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Utopia

Utopia
Etymology[edit] Varieties[edit] Ecology[edit] Ecological utopian society describes new ways in which society should relate to nature. In the novelette Rumfuddle (1973), Jack Vance presents a novel twist on the ecological utopia. Economics[edit] Politics and history[edit] A global utopia of world peace is often seen as one of the possible end results of world history. The communes of the 1960s in the United States were often an attempt to greatly improve the way humans live together in communities. Intentional communities were organized and built all over the world with the hope of making a more perfect way of living together. Religious utopia[edit] Religious utopias can be intra-religious or inter-religious. Intra-Religious utopias are based on religious ideals, and are to date those most commonly found in human society. The book of Revelation in the Christian bible depicts a better time, in the future, after Satan and evil are defeated. Science and technology[edit] Related:  SPECULATIVE REALISMchazportera

Iain Hamilton Grant Iain Hamilton Grant is a senior lecturer at the University of the West of England in Bristol, United Kingdom. His research interests include European philosophy, especially philosophical Idealism, contemporary philosophy, the history and philosophy of science, the philosophy of technology, the philosophy of the body, and the history and problems associated with the autonomization of the human and socio-cultural sciences with respect to the physical. He is often associated with the recent philosophical current known as Speculative Realism.[1] Grant was initially known as a translator of the prominent French philosophers Jean Baudrillard and Jean-François Lyotard. His reputation as an independent philosopher comes primarily from his book Philosophies of Nature After Schelling (2006). Bibliography[edit] Original works[edit] Philosophies of Nature After Schelling (London and New York: Continuum, 2006)[3] English translations[edit] References[edit] External links[edit]

Posthuman A posthuman or post-human is a concept originating in the fields of science fiction, futurology, contemporary art, and philosophy. These multiple and interactive origins have contributed to profound confusion over the similarities and differences between the posthuman of "posthumanism" and the posthuman of "transhumanism". Posthumanism[edit] Steve Nichols published the Post-Human Manifesto in 1988, and holds a contrarian view that human beings are already post-human compared to previous generations. Critical discourses surrounding posthumanism are not homogeneous, but in fact present a series of often contradictory ideas, and the term itself is contested, with one of the foremost authors associated with posthumanism, Manuel de Landa, decrying the term as "very silly Transhumanism[edit] Definition[edit] Methods[edit] Posthuman future[edit] As used in this article, "posthuman" does not necessarily refer to a conjectured future where humans are extinct or otherwise absent from the Earth.

Ray Brassier Ray Brassier (born 1965) is a member of the philosophy faculty at the American University of Beirut, Lebanon, known for his work in philosophical realism. He was formerly Research Fellow at the Centre for Research in Modern European Philosophy at Middlesex University, London, England. He is the author of Nihil Unbound: Enlightenment and Extinction and the translator of Alain Badiou's Saint Paul: The Foundation of Universalism and Theoretical Writings and Quentin Meillassoux's After Finitude: An Essay on the Necessity of Contingency. He is currently working on a book tentatively entitled That Which is Not.[3] He first attained prominence as a leading authority on the works of François Laruelle. Work[edit] Brassier's work attempts to fuse elements of post-war French philosophy with ideas arising from the (largely Anglo-American) traditions of philosophical naturalism, cognitive science, and neurophilosophy. Bibliography[edit] Original works As Translator References[edit] External links[edit]

Paradise The concept is a topos' in art and literature, particularly of the pre-Enlightenment era, a well-known representative of which is John Milton's Paradise Lost. A paradise should not be confused with a utopia, which is an alternative society. Etymology and semasiology[edit] The word "paradise" entered English from the French paradis, inherited from the Latin paradisus, from Greek parádeisos (παράδεισος), and ultimately from an Old Iranian root, attested in Avestan as pairi.daêza-.[1] The literal meaning of this Eastern Old Iranian language word is "walled (enclosure)",[1] from pairi- "around" + -diz "to create (a wall)".[2] The word is not attested in other Old Iranian languages (these may however be hypothetically reconstructed, for example as Old Persian *paridayda-). Hebrew פרדס (pardes) appears thrice in the Tanakh; in the Song of Solomon 4:13, Ecclesiastes 2:5 and Nehemiah 2:8. In those contexts it could be interpreted as an "orchard" or a "fruit garden". Religious use[edit] Islam[edit]

Reza Negarestani After being associated with the philosophical movement of Speculative Realism for several years, Negarestani is currently lecturing and writing about rationalist universalism beginning with the evolution of the modern system of knowledge and advancing toward contemporary philosophies of rationalism, their procedures as well as their demands for special forms of human conduct. Since his relocation to the United States of America from Asia, Negarestani has given several lectures, a list of which includes: Negarestani's blog[18] includes his shorter texts and the summary of his latest projects. Critical thinking Critical thinking is a type of clear, reasoned thinking. According to Beyer (1995) Critical thinking means making clear, reasoned judgements. While in the process of critical thinking, ideas should be reasoned and well thought out/judged.[1] The National Council for Excellence in Critical Thinking defines critical thinking as the intellectually disciplined process of actively and skillfully conceptualizing, applying, analyzing, synthesizing, and/or evaluating information gathered from, or generated by, observation, experience, reflection, reasoning, or communication, as a guide to belief and action Etymology[edit] In the term critical thinking, the word critical, (Grk. κριτικός = kritikos = "critic") derives from the word critic, and identifies the intellectual capacity and the means "of judging", "of judgement", "for judging", and of being "able to discern".[3] Definitions[edit] According to the field of inquiry [weasel words], critical thinking is defined as: Skills[edit] Procedure[edit]

Eliminative materialism Eliminativists argue that modern belief in the existence of mental phenomena is analogous to the ancient belief in obsolete theories such as the geocentric model of the universe. Eliminativism stands in opposition to reductive materialism, which argues that a mental state is well defined, and that further research will result in a more detailed, but not different understanding.[3] An intermediate position is revisionary materialism, which will often argue that the mental state in question will prove to be somewhat reducible to physical phenomena - with some changes to the common sense concept. Eliminativism about a class of entities is the view that that class of entities does not exist.[4] For example, all forms of materialism are eliminativist about the soul; modern chemists are eliminativist about phlogiston; and modern physicists are eliminativist about the existence of luminiferous aether. Overview[edit] Philosophers who argue against eliminativism may take several approaches.

Neurogenesis Neurogenesis (birth of neurons) is the process by which neurons are generated from neural stem cells and progenitor cells. Most active during pre-natal development, neurogenesis is responsible for populating the growing brain with neurons. Recently neurogenesis was shown to continue in several small parts of the brain of mammals: the hippocampus and the subventricular zone. Studies have indicated that the hormone testosterone in vertebrates, and the prohormone ecdysone in insects, have an influence on the rate of neurogenesis.[citation needed] Occurrence in adults[edit] New neurons are continually born throughout adulthood in predominantly two regions of the brain: Many of the newborn cells die shortly after they are born, but a number of them become functionally integrated into the surrounding brain tissue. Role in learning[edit] Effects of stress[edit] Some studies have hypothesized that learning and memory are linked to depression, and that neurogenesis may promote neuroplasticity.

Science, technology and society Content[edit] Science, technology and society studies can include the following areas of concentration: biotechnology, environmental sustainability, information technology.[1] As an interdisciplinary study, science, technology, and society brings together research findings from anthropology, communications, sociology, politology, computer science, engineering. History[edit] STS is a new and expanding subject. Early developments[edit] The key disciplinary components of STS took shape independently, beginning in the 1960s, and developed in isolation from each other well into the 1980s, although Ludwik Fleck's monograph (1935) Genesis and Development of a Scientific Fact anticipated many of STS's key themes: Science studies, a branch of the sociology of scientific knowledge that places scientific controversies in their social context.History of technology, that examines technology in its social and historical context. The "turn to technology" (and beyond)[edit] Professional associations[edit]

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