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The History of Rome

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Les Grands Sites Archéologiques Lascaux The Thomas Jefferson Hour The Gauls of Acy-Romance: Discovering the Remi Article created on Thursday, March 8, 2012 Visitors to the village of Acy-Romance north of the modern day French city of Rheims, will see no sign of the Gallic village that was once there. However, very unusually, this village has been fully excavated. A succession of digs over fifteen years, plot by plot, has revealed the full details of the little Gallic settlement that stood here some 2200 years ago, in the heart of the territory of the Remi tribe. Aerial reconstruction of village. You can now take a virtual tour of the village. Set on a plain above the Aisne valley, it was structured around a religious centre comprising a burial mound with an ancestral tomb, a large square and five buildings, the “temples”. Around this stood the residential quarters, with livestock farmers to the northeast, arable farmers to the east, artisans to the southeast and labourers (probably slaves) to the north. Village reconstruction. One of the burials excavated at the site. The virtual tour More information:

Sallust — The War With Catiline p3 Sallust The War With Catiline It behooves all men who wish to excel the other animals to strive with might and main not to pass through life unheralded, like the beasts, which Nature has fashioned grovelling and slaves to the belly. 2 All our power, on the contrary, lies in both mind and body; we employ the mind to rule, the body rather to serve; the one we have in common with the Gods, the other with the brutes. 3 Therefore I find it becoming, in seeking renown, that we should employ the resources of the intellect rather than those of brute strength, to the end that, since the span of life which we enjoy is short, we may make the memory of our lives as long as possible. 4 For the renown which riches or beauty confer is fleeting and frail; mental excellence is a splendid and lasting possession. p5 2 Accordingly in the beginning kings (for that was the first title of sovereignty among men), took different courses, some training their minds and others their bodies.

Fasces An unusual fasces image, with the axe on the outside of the bundle of rods. Origin and symbolism[edit] Although little is known about the Etruscans, a few artifacts have been found showing a thin bundle of rods surrounding a two-headed axe.[3] Fasces-symbolism might derive—via the Etruscans—from the eastern Mediterranean, with the labrys, the Anatolian and Minoan double-headed axe, later incorporated into the praetorial fasces. There is little archaeological evidence.[4] By the time of the Roman Republic, the fasces had evolved into a thicker bundle of birch rods, sometimes surrounding a single-headed axe and tied together with a red leather ribbon into a cylinder. The symbolism of the fasces suggested strength through unity; a single rod is easily broken, while the bundle is very difficult to break. Republican Rome[edit] An occasional variation on the fasces was the addition of a laurel wreath, symbolizing victory. Usage[edit] Fasces in the United States[edit] Fasces in France[edit]

Legion XXIV - Fasces Page An Icon representing the Strength and Power of Ancient Rome The FASCES was a cylindrical bundle of elm or birch rods bound together by red bands, from which an ax head projected; and which was borne by Lictors (attendants and body guards) before a Consul or high Magistrate, as a symbol of their authority. Stephen Phenow, Editor of the Strategikon, provides the following: "The Fasces was adopted from the Etruscans. The lowering of the Fasces was form of salute to a higher official. The reconstruction shown here was assembled by the Commander in February 2002. TOP BOTTOM Lictors with Fasces from Osprey Military Series # 291

Fasces Fasces: set of rods bound in the form of a bundle which contained an axe. In ancient Rome, the bodyguards of a magistrate carried fasces. The word fasces means "bundle" and refers to the fact that it is a bundle of rods, which surrounded an ax in the middle. In ancient Rome, the lictors carried fasces before consul, praetors and dictators, i.e., magistrates that held imperium (which means that they had the right to command and interpret the flight of the birds). Other people escorted by lictors with fasces were Vestal Virgins, governors, and the commanders of legions. During the empire, the fasces of the emperor were distinguished from those of the magistrates by laurels. The fasces were a symbol of authority, but the precise meaning is unknown. The Romans believed that the fasces were introduced in Rome from Etruria.

Roman Numerals The Romans were active in trade and commerce, and from the time of learning to write they needed a way to indicate numbers. The system they developed lasted many centuries, and still sees some specialized use today. Roman numerals traditionally indicate the order of rulers or ships who share the same name (i.e. Queen Elizabeth II).