PAP).

Introduction to Hindu Mythology Hindu religion is more philosophy than doctrine. There is no authoritative hierarchy of clergy; the religion is highly decentralized with multiple sects, perfectly acceptable to Hinduism (in contrast to the regrettable divisions within Christianity). The Hindu claim that there are different paths for each person. A practical definition of Hinduism: performing the duty (dharma) of one's stage in life and social status (caste). The essence of the Hindu vision of reality lies in the tension between dharma (social duty or righteousness) and moksha (release from the material world, final liberation from the endless cycles of rebirth). Both these perspectives, the world-supporting and the world-denying, are necessary to fulfill human destiny.

Epic of Creation (Mesopotamia) Stories describing creation are prominent in many cultures of the world. In Mesopotamia, the surviving evidence from the third millennium to the end of the first millennium B.C. indicates that although many of the gods were associated with natural forces, no single myth addressed issues of initial creation. It was simply assumed that the gods existed before the world was formed. Unfortunately, very little survives of Sumerian literature from the third millennium B.C. Several fragmentary tablets contain references to a time before the pantheon of the gods, when only the Earth (Sumerian: ki) and Heavens (Sumerian: an) existed. 5 Shockingly Advanced Ancient Buildings That Shouldn't Exist The achievements of ancient cultures tend to be woefully unappreciated -- we think of the people as loincloth-wearing savages, and when we're proven wrong by some impressive feat of engineering, we just make a bunch of documentaries about aliens. But the engineers of times past were nothing to sneer at, and some of their accomplishments make ours seem slightly embarrassing. #5.

Third Dynasty of Ur The Third Dynasty of Ur, also known as the Neo-Sumerian Empire or the Ur III Empire, refers simultaneously to a 21st to 20th century BC (short chronology timeline) Sumerian ruling dynasty based in the city of Ur and a short-lived territorial-political state that some historians regard as a nascent empire. The Third Dynasty of Ur is commonly abbreviated as Ur III by historians of the period. The Third Dynasty of Ur came to preeminent power in Mesopotamia after several centuries of Akkadian and Gutian kings. It controlled the cities of Isin, Larsa and Eshnunna and extended as far north as the Jazira. Map showing the Ur III state and its sphere of influence History[edit] An entire army sacrificed in a bog The excavation revealed a very special object – and axe, complete with a shaft, which is very rare. (Photo: Moesgård Museum and Aarhus University) A Danish bog has been harbouring a terrifying secret for thousands of years. Archaeologists have spent all summer excavating a small sample of what has turned out to be a mass grave containing skeletal remains from more than 1,000 warriors, who were killed in battle some 2,000 years ago. “We found a lot more human bones than we had expected,” says Ejvind Hertz, curator at Skanderborg Museum.

Mythical Chronology of Greece This Mythical Chronology of Greece depicts the traditional chronology established for the events of ancient Greek mythology by ancient chronographers and mythographers. This list largely reflects the work of Saint Jerome, whose work in turn was based primarily on the analysis of Apollodorus, Diodorus Siculus, and Eusebius. [1] In a few cases, the chronology also reflects the opinions of more recent scholars, who have cross referenced the mythology to archeological discoveries. These interpolations are noted with italics.

Who are the Nephilims Some have claimed that the Nephilim, or the "sons of God," both mentioned in Genesis 6:2-4, were aliens. This is a wild extension of a common view that the "sons of God" who married the "daughters of men" were fallen angels, and that the Nephilim were products of those "marriages." "Sons of God" is clearly used of angels in Job 38:7 Orig KJV: "When the morning stars sang together, and all the sons of God shouted for joy?". 6 Famous Symbols That Don't Mean What You Think The entire point of using a symbol is that it conveys meaning and saves space -- you see one picture of a stick figure in a dress and you no longer need the phrase "This is the place where female humans can discharge waste." But what is fascinating is that sometimes the meaning of a symbol will get lost to history, but we'll just keep right on using it anyway. But would we do that if we knew ... Note: Did you know that Cracked used to be a magazine? Of course you didn't, none now live who remember that. But it's true -- that goofy little C you see at the top of your tab is a symbol that now means: "you are on the internet, reading comedy jokes, for free."

History of Sumer The history of Sumer, taken to include the prehistoric Ubaid and Uruk periods, spans the 5th to 3rd millennia BC, ending with the downfall of the Third Dynasty of Ur around 2004 BC, followed by a transitional period of Amorite states before the rise of Babylonia in the 18th century BC. The first settlement in southern Mesopotamia was Eridu. The Sumerians claimed that their civilization had been brought, fully formed, to the city of Eridu by their god Enki or by his advisor (or Abgallu from ab=water, gal=big, lu=man), Adapa U-an (the Oannes of Berossus). The first people at Eridu brought with them the Samarran culture from northern Mesopotamia and are identified with the Ubaid period, but it is not known whether or not these were Sumerians (associated later with the Uruk period).[1] The Sumerian king list is an ancient text in the Sumerian language listing kings of Sumer, including a few foreign dynasties.

Top 25 Most Ancient Historical Photographs For times immemorial, people have tried to reproduce their surroundings into pictures of their own. They have used techniques of paintings, carving and sculpturing and for years images have been projected onto surfaces. Photography is the result of combining several technical discoveries. Long before the first photographs were made, Chinese and Greek philosophers described a pinole camera. The Battle with the Titans - Classical Mythology With his rescued siblings, Zeus had the beginnings of an army with which to challenge Cronus. However, Cronus had some difficulty in assembling his own forces. Some of the Titans refused to help him in the struggle. None of the Titanesses participated, and Oceanus, Cronus's brother, also refused to fight.

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