History The existence of a continuous stream of particles flowing outward from the Sun was first suggested by British astronomer Richard C. Carrington. In 1859, Carrington and Richard Hodgson independently made the first observation of what would later be called a solar flare. This is a sudden outburst of energy from the Sun's atmosphere. Laboratory simulation of the magnetosphere's influence on the Solar Wind; these auroral-like Birkeland currents were created in a terrella, a magnetised anode globe in an evacuated chamber. In 1910 British astrophysicist Arthur Eddington essentially suggested the existence of the solar wind, without naming it, in a footnote to an article on Comet Morehouse. The idea never fully caught on even though Eddington had also made a similar suggestion at a Royal Institution address the previous year. Opposition to Parker's hypothesis on the solar wind was strong. Emission Components and Speed Solar wind pressure P = 1.6726×10−6 * n * V2
Related: SACRED BREASTS...
• 01.6. Horizontes Cósmicos - Velocidades
Which book of the Apocrypha did Paul use most? | Newman Research Centre for the Bible and its ReceptionMost readers of the New Testament are familiar with the idea that Paul used the Hebrew scriptures (Old Testament). However, they might be more surprised to realise that he also makes frequent use of a range of Jewish religious writings that are not included in the Hebrew Bible (sometimes referred to as ‘apocryphal’). Which apocryphal book did he use the most and which of his letters reflect the influence of this group of writings? Our last wordcloud explored Paul’s use of the Tanakh (Hebrew scriptures) and identified which of them he used (quoted or alluded to) the most. Paul and contemporary Jewish religious literature However, Paul’s use of Jewish religious texts was not limited to those found within the Tanakh. The recognition that not just the sacred texts of the Tanakh influenced Paul’s thoughts and teaching but that he was also influenced by contemporary Jewish intertestamental literature is extremely helpful in helping us to place Paul within his Jewish milieu. Key: References
File:Structure of the magnetosphere mod PT.pngSolar variationOne composite of solar variability between 1975 and 2005. Variations in total solar irradiance were too small to detect with technology available before the satellite era, although the small fraction in ultra-violet light has recently been found to vary significantly more than previously thought over the course of a solar cycle. Total solar output is now measured to vary (over the last three 11-year sunspot cycles) by approximately 0.1%, or about 1.3 Watts per square meter (W/m2) peak-to-trough from solar maximum to solar minimum during the 11-year sunspot cycle. The amount of solar radiation received at the outer limits of Earth's atmosphere averages 1366 W/m2. There are no direct measurements of the longer-term variation, and interpretations of proxy measures of variations differ. History of study into solar variations Around 1900, researchers began to explore connections between solar variations and weather on Earth. Sunspots Solar cycles
Hand-held Coptic Cross Steatite Egypt 600 CEBadge creator Use Flickriver Badge Creator to create a badge linking to your photos, your group or any other Flickriver view. You can place your badge on your Flickr profile, Blog or Website. Add to your iGoogle or Netvibes page Flickriver widget for iGoogle or Netvibes can display almost any Flickriver view - most interesting today, by user, by group, by tag etc. Clickr on one of the buttons below to install: Embed on your Web site To embed this view, Copy and Paste the following HTML code: Black background (preview): White background (preview): Firefox and Chrome addons Adds a 'Flickriver' button to your browser. Install in FirefoxInstall in Chrome Search plugin Add 'Search on Flickriver' to your browser's search box. "View on Flickriver" Greasemonkey script A Greasemonkey script that adds Flickriver links to various Flickr photo pages - user photos, favorites, pools etc, allowing to quickly open the corresponding Flickriver view. Install "View on Flickriver" script Bookmarklet
Velocidade da luzOrigem: Wikipédia, a enciclopédia livre. Os raios demonstram a diferença entre a velocidade da luz e a velocidade do som: primeiro vem a luz (relâmpago) e depois o som (trovão). A unidade fundamental do Sistema Internacional de Unidades (SI) para comprimentos, o metro, é definida desde 21 de outubro de 1983 como a distância que a luz viaja no vácuo em 1/299 792 458 do segundo. Sendo assim, a definição do metro passou a ser dependente da velocidade da luz, numa inversão do que havia anteriormente. Assim, qualquer mudança na definição do correspondente numérico da velocidade da luz modificaria a definição do metro, ao passo que eventuais novos cálculos da velocidade da luz poderiam, ao invés de mudar o valor numérico do "c", modificar a medida do metro. Valor numérico, notação e unidades[editar | editar código-fonte] A velocidade da luz no vácuo é geralmente denotada por c, de "constante" ou da palavra latina celeritas (que significa "rapidez"). História[editar | editar código-fonte] Mas:
Radiative forcingIncoming solar radiation In climate science, radiative forcing or climate forcing, is defined as the difference of radiant energy (sunlight) received by the Earth and energy radiated back to space. Typically, radiative forcing is quantified at the tropopause in units of watts per square meter of the Earth's surface. A positive forcing (more incoming energy) warms the system, while negative forcing (more outgoing energy) cools it. Causes of radiative forcing include changes in insolation (incident solar radiation) and the concentrations of radiatively active gases, commonly known as greenhouse gases and aerosols. Radiation balance Atmospheric gases only absorb some wavelengths of energy but are transparent to others. Almost all of the energy which affects Earth's weather is received as radiant energy from the Sun. IPCC usage Radiative forcings, IPCC 2007. The IPCC AR4 report, defines radiative forcings as: Climate sensitivity Example calculations Solar forcing
›› ÇRÖSŠING ØVËR ‹‹ | Down the Rabbit Hole‹♦ Christianity was introduced to most of the African continent during the late 19th century by European missionaries. Ethiopia, however, is one of the few countries that practiced Christianity well before European colonialism. In the 4th century, King Ezana of Ethiopia declared the state religion to be Orthodox Christianity and Ethiopian coptic crosses began to be produced. ♦› ‹♦ Ethiopian crosses are easily distinguishable from their beautiful baroque style lattice work. ‹♦ Originally, crosses were cut out of bone, wood, leather, or stone. ‹♦ Throw on an Ethiopian cross or beadwork to show off your faith or simply add some flair to your look!
De onde vem a energia vital que anima os seres na Terra? | Yahoo RespostasOi amigo, Nota; Desculpe se repito alguns links que talvez já lhe tenha passado anteriormente, mas faço isso como força de expressão e também em respeito e consideração ao público que visita este espaço YR Ok? Bom…, Estamos nesse novo século iniciando o descobrimento de que o universo possui um papel muito mais complexo do que jamais poderia se esperar no tocante à vida. Nessa nova era a ciência começa a perceber de que tudo o que se pensou até agora sobre vida talvez tenha que ser reformulado. A ciência começa a perceber que talvez a filosofia hindu e budista estejam certas quando apontam para um universo vivo, mental e autoconsciente. Teorias de vida eterna num universo autoconsciente começam a aflorar. A teoria de que a vida vem da própria vida onde a morte seria mais uma forma de superação numa transformação evolutiva da própria vida.
Solar radiation managementRemoving trees from snowy landscapes can help reflect more sunlight into space at latitudes that have meaningful incoming solar energy in the winter. A study by Lenton and Vaughan suggest that marine cloud brightening and stratospheric sulfate aerosols are each capable of reversing the warming effect of a doubling of the level of CO2 in the atmosphere (when compared to pre-industrial levels). Background The phenomenon of global dimming is widely known, and is not necessarily a climate engineering technique. By intentionally changing the Earth's albedo, or reflectivity, scientists propose that we could reflect more heat back out into space, or intercept sunlight before it reaches the Earth through a literal shade built in space. These climate engineering projects have been proposed in order to reduce global warming. The applicability of many techniques listed here has not been comprehensively tested. Limitations Atmospheric projects Stratospheric aerosols