In Western business cultures, a handshake when meeting someone is an example of initial cooperation. Tit for tat is an English saying meaning "equivalent retaliation". It is also a highly effective strategy in game theory for the iterated prisoner's dilemma. An agent using this strategy will first cooperate, then subsequently replicate an opponent's previous action. Implications The success of the tit-for-tat (TFT) strategy, which is largely cooperative despite that its name emphasizes an adversarial nature, took many by surprise. This result may give insight into how groups of animals (and particularly human societies) have come to live in largely (or entirely) cooperative societies, rather than the individualistic "red in tooth and claw" way that might be expected from individuals engaged in a Hobbesian state of nature. Moreover, the TFT strategy has been of beneficial use to social psychologists and sociologists in studying effective techniques to reduce conflict. Problems
Related: Organizational Level-Alignment
Prisoner's dilemmaThe prisoners' dilemma is a canonical example of a game analyzed in game theory that shows why two individuals might not cooperate, even if it appears that it is in their best interests to do so. It was originally framed by Merrill Flood and Melvin Dresher working at RAND in 1950. Albert W. Tucker formalized the game with prison sentence rewards and gave it the name "prisoner's dilemma" (Poundstone, 1992), presenting it as follows: Two members of a criminal gang are arrested and imprisoned. It's implied that the prisoners will have no opportunity to reward or punish their partner other than the prison sentences they get, and that their decision won't affect their reputation in future. There is also an extended "iterative" version of the game, where the classic game is played over and over between the same prisoners, and consequently, both prisoners continuously have an opportunity to penalize the other for previous decisions. Strategy for the classic prisoners' dilemma Nice
Evolutionary game theoryEvolutionary game theory (EGT) is the application of game theory to evolving populations of lifeforms in biology. EGT is useful in this context by defining a framework of contests, strategies, and analytics into which Darwinian competition can be modelled. EGT originated in 1973 with John Maynard Smith and George R. Price's formalisation of the way in which such contests can be analysed as "strategies" and the mathematical criteria that can be used to predict the resulting prevalence of such competing strategies. Evolutionary game theory differs from classical game theory by focusing more on the dynamics of strategy change as influenced not solely by the quality of the various competing strategies, but by the effect of the frequency with which those various competing strategies are found in the population. Evolutionary game theory has proven itself to be invaluable in helping to explain many complex and challenging aspects of biology. The problem John Maynard Smith Models
Trust (social sciences)In a social context, trust has several connotations. Definitions of trust typically refer to a situation characterised by the following aspects: One party (trustor) is willing to rely on the actions of another party (trustee); the situation is directed to the future. In addition, the trustor (voluntarily or forcedly) abandons control over the actions performed by the trustee. As a consequence, the trustor is uncertain about the outcome of the other's actions; they can only develop and evaluate expectations. The uncertainty involves the risk of failure or harm to the trustor if the trustee will not behave as desired. Trust can be attributed to relationships between people. Conceptually, trust is also attributable to relationships within and between social groups (families, friends, communities, organisations, companies, nations etc.). When it comes to the relationship between people and technology, the attribution of trust is a matter of dispute.
bayimg - free uncensored image hostingThe Seven Habits of Highly Effective PeopleThe 7 Habits of Highly Effective People, first published in 1989, is a business and self-help book written by Stephen R. Covey. Covey presents an approach to being effective in attaining goals by aligning oneself to what he calls "true north" principles of a character ethic that he presents as universal and timeless. The 7 Habits The book first introduces the concept of paradigm shift and helps the reader understand that different perspectives exist, i.e. that two people can see the same thing and yet differ with each other. On this premise, it introduces the seven habits in a proper order. Each chapter is dedicated to one of the habits, which are represented by the following imperatives: Independence The First Three Habits surround moving from dependence to independence (i.e., self-mastery): 1 - Be Proactive roles and relationships in life. 2 - Begin with the End in Mind envision what you want in the future so that you know concretely what to make a reality. 4 - Think Win-Win
Der Preis einer freien, weltweiten Kommunikation | Herrschaftsfrei?Am vergangenen Donnerstag (den 12.05.2011) durfte ich am eigenen Leib erfahren, wie es sich anfühlt, unbegründet im Verdacht einer Straftat zu stehen. Das alleine ist problematisch, zieht allerdings einen Rattenschwanz weiterer Probleme und Fragen nach sich. Dieses -aus dem Boden gestampfte- Blog soll mir eine Plattform für den oben angedeuteten Fall sein, mir helfen Gedanken zu ordnen und zu reflektieren. Ich möchte über technische und gesellschaftliche Zusammenhänge aufklären, die zu solchen Situationen führen. Anonymität im Netz Wikipedia weiß: Das derzeitige Internet ermöglicht unterschiedlich weitgehende Anonymität. In unseren Gefilden interessiert eine solche Aussage leider zumeist relativ wenig. grün: freier Zugang, orange: überwacht, hellgelb: teilweise zensiert, hellrosa: erheblich zensiert, rosa: durchgängig zensiert (Lizenz: CC0 1.0) Anonymisierungsnetzwerke Zur Verminderung der oben genannten Probleme haben sich Projekte zur Entwicklung von Softwarelösungen gebildet. Mein Fall
LegitWieder Hausdurchsuchung wegen Tor-Exit-ServerSören Weber hat bis vor einiger Zeit einen Tor-Exit-Server betrieben. Am vergangenen Donnerstag stand plötzlich die Polizei vor der Tür und beschlagnahmte bei einer Hausdurchsuchung seine Computer und Festplatten, weil er im Verdacht steht, im Besitz von Kinderpornographie zu sein. Er beschreibt die Situation ausführlich in seinem Blog und bittet um Spenden, um die rund 1000 Euro pauschale Anwaltskosten refinanzieren zu können: Der Preis einer freien, weltweiten Kommunikation. Ich befinde mich derzeit auf dem zweiten Bildungsweg und lebe von BAföG. Die Geschichte, Kontakt- und Spendendaten finden sich auf seinem Blog. Update: Die Spendensumme ist längst erreicht, alles, was darüber gespendet wurde, gibt Sören an das Torproject und eine weitere Organisation weiter. Hintergrund zu Tor, der Technik und der rechtlichen Lage beschreibt der Netzpolitik-Podcast Folge 99 mit Andreas Lehner: NPP099: Anonymität und das TOR-Projekt Wir wollen netzpolitik.org weiter ausbauen.
About LifeLockMy hero: Noam Chomsky by Charles Glass"My heroes have always been cowboys," Willie Nelson sang, a sentiment I shared when I was a child in California. My hero in my teenage years, while most of my contemporaries were demonstrating against the US war in Vietnam, was the greatest cowboy star of them all, John Wayne. When I was 16, he gave me a job. I admired him, and I still do. Things changed when I moved to Beirut in 1972 and saw the devastation wreaked by US weaponry on Palestinian refugee camps and Lebanese villages. I wrote to Chomsky, citing my reports on Israeli actions in south Lebanon, including the sinking of Lebanese fishing boats whose crews had to swim long distances to shore, that my editors either refused to publish or rewrote to change facts unflattering to the Israelis or critical of US policies. A year later, while I was visiting Cambridge, Massachusetts, we arranged to meet.
Changing must abide the LAWS of the Farm:Share Book Recommendations With Your Friends, Join Book Clubs, Answer TriviaBill of RightsDuring the debates on the adoption of the Constitution, its opponents repeatedly charged that the Constitution as drafted would open the way to tyranny by the central government. Fresh in their minds was the memory of the British violation of civil rights before and during the Revolution. They demanded a "bill of rights" that would spell out the immunities of individual citizens. On September 25, 1789, the First Congress of the United States therefore proposed to the state legislatures 12 amendments to the Constitution that met arguments most frequently advanced against it.Michael Hyatt | Intentional Leadership