Prague reproduction of Golem In Jewish folklore, a golem (/ˈɡoʊləm/ GOH-ləm; Hebrew: גולם) is an animated anthropomorphic being, created entirely from inanimate matter. The word was used to mean an amorphous, unformed material (usually out of stone and clay) in Psalms and medieval writing. The most famous golem narrative involves Judah Loew ben Bezalel, the late-16th-century rabbi of Prague. There are many tales differing on how the Golem was brought to life and afterwards controlled. History Etymology The word golem occurs once in the Bible in Psalms 139:16, which uses the word גלמי (galmi; my golem), meaning "my unshaped form", connoting the unfinished human being before God’s eyes. The Mishnah uses the term for an uncultivated person: "Seven characteristics are in an uncultivated person, and seven in a learned one," (שבעה דברים בגולם) (Pirkei Avot 5:6 in the Hebrew text; English translations vary). Earliest stories The Golem of Chelm Hubris theme
Plato's SymposiumThe Symposium is one of the foundational documents of Western culture and arguably the most profound analysis and celebration of love in the history of philosophy. It is also the most lavishly literary of Plato's dialogues--a virtuoso prose performance in which the author, like a playful maestro, shows off an entire repertoire of characters, ideas, contrasting viewpoints, and iridescent styles. History and Background A symposium is literally a "drinking together"--in other words a drinking party. In Athens, in Plato's day, symposia were strictly stag affairs. As a rule, they consisted of a fairly lavish, semi-formal banquet followed by ceremonial toasts and bouts of drinking. Symposia were usually held in private homes in specially designed dining and party areas. Structure and Organization The initial setting for the dialogue is an Athenian street. In this way the reader begins to comprehend the funhouse complexity of the work. Three Keys to the Funhouse: Drama, Rhetoric, and Dialectic
Pygmalion (mythology)In time, Aphrodite's festival day came, and Pygmalion made offerings at the altar of Aphrodite. There, too scared to admit his desire, he quietly wished for a bride who would be "the living likeness of my ivory girl". When he returned home, he kissed his ivory statue and found that its lips felt warm. He kissed it again, touched its breasts with his hand and found that the ivory had lost its hardness. Aphrodite had granted Pygmalion's wish. Pygmalion married the ivory sculpture changed to a woman under Aphrodite's blessing. A lovely boy was born;Paphos his name, who grown to manhood, wall'd The city Paphos, from the founder call'd. In some versions they also had a daughter, Metharme. The moral anecdote of the "Apega of Nabis", recounted by the historian Polybius, described a supposed mechanical simulacrum of the tyrant's wife, that crushed victims in her embrace. Ovid's Pygmalion has inspired several works of literature. Poems, sorted by year and country of author's origin England Ireland
G is for GolemImage is a photo of a statue depicting the Prague golem. Taken from The golem is a creature of Jewish folklore. In many tales, the golem has magic words inscribed on its head to bring it to life. It is said that golems must rest on the Sabbath or they will go beserk. According to The Ultimate Encyclopedia of Mythical Creatures, the rabbi who created a golem would often be punished for attempting to "play God." Golems in Books and Other Media: The mythical golem is viewed as a sign of wisdom and holiness, revered as a savior for the persecuted Jews, and also can be seen as a sign of reaching beyond one's natural limits. References
Ignacio PadillaIgnacio Padilla (Ciudad de México, 1968), escritor mexicano del grupo literario Crack o Generación del Crack. Biografía[editar] Realizó sus estudios de preparatoria en el Centro Universitario México, y posteriormente se licenció en Comunicación por la Universidad Iberoamericana, maestro en Literatura inglesa en la Universidad de Edimburgo y doctor en Literatura española e hispanoamericana en Salamanca. A mediados de los 90, Padilla trabajaba como director editorial de la revista Playboy y publicaba su columna "El baúl de los cadáveres" en el suplemento Sábado. Fue agregado cultural de la Embajada de México en la Gran Bretaña (2001-2003); publicó entonces Crónicas africanas, una serie de artículos que había publicado ya en el suplemento Nostromo sobre la experiencia de Padilla al vivir durante dos años de la preparatoria en Swazilandia, viaje que incluso llevó al autor a convertirse en reo de muerte, acusado de ser uno de los terroristas que habían explotado una bomba en Zambia.
Anglo-Saxon paganismAnglo-Saxon paganism refers to the religious beliefs and practices followed by the Anglo-Saxons between the fifth and eighth centuries AD, during the initial period of Early Medieval England. A variant of the Germanic paganism found across much of north-western Europe, it encompassed a heterogeneous variety of disparate beliefs and cultic practices. Developing from the earlier Iron Age religion of continental northern Europe, it was introduced to Britain following the Anglo-Saxon migration in the mid fifth century, and remained the dominant religion in England until the Christianization of its kingdoms between the seventh and eighth centuries, with some aspects gradually blending into folklore. The right half of the front panel of the seventh century Franks Casket, depicting the pan-Germanic legend of Weyland Smith also Weyland The Smith, which was apparently also a part of Anglo-Saxon pagan mythology. History Mythology Cosmology Deities
Land of NodThe Land of Nod (Hebrew: eretz-Nod, ארץ נוד) is a place in the Book of Genesis of the Hebrew Bible, located "on the east of Eden" (qidmat-‘Eden), where Cain was exiled by God after Cain had murdered his brother Abel. According to Genesis 4:16: And Cain went out from the presence of the LORD, and dwelt in the land of Nod, on the east of Eden. Places named "Land of Nod" Land of Nod Road is the name of a residential road in Windham, Maine, USA, and another in Headley Down, Hampshire, UK Popular culture references The Land of Nod also refers to the mythical land of sleep, a pun on Land of Nod (Gen. 4:16). To “go off to the land of Nod” plays with the phrase to “nod off”, meaning to go to sleep. In Bad Monkeys, a psychological thriller by Matt Ruff, the main character frequently refers to apparent contradictions in her back story as "Nod problems." In games In music Billy Thorpe closed his album Children of the Sun ... Other uses References
Background on the Golem LegendsIn order to understand Golem by David Wisniewski it is useful to read some of the research and writings about this very old legend and the issues connected to it. The story has connections to Jewish mysticism while also possessing a long thread in fictional literature. The excerpts provided below help to frame your understanding of this legend and the additional readings serve to fill out any gaps remaining. Cabala (Hebrew, "received tradition"), generically, Jewish mysticism in all its forms; specifically, the esoteric theosophy that crystallized in 13th-century Spain and Provence, France, around Sefer ha-zohar (The Book of Splendor), referred to as the Zohar, and generated all later mystical movements in Judaism. In Jewish legend, an image or form that is given life through a magical formula. From: Entry on "Golem" in Microsoft Encarta 97 Encyclopedia Deluxe Edition, c. 1993-1996 Microsoft Corporation, Disc 1. From: "Golem" entry in the Encyclopedia Judaica. . . . . . . Basso, Eric.
UróborosUróboros o uroboros. En la iconografía alquímica el color verde se asocia con el principio mientras que el rojo simboliza la consumación del objetivo del Magnum Opus (la Gran Obra). El uróboros (también ouroboros o uroboros) (del griego «ουροβóρος», "uróvoro", a su vez de oyrá, "cola", y borá, "alimento") es un símbolo que muestra a un animal serpentiforme que engulle su propia cola y que conforma, con su cuerpo, una forma circular. El uróboros simboliza el ciclo eterno de las cosas, también el esfuerzo eterno, la lucha eterna o bien el esfuerzo inútil, ya que el ciclo vuelve a comenzar a pesar de las acciones para impedirlo. Generalidades[editar] El uróboros es un concepto empleado en diversas culturas a lo largo de al menos los últimos 3000 años. En la alquimia[editar] En la cultura popular[editar] Un gusano, un pez, un dragón, una serpiente o un animal de forma alargada más o menos serpentiforme cubierto de escamas, pelo, con patas o sin ellas, etcétera. Véase también[editar] masonería