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Tit for tat

Tit for tat
In Western business cultures, a handshake when meeting someone is an example of initial cooperation. Tit for tat is an English saying meaning "equivalent retaliation". It is also a highly effective strategy in game theory for the iterated prisoner's dilemma. An agent using this strategy will first cooperate, then subsequently replicate an opponent's previous action. Implications[edit] The success of the tit-for-tat (TFT) strategy, which is largely cooperative despite that its name emphasizes an adversarial nature, took many by surprise. This result may give insight into how groups of animals (and particularly human societies) have come to live in largely (or entirely) cooperative societies, rather than the individualistic "red in tooth and claw" way that might be expected from individuals engaged in a Hobbesian state of nature. Moreover, the TFT strategy has been of beneficial use to social psychologists and sociologists in studying effective techniques to reduce conflict. Problems[edit] Related:  MetamotivationOrganizational Level-Alignment

Can Money Buy Innovation? Even in our money-driven society, the power of money has limits: there are certain things money can’t buy. Love and happiness come to mind first, but a popular list of things that can’t be supposedly bought with money is much longer and includes such items as “25-hour day,” “clear conscience” and (my favorite) “an honest politician.” Some would add one more item to this list: innovation. Innovation, they’d argue, is a thing based on creativity, and creativity feeds on intrinsic motivators: natural curiosity, joy of learning, thrill of solving a difficult problem. Extrinsic motivators, such as money, can do little to make a person more creative. Unfortunately, academic research on incentivizing innovation is still in its infancy and doesn’t provide much help. Hopefully, future research will bring more clarity to the topic. We also should stop arguing whether we can or can’t buy innovation; we should simply pay for it. image credit: Wait!

Prisoner's dilemma The prisoners' dilemma is a canonical example of a game analyzed in game theory that shows why two individuals might not cooperate, even if it appears that it is in their best interests to do so. It was originally framed by Merrill Flood and Melvin Dresher working at RAND in 1950. Albert W. Tucker formalized the game with prison sentence rewards and gave it the name "prisoner's dilemma" (Poundstone, 1992), presenting it as follows: Two members of a criminal gang are arrested and imprisoned. It's implied that the prisoners will have no opportunity to reward or punish their partner other than the prison sentences they get, and that their decision won't affect their reputation in future. There is also an extended "iterative" version of the game, where the classic game is played over and over between the same prisoners, and consequently, both prisoners continuously have an opportunity to penalize the other for previous decisions. Strategy for the classic prisoners' dilemma[edit] Nice

Evolutionary game theory Evolutionary game theory (EGT) is the application of game theory to evolving populations of lifeforms in biology. EGT is useful in this context by defining a framework of contests, strategies, and analytics into which Darwinian competition can be modelled. EGT originated in 1973 with John Maynard Smith and George R. Price's formalisation of the way in which such contests can be analysed as "strategies" and the mathematical criteria that can be used to predict the resulting prevalence of such competing strategies.[1] Evolutionary game theory differs from classical game theory by focusing more on the dynamics of strategy change as influenced not solely by the quality of the various competing strategies, but by the effect of the frequency with which those various competing strategies are found in the population.[2] Evolutionary game theory has proven itself to be invaluable in helping to explain many complex and challenging aspects of biology. The problem[edit] John Maynard Smith Models[edit]

Iterative method In computational mathematics, an iterative method is a mathematical procedure that generates a sequence of improving approximate solutions for a class of problems. A specific implementation of an iterative method, including the termination criteria, is an algorithm of the iterative method. An iterative method is called convergent if the corresponding sequence converges for given initial approximations. A mathematically rigorous convergence analysis of an iterative method is usually performed; however, heuristic-based iterative methods are also common. In the problems of finding the root of an equation (or a solution of a system of equations), an iterative method uses an initial guess to generate successive approximations to a solution. Attractive fixed points[edit] Linear systems[edit] In the case of a system of linear equations, the two main classes of iterative methods are the stationary iterative methods, and the more general Krylov subspace methods. Stationary iterative methods[edit]

Backward bending supply curve of labour This labour supply curve shows how the change in real wage rates affects the number of hours worked by employees. In economics, a backward-bending supply curve of labour or backward-bending labour supply curve is a graphical device showing a situation in which, as "real" or inflation-corrected wages increase beyond a certain level, people will substitute leisure (non-paid time) for paid work-time and thus higher wages lead to less labor-time being offered for sale.[1] The "labor-leisure" tradeoff is the tradeoff faced by wage-earning human beings between the amount of time spent engaged in wage-paying work (assumed to be unpleasant) and satisfaction-generating non-paid time that allows (1) participation in "leisure" activities and (2) use of time to do necessary self-maintenance, such as sleep. The key to this tradeoff is a comparison between the wage received from each hour of working and the amount of satisfaction generated by use of non-paid time. Overview[edit] Assumptions[edit]

Trust (social sciences) In a social context, trust has several connotations.[1] Definitions of trust[2][3] typically refer to a situation characterised by the following aspects: One party (trustor) is willing to rely on the actions of another party (trustee); the situation is directed to the future. In addition, the trustor (voluntarily or forcedly) abandons control over the actions performed by the trustee. As a consequence, the trustor is uncertain about the outcome of the other's actions; they can only develop and evaluate expectations. The uncertainty involves the risk of failure or harm to the trustor if the trustee will not behave as desired. Trust can be attributed to relationships between people. Conceptually, trust is also attributable to relationships within and between social groups (families, friends, communities, organisations, companies, nations etc.). When it comes to the relationship between people and technology, the attribution of trust is a matter of dispute.

bayimg - free uncensored image hosting Méthode itérative Un article de Wikipédia, l'encyclopédie libre. Les méthodes itératives contrastent avec les méthodes directes qui résolvent le problème en une seule étape (par exemple la solution d'un système linéaire Ax = b obtenue en calculant la matrice inverse de A). Les méthodes itératives se substituent avantageusement aux autres lorsque : Par contre, la question de la vitesse de convergence (ou encore d’une éventuelle divergence) reste cruciale : c’est l’objet d’un vaste champ d’investigations de l’analyse numérique. Applications[modifier | modifier le code] Voici quelques exemples de méthodes itératives : Méthode de Newton[modifier | modifier le code] Une des méthodes itératives les plus connues est la méthode de Newton. Portail des mathématiques

Equity theory Equity theory is a theory that attempts to explain relational satisfaction in terms of perceptions of fair/unfair distributions of resources within interpersonal relationships. Considered one of the justice theories, equity theory was first developed in 1963 by John Stacey Adams, a workplace and behavioral psychologist, who asserted that employees seek to maintain equity between the inputs that they bring to a job and the outcomes that they receive from it against the perceived inputs and outcomes of others (Adams, 1965). The belief is that people value fair treatment which causes them to be motivated to keep the fairness maintained within the relationships of their co-workers and the organization. The structure of equity in the workplace is based on the ratio of inputs to outcomes. Background[edit] In any position, an employee wants to feel that their contributions and work performance are being rewarded with their pay. Definition of equity[edit] Inputs and outcomes[edit] Inputs[edit]

The Seven Habits of Highly Effective People The 7 Habits of Highly Effective People, first published in 1989, is a business and self-help book written by Stephen R. Covey.[1] Covey presents an approach to being effective in attaining goals by aligning oneself to what he calls "true north" principles of a character ethic that he presents as universal and timeless. The 7 Habits[edit] The book first introduces the concept of paradigm shift and helps the reader understand that different perspectives exist, i.e. that two people can see the same thing and yet differ with each other. On this premise, it introduces the seven habits in a proper order. Each chapter is dedicated to one of the habits, which are represented by the following imperatives: Independence[edit] The First Three Habits surround moving from dependence to independence (i.e., self-mastery): 1 - Be Proactive roles and relationships in life. 2 - Begin with the End in Mind envision what you want in the future so that you know concretely what to make a reality. 4 - Think Win-Win

Der Preis einer freien, weltweiten Kommunikation | Herrschaftsfrei? Am vergangenen Donnerstag (den 12.05.2011) durfte ich am eigenen Leib erfahren, wie es sich anfühlt, unbegründet im Verdacht einer Straftat zu stehen. Das alleine ist problematisch, zieht allerdings einen Rattenschwanz weiterer Probleme und Fragen nach sich. Dieses -aus dem Boden gestampfte- Blog soll mir eine Plattform für den oben angedeuteten Fall sein, mir helfen Gedanken zu ordnen und zu reflektieren. Ich möchte über technische und gesellschaftliche Zusammenhänge aufklären, die zu solchen Situationen führen. Anonymität im Netz Wikipedia weiß: Das derzeitige Internet ermöglicht unterschiedlich weitgehende Anonymität. In unseren Gefilden interessiert eine solche Aussage leider zumeist relativ wenig. grün: freier Zugang, orange: überwacht, hellgelb: teilweise zensiert, hellrosa: erheblich zensiert, rosa: durchgängig zensiert (Lizenz: CC0 1.0) Anonymisierungsnetzwerke Zur Verminderung der oben genannten Probleme haben sich Projekte zur Entwicklung von Softwarelösungen gebildet. Mein Fall

Coopération-réciprocité-pardon Un article de Wikipédia, l'encyclopédie libre. La stratégie coopération-réciprocité-pardon, plus connue sous le sigle CRP (traduite de Tit-for-Tat (TFT) en américain) ou « Win-Win » qui se résume mieux par « donnant-donnant » que la traduction littérale « gagnant-gagnant », a d’abord été formalisée par le biomathématicien, psychologue et philosophe Anatol Rapoport[1]. Description[modifier | modifier le code] En 1974, Anatol Rapoport grâce à des études théoriques et empiriques (en partie avec A.M. Attitude de coopération: Dans un premier temps, lorsqu'un individu ou un groupe rencontre un autre individu ou groupe, il a tout intérêt à lui proposer une alliance.Attitude de réciprocité: Dans un second temps, en vertu de la règle de réciprocité, il convient de donner à l'autre en fonction de ce que l'on en reçoit. Application[modifier | modifier le code] Robert Axelrod reçoit 14 disquettes de programmes envoyés par des collègues universitaires également intéressés par ce tournoi.

Category:Motivation Motivation is a word used to refer to the reason or reasons for engaging in a particular behavior, especially human behavior as studied in psychology and neuropsychology. Subcategories This category has the following 12 subcategories, out of 12 total. Pages in category "Motivation" The following 97 pages are in this category, out of 97 total.