Collectivist anarchism For the collectivization of the means of production, it was originally envisaged that workers will revolt and forcibly collectivize the means of production. Once collectivization takes place, money would be abolished to be replaced with labour notes and workers' salaries would be determined, in democratic organizations of voluntary membership, based on job difficulty and the amount of time they contributed to production. These salaries would be used to purchase goods in a communal market. This contrasts with anarcho-communism where wages would be abolished, and where individuals would take freely from a storehouse of goods "to each according to his need." Thus, Bakunin's "Collectivist Anarchism," notwithstanding the title, is seen as a blend of individualism and collectivism. Collectivist anarchism is most commonly associated with Mikhail Bakunin, the anti-authoritarian sections of the First International, and the early Spanish anarchist movement. The First International
Libertarian socialism Overview Libertarian socialism is a Western philosophy with diverse interpretations, though some general commonalities can be found in its many incarnations. Its proponents generally advocate a worker-oriented system of production and organization in the workplace that in some aspects radically departs from neoclassical economics in favor of democratic cooperatives or common ownership of the means of production (socialism). They propose that this economic system be executed in a manner that attempts to maximize the liberty of individuals and minimize concentration of power or authority (libertarianism). August 17, 1860 edition of libertarian Communist publication Le Libertaire edited by Joseph Déjacque. In a chapter recounting the history of libertarian socialism, economist Robin Hahnel relates that thus far the period where libertarian socialism has had its greatest impact was at the end of the 19th century through the first four decades of the twentieth century. Anarchism
Democratic socialism Democratic socialism is a political ideology advocating a democratic political system alongside a socialist economic system. This may refer to extending principles of democracy in the economy (such as through cooperatives or workplace democracy), or may simply refer to trends of socialism that emphasise democratic principles as inalienable from their political project. There is no exact definition of democratic socialism. Some forms of democratic socialism overlap with social democracy, while other forms reject social democratic reformism in its entirety. Definition Democratic socialism is difficult to define, and groups of political scientists have radically different definitions for the term. But for those who use the term in this way, the scope of the term "socialism" itself can be very vague, and include proposals that exist within and are compatible with capitalism. Some proponents of market socialism see the latter as a form of democratic socialism. History
Universal League for the Material Elevation of the Industrious Classes The Universal League for the Material Elevation of the Industrious Classes was a 19th Century English political movement and organization. Its aims were ambitious and were to:- reduce working hourspromote franchise extensionpromote the international fraternity of workersincrease recreational and educational opportunities Townshend obtained rooms at 18 Greek Street to use as the Universal League's headquarters. Initial efforts concentrated on the right to public assembly and the amendment of the Master and Servant Act but once Gladstone declared his conversion to parliamentary reform the League's efforts were redirected to suffrage.  Further reading F.M.
Leninism The Russian revolutionary Lenin (Vladimir Ilyich Ulyanov) c. 1920. Functionally, the Leninist vanguard party provided to the working class the political consciousness (education and organisation), and the revolutionary leadership necessary to depose capitalism in Imperial Russia. After the October Revolution of 1917, Leninism was the dominant version of Marxism in Russia, and then the official state ideology of Soviet democracy (by workers’ council) in the Russian Socialist Federative Soviet Republic (RSFSR), before its unitary amalgamation into the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR) in 1922. In 1925–29 post-Lenin Russia, Joseph Stalin integrated Leninism to Marxist economics, and developed Marxism–Leninism, which then became the state ideology of the Soviet Union. Historical background Imperialism Workers of the world, unite! Leninist theory The vanguard party Democratic centralism Revolution Dictatorship of the proletariat Economics
Left-wing uprisings against the Bolsheviks The left-wing uprisings against the Bolsheviks were a series of rebellions and uprisings against the Bolsheviks by rival left-wing parties that started soon after the October Revolution, continued through the Russian Civil War, and lasted into the first few years of Soviet rule. They were led or supported by left-wing groups such as some factions of the Socialist Revolutionary Party, Left Socialist Revolutionaries, Mensheviks and anarchists. The uprisings started in 1918 and continued during and after the Civil War until around 1924. The Bolsheviks increasingly abandoned attempts to invite these groups to join the government and instead suppressed them with force. Background Previously, the dominating parts of the Mensheviks and of the Socialist Revolutionary Party had supported the continuation of Russian involvement in World War I by the Provisional Government after the February Revolution of 1917. SR split First party ban SR and Menshevik support to Kaledin 2. 3.
Libertarian Marxism Libertarian Marxism includes such currents as council communism, left communism, Socialisme ou Barbarie Lettrism/Situationism and operaismo/autonomism, and New Left. Libertarian Marxism has often had a strong influence on both post-left and social anarchists. Notable theorists of libertarian Marxism have included Anton Pannekoek, Raya Dunayevskaya, CLR James, Antonio Negri, Cornelius Castoriadis, Maurice Brinton, Guy Debord, Daniel Guérin, Ernesto Screpanti, and Raoul Vaneigem. Overview However, "the most important ruptures are to be traced to the insurgency during and after the First World War. Disillusioned with the capitulation of the social democrats, excited by the emergence of workers' councils, and slowly distanced from Leninism, many communists came to reject the claims of socialist parties and to put their faith instead in the masses." For "many Marxian libertarian socialists, the political bankruptcy of socialist orthodoxy necessitated a theoretical break.
Geneva Congress (1866) The Geneva Congress of 1866 is the common name assigned to the 1st General Congress of the International Workingmen's Association, held in Geneva, Switzerland from September 3 to 8, 1866. The gathering was attended by 46 regular and 14 fraternal delegates from a total of five countries. The Geneva Congress is best remembered for its watershed decision to make universal establishment of the 8-hour working day a main goal of the International Socialist movement. The 1st General Congress of the International Workingmen's Association was convened in Geneva, Switzerland on September 3, 1866. The gathering remained in session for six days, adjourning sine die on September 8 of that same month. Jump up ^ Julius Braunthal, History of the International: Volume 1: 1864-1914.  Henry Collins and Kenneth Mitchell, translators. Julius Braunthal, History of the International: Volume 1: 1864-1914.  Henry Collins and Kenneth Mitchell, trans.
Direct democracy Direct democracy (also known as pure democracy) is a form of democracy in which people decide (e.g. vote on, form consensus on, etc.) policy initiatives directly, as opposed to a representative democracy in which people vote for representatives who then decide policy initiatives. Depending on the particular system in use, it might entail passing executive decisions, the use of sortition, making laws, directly electing or dismissing officials and conducting trials. Two leading forms of direct democracy are participatory democracy and deliberative democracy. Most countries that are representative democracies allow for three forms of political action that provide limited direct democracy: referendum (plebiscite), initiative, and recall. Referendums can include the ability to hold a binding vote on whether a given law should be rejected. History Modern-era citizen lawmaking began in the towns of Switzerland in the 13th century. Examples Ancient Athens
Luxemburgism Luxemburgism is a variant of Marxist revolutionary theory based on the writings of Rosa Luxemburg. According to M. K. Dziewanowski, the term was originally coined by Bolshevik leaders denouncing the deviations of Luxemburg's followers from traditional Leninism, but it has since been adopted by her followers themselves. Luxemburgism as democratic revolutionary socialism The chief tenets of Luxemburgism are a commitment to democracy and the necessity of the revolution taking place as soon as possible. In "The Russian Revolution", written in a German jail during WWI, Luxemburg critiqued Bolsheviks' absolutist political practice and opportunist policies—i.e., their suppression of the Constituent Assembly in January 1918, their support for the partition of the old feudal estates to the peasant communes. Luxemburg criticized Lenin's ideas on how to organize a revolutionary party as likely to lead to a loss of internal democracy and the domination of the party by a few leaders. and See also
Communist state Map of countries that declared themselves to be socialist states under the Marxist–Leninist or Maoist definition - that is to say, "Communist states" - between 1979 and 1983. This period marked the greatest territorial extent of Communist states. In a Communist state, the Communist party is the nucleus of socialist society. Other parties may function alongside the Communist party occasionally, but parties advocating the restoration of capitalism are typically prohibited. Using Marxism-Leninism as a method of understanding the material and social conditions of society, the Communist party governs according to what the society's historical and national characteristics demand in order to unleash the productive forces and further advance towards communism. During the 20th century, the world's first constitutionally socialist state was in Russia in 1917. Types of socialist states State institutions State social institutions In some socialist states,[which?] Political power Criticism Modern period
Miracles Of World War 1: Thursday December 24, 1914, Sunday November 14, 1915, & Sunday May 13, 1917 The military conflict that lasted between August 1914 to November 1918, which involved many of the countries of Europe as well the United States and other nations throughout the world. Perfectly Preserved First World War Trenches Discovered World War I was one of the most violent and destructive wars in European history. Of the 65 million men who were mobilized, more than 10 million were killed and more than 20 million wounded. The term World War I did not come into general use until a second worldwide conflict broke out in 1939 (see World War II). World War I was the first total war. The term home front, which was widely employed for the first time during World War I, perfectly symbolized this new concept of a war in which the civilian population behind the lines was directly and critically involved in the war effort. The war began as a clash between two coalitions of European countries. The Central Powers, which opposed them, consisted of the empires of Germany and Austria-Hungary. Amauta
Anarchism The central tendency of anarchism as a social movement has been represented by anarcho-communism and anarcho-syndicalism, with individualist anarchism being primarily a literary phenomenon which nevertheless did have an impact on the bigger currents and individualists have also participated in large anarchist organisations. Many anarchists oppose all forms of aggression, supporting self-defense or non-violence (anarcho-pacifism), while others have supported the use of some coercive measures, including violent revolution and propaganda of the deed, on the path to an anarchist society. Etymology and terminology The term anarchism is a compound word composed from the word anarchy and the suffix -ism, themselves derived respectively from the Greek ἀναρχία, i.e. anarchy (from ἄναρχος, anarchos, meaning "one without rulers"; from the privative prefix ἀν- (an-, i.e. "without") + ἀρχός, archos, i.e. History Origins