Arbuscular mycorrhiza It has been said that it is quicker to list the plants that do not form mycorrhizae than those that do. This symbiosis is a highly evolved mutualistic relationship found between fungi and plants, the most prevalent plant symbiosis known, and AM is found in 80% of vascular plant families in existence today. The tremendous advances in research on mycorrhizal physiology and ecology over the past 40 years have led to a greater understanding of the multiple roles of AMF in the ecosystem. This knowledge is applicable to human endeavors of ecosystem management, ecosystem restoration, and agriculture. Flax root cortical cells containing paired arbuscules Evolution of mycorrhizal symbiosis Paleobiology Both paleobiological and molecular evidence indicate that AM is an ancient symbiosis that originated at least 460 million years ago. The Early Devonian saw the development of terrestrial flora. Molecular evidence Physiology Presymbiosis Symbiosis Ecology
Sansevieria Etymology The genus was originally named Sanseverinia by Petagna to honor his patron Pietro Antonio Sanseverino, Count of Chiaromonte (1724-1771), but the name was altered for unknown reasons by Thunberg, possibly influenced by the name of Raimondo di Sangro (1710–1771), prince of San Severo in Italy. Spellings "Sanseveria" and "Sanseviera" are commonly seen as well, the confusion deriving from alternate spellings of the Italian place name. Characteristics There is great variation within the genus, and species range from succulent desert plants such as Sansevieria pinguicula to thinner leafed tropical plants such as Sansevieria trifasciata. Foliage The leaves of Sansevieria are typically arranged in a rosette around the growing point, although some species are distichous. Flowers The flowers are usually greenish-white, also rose, lilac-red, brownish, produced on a simple or branched raceme. Uses Rope and traditional uses Ornamental purposes
Heartleaf Philodendron Care - Philodendron scandens Botanical Name: Philodendron scandens Heartleaf philodendron is a popular house plant because it is extremely easy to grow. It's also known as the Sweetheart Plant. Heart-shaped, glossy leaves emerge bronze, then quickly turn green. Pinch your plant. Pinching tip: Try to pinch close to the node because any bare stem that is left will die, and the node will not grow a new stem. Or, let it grow. It will thrive in a small pot for years with little care. Repot every 2-3 years, in spring or early summer. Origin: South America Height: Climbs or trails to 4 ft (1.2 m) or more. Light: Moderate to bright light, but no direct sun. Water: Keep soil lightly moist spring through fall. Humidity: Tolerant of dry air, but likes humidity. Temperature: Average room temperature 60-75°F/16-24°C Soil: Peat moss-based potting mix. Fertilizer: Feed monthly spring through fall with a balanced liquid fertilizer diluted by half. Propagation: Take stem tip cuttings in spring or early summer.
Echte Aloe Echte Aloe (Aloe vera), Habitus Früchte und Samen von Aloe vera Beschreibung[Bearbeiten] Vegetative Merkmale[Bearbeiten] Blütenstände und Blüten[Bearbeiten] Genetik[Bearbeiten] Die Chromosomenzahl beträgt 2n = 14. Systematik und Verbreitung[Bearbeiten] Die ursprüngliche Heimat von Aloe vera liegt möglicherweise auf der arabischen Halbinsel. Kultiviert wird sie in allen subtropischen und tropischen Regionen der Welt. Verwendung[Bearbeiten] „Curaçao-Aloe“[Bearbeiten] Das in der Aloe enthaltene Aloin wirkt stark abführend, weswegen standardisierte Aloe bzw. deren Zubereitungen zur kurzfristigen Behandlung gelegentlich auftretender Verstopfung verwendet werden kann. Aloe-vera-Gel[Bearbeiten] Ein weiteres von der Echten Aloe stammendes Produkt ist das „Aloe-vera-Gel“, das aus dem Wasserspeichergewebe der Blätter gewonnen wird. Durch den Gehalt an hauptsächlich aus D-Glucose und D-Mannose aufgebauten Polysacchariden weist es eine schleimartige Konsistenz auf. Belege[Bearbeiten]
Glomalin Glomalin is a glycoprotein produced abundantly on hyphae and spores of arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi in soil and in roots. Glomalin was discovered in 1996 by Sara F. Wright, a scientist at the USDA Agricultural Research Service. The name comes from Glomales, an order of fungi. Discovery Glomalin eluded detection until 1992 because, “It requires an unusual effort to dislodge glomalin for study: a bath in citrate combined with heating at 250 F (121 C) for at least an hour.... Description The specific protein glomalin has not yet been isolated and described. However, glomalin-related soil proteins (GRSP) have been identified using a monoclonal antibody (Mab32B11) raised against crushed AMF spores. The discoverer of glomalin, Sara Wright, thinks the “glomalin molecule is a clump of small glycoproteins with iron and other ions attached... glomalin contains form 1 to 9% tightly bound iron.... Effects See also References
Aloe Vera : Science and Safety On this page: Sources Introduction This fact sheet provides basic information about aloe vera—common names, what the science says, potential side effects and cautions, and resources for more information. Aloe vera’s use can be traced back 6,000 years to early Egypt, where the plant was depicted on stone carvings. Historically, aloe was used topically to heal wounds and for various skin conditions, and orally as a laxative. Aloe leaves contain a clear gel that is often used as a topical ointment. Top What the Science Says Aloe latex contains strong laxative compounds. Side Effects and Cautions Use of topical aloe vera is not associated with significant side effects.A 2-year National Toxicology Program (NTP) study on oral consumption of non-decolorized whole leaf extract of aloe vera found clear evidence of carcinogenic activity in male and female rats, based on tumors of the large intestine. Search the scientific literature for potential herb-drug interactions
Spider Plant Chlorophytum comosum, often called the spider plant, airplane plant or hen-and-chickens, is a flowering perennial herb. It is native to tropical and southern Africa, but has become naturalized in other parts of the world, including western Australia. Variegated forms in particular are used as houseplants. Description Chlorophytum comosum grows to about 60 centimetres (24 in) high. It has fleshy, tuberous roots, about 5–10 centimetres (2–4 in) long. The long narrow leaves reach a length of 20–45 centimetres (8–18 in) and are around 6–25 millimetres (0.2–1.0 in) wide. Flower of Chlorophytum comosum 'Vittatum' The inflorescences carry plantlets at the tips of their branches, which eventually droop and touch the soil, developing adventitious roots. Fleshy roots of pot-grown Chlorophytum comosum Taxonomy The species has been confused with Chlorophytum capense (L.) Intra-specific variation Cultivation C. comosum 'Variegatum' See also References
Aloe vera Aloe vera Herbal Farming in Chhattisgarh: Aloe vera  Familia: Xanthorrhoeaceae Genus: Aloe Species: Aloe vera Bulleted list * List item List item List item List item Numbered list # List item List item List item List item Name Aloe vera (L.) Type-protologue: India: without data. Synonyms BasionymAloe perfoliata var. vera L., Sp. References Burman, N.L. 1768. Vernacular names Bahasa Indonesia: Lidah buayaespañol: Sabilagalego: Áloe veralatviešu: Īstā alvejasuomi: LääkeaaloeTürkçe: Tıbbi sarısabır中文: 庫拉索蘆薈
Hypha Fungal Hyphae Cells 1- Hyphal wall 2- Septum 3- Mitochondrion 4- Vacuole 5- Ergosterol crystal 6- Ribosome 7- Nucleus 8- Endoplasmic reticulum 9- Lipid body 10- Plasma membrane 11- Spitzenkörper 12- Golgi apparatus A hypha (plural hyphae) is a long, branching filamentous structure of a fungus, and also of unrelated Actinobacteria. In most fungi, hyphae are the main mode of vegetative growth, and are collectively called a mycelium; yeasts are unicellular fungi that do not grow as hyphae. Etymology The word Hypha is derived from Greek 'huphe', meaning web. Structure Growth As a hypha extends, septa may be formed behind the growing tip to partition each hypha into individual cells. Behaviour The direction of hyphal growth can be controlled by environmental stimuli, such as the application of an electric field. Modifications Types Classification based on cell division Classification based on cell wall and overall form References See also
Monstera deliciosa Monstera deliciosa is a species of flowering plant native to tropical rainforests of southern Mexico, south to Colombia. It has been introduced to many tropical areas, and has become a mildly invasive species in Hawaii. Names The specific epithet deliciosa means "delicious", referring to the edible fruit. Common names include ceriman, Swiss cheese plant (or just cheese plant), fruit salad plant, monster fruit, monsterio delicio, monstereo, Mexican breadfruit, locust and wild honey, windowleaf, balazo, and Penglai banana. Description Wild seedlings grow towards the darkest area they can find until they find a tree trunk, then start to grow up towards the light, creeping up the tree. Cultivation The plant is commonly grown for interior decoration in public buildings and as a houseplant. This species and the cultivar 'Variegata' have gained the Royal Horticultural Society's Award of Garden Merit. Fruit Other uses References External links
Daylily Description Daylilies are perennial plants. The name Hemerocallis comes from the Greek words ἡμέρα (hēmera) "day" and καλός (kalos) "beautiful". This name alludes to the flowers which typically last no more than 24 hours. The flowers of most species open in early morning and wither during the following night, possibly replaced by another one on the same scape (flower stalk) the next day. Hemerocallis is native to Eurasia, including China, Korea, and Japan, and this genus is popular worldwide because of the showy flowers and hardiness of many kinds. A normal, single daylily flower has three petals and three sepals, collectively called tepals, each with a midrib in either the same or a contrasting color. The Tawny or Fulvous Daylily is invasive in some parts of the United States, such as in Wisconsin (Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources). People sometimes plant the Fulvous Daylily and other stoloniferous daylilies, which have underground runners. Cultivars H.
Aloe Vera Please share this page: Google + StumbleUpon Reddit Names of Aloe Vera, past and present Chinese: lu hui / hsiang-danSanskrit: chritkumari / kumariIndian ghee-kunwar / ghi-kuvar / ghrita-kumariFrench: aloes du cap / aloes vrai / aloes vulgaire plante de l’immortaliteSpanish penca sabila / sabila / acibarFilipino: sabila / sabila pinya / dilang-buaya / dilang halo / aloe vera (adopted)English:: burn plant / aloe vera / miracle plant / plant of immortalityLatin(scientific nomenclature): Aloe barbadensis / Aloe vulgaris Background and History The aloe vera plant is among the most well-known of medicinal plants due to its strong and constant presence in the world of alternative medicine. Aloe vera is typically characterized by its unique appearance which features tall, blade-like growths that radiate outward and grow from a central axis so that it forms a ‘crown-like’ shape. Common / Popular Uses Aloe vera Scientific Studies and Research Molecular Components and Chemistry Esoteric / Magickal Uses
Aloe Succulent plants, such as this aloe, store water in their enlarged fleshy leaves, stems, or roots, as shown in this split aloe leaf. This allows them to survive in arid environments. Aloe /ˈæloʊiː/ or /ˈæloʊ/, also written Aloë, is a genus containing over 500 species of flowering succulent plants. The most widely known species is Aloe vera, or "true aloe", so called because, though probably extinct in the wild, it is cultivated as the standard source of so-called "aloe vera" for assorted pharmaceutical purposes. Other species, such as Aloe ferox, also are cultivated or harvested from the wild for similar applications. The genus is native to Africa; species are found in southern Africa, the mountains of tropical Africa, various islands off the coast of Africa including Sardinia, Madagascar, and the Arabian Peninsula. The genus is native to tropical and southern Africa, Madagascar, and Jordan to the Arabian Peninsula. Description Systematics Species Uses