Lesson 12.2 Enrichment: Scarcity and Government Intervention in Colonial Massachusetts Serious European settlement of Cape Cod in Massachusetts, USA began with the arrival of the Pilgrims in 1620. The land was almost totally tree-covered, but logging for fuel and building material, and to clear fields for cultivation, quickly became widespread. Wood was burned in great amounts to boil sea water to obtain salt for packing cod for shipping, and to 'try' whale meat to extract the valuable oil. In Eastham, the freedom-loving pioneers banned cutting of wood on the common lands in 1690 except to supply wood for sales out of town. Symbiosis In a symbiotic mutualistic relationship, the clownfish feeds on small invertebrates that otherwise have potential to harm the sea anemone, and the fecal matter from the clownfish provides nutrients to the sea anemone. The clownfish is additionally protected from predators by the anemone's stinging cells, to which the clownfish is immune. Symbiosis (from Ancient Greek σύν "together" and βίωσις "living") is close and often long-term interaction between two or more different biological species. In 1877, Albert Bernhard Frank used the word symbiosis (which previously had been used to depict people living together in community) to describe the mutualistic relationship in lichens. In 1879, the German mycologist Heinrich Anton de Bary defined it as "the living together of unlike organisms." Some symbiotic relationships are obligate, meaning that both symbionts entirely depend on each other for survival. Physical interaction Alder tree root nodule Mutualism Parasitism
Jean-Bertrand Aristide Jean-Bertrand Aristide (born 15 July 1953) is a Haitian former Catholic priest of the Salesian order and politician who served as Haiti's first democratically elected president. A proponent of liberation theology, Aristide was appointed to a parish in Port-au-Prince in 1982 after completing his studies. He became a focal point for the pro-democracy movement first under Jean-Claude "Baby Doc" Duvalier and then under the military transition regime which followed. He won the Haitian general election, 1990-1991 with 67% of the vote and was briefly President of Haiti, until a September 1991 military coup. The coup regime collapsed in 1994 under US pressure and threat of force (Operation Uphold Democracy). Aristide was then President again from 1994 to 1996 and from 2001 to 2004. However, Aristide was ousted in a 2004 coup d'état, in which one of his former soldiers participated. Early life and church career Aristide was born into poverty in Port-Salut, Sud Department.
Nihilism Nihilism is also a characteristic that has been ascribed to time periods: for example, Jean Baudrillard and others have called postmodernity a nihilistic epoch, and some Christian theologians and figures of religious authority have asserted that postmodernity and many aspects of modernity represent a rejection of theism, and that such rejection of their theistic doctrine entails nihilism. Forms of nihilism Nihilism has many definitions, and thus can describe philosophical positions that are arguably independent.  Metaphysical nihilism is the philosophical theory that there might be no objects at all—that is, that there is a possible world where there are no objects at all—or at least that there might be no concrete objects at all—so that even if every possible world contains some objects, there is at least one that contains only abstract objects. Epistemological nihilism Mereological nihilism This interpretation of existence must be based on resolution.
Stern Review on the Economics of Climate Change - HM Treasury Sir Nicholas Stern, Head of the Government Economic Service and Adviser to the Government on the economics of climate change and development, is delighted to present his report to the Prime Minister and the Chancellor of the Exchequer on the Economics of Climate Change: The Stern team has moved to the Office of Climate Change. Publications posted after the Stern Review including the series of papers printed in the World Economics Journal, are now available on the Stern team page on the Office of Climate Change website. Some of the above documents are available in Adobe Acrobat Portable Document Format (PDF). Hardcopies will be available from January at a charge of c. £29.99 + £3.50 postage and packing (quoting ISBN number: 0-521-70080-9). Back to top Office of Climate Change The Office of Climate Change (OCC) works across Government to support the development of climate change policy and strategy.
Marxists Internet Archive Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel The birthplace of Hegel in Stuttgart, which now houses The Hegel Museum Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel (German: [ˈɡeɔɐ̯k ˈvɪlhɛlm ˈfʁiːdʁɪç ˈheːɡəl]; August 27, 1770 – November 14, 1831) was a German philosopher, and a major figure in German Idealism. His historicist and idealist account of reality revolutionized European philosophy and was an important precursor to Continental philosophy and Marxism. Life Early years Childhood Hegel was born on August 27, 1770 in Stuttgart, in the Duchy of Württemberg in southwestern Germany. At age of three Hegel went to the "German School". In 1776 Hegel entered Stuttgart's Gymnasium Illustre. Tübingen (1788-93) At the age of eighteen Hegel entered the Tübinger Stift (a Protestant seminary attached to the University of Tübingen), where two fellow students were to become vital to his development - poet Friedrich Hölderlin, and philosopher-to-be Friedrich Wilhelm Joseph Schelling. Bern (1793–96) and Frankfurt (1797–1801)
Ontology Parmenides was among the first to propose an ontological characterization of the fundamental nature of reality. Etymology While the etymology is Greek, the oldest extant record of the word itself, the New Latin form ontologia, appeared in 1606 in the work Ogdoas Scholastica by Jacob Lorhard (Lorhardus) and in 1613 in the Lexicon philosophicum by Rudolf Göckel (Goclenius). The first occurrence in English of ontology as recorded by the OED (Oxford English Dictionary, online edition, 2008) came in a work by Gideon Harvey (1636/7–1702): Archelogia philosophica nova; or, New principles of Philosophy. Leibniz is the only one of the great philosophers of the 17th century to have used the term ontology. Overview Some fundamental questions Principal questions of ontology include: what it is (its 'whatness', quiddity, haecceity or essence)how it is (its 'howness' or qualitativeness)how much it is (quantitativeness)where it is (its relatedness to other beings)
Publications & Documents PISA › Publications & Documents 3-December-2013 English, PDF, 554kb PISA 2012 Results - Italy The Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA) is a triennial international survey which aims to evaluate education systems worldwide by testing the skills and knowledge of 15-year-old students. To date, students representing more than 70 economies have participated in the assessment. Related Documents PISA 2012 Results English, PDF, 9,814kb English, PDF, 475kb PISA 2012 Results - United States English, PDF, 532kb PISA 2012 Results - Norway English, PDF, 540kb PISA 2012 Results - Spain English, PDF, 397kb PISA 2012 Results - Austria French, PDF, 1,062kb
Florida’s flawed “voter-cleansing” program If Vice President Al Gore is wondering where his Florida votes went, rather than sift through a pile of chad, he might want to look at a “scrub list” of 173,000 names targeted to be knocked off the Florida voter registry by a division of the office of Florida Secretary of State Katherine Harris. A close examination suggests thousands of voters may have lost their right to vote based on a flaw-ridden list that included purported “felons” provided by a private firm with tight Republican ties. Early in the year, the company, ChoicePoint, gave Florida officials a list with the names of 8,000 ex-felons to “scrub” from their list of voters. But it turns out none on the list were guilty of felonies, only misdemeanors. The company acknowledged the error, and blamed it on the original source of the list — the state of Texas. Florida officials moved to put those falsely accused by Texas back on voter rolls before the election. “I was very upset,” Howell said. This story has been corrected.
Kants "What Is Enlightenment" Enlightenment is man's emergence from his self-imposed immaturity. Immaturity is the inability to use one's understanding without guidance from another. This immaturity is self-imposed when its cause lies not in lack of understanding, but in lack of resolve and courage to use it without guidance from another. Laziness and cowardice are the reasons why so great a proportion of men, long after nature has released them from alien guidance (natura-liter maiorennes), nonetheless gladly remain in lifelong immaturity, and why it is so easy for others to establish themselves as their guardians. Thus, it is difficult for any individual man to work himself out of the immaturity that has all but become his nature. But that the public should enlighten itself is more likely; indeed, if it is only allowed freedom, enlightenment is almost inevitable.
Skepticism Skepticism or scepticism (see American and British English spelling differences) is generally any questioning attitude towards knowledge, facts, or opinions/beliefs stated as facts, or doubt regarding claims that are taken for granted elsewhere. Philosophical skepticism is an overall approach that requires all information to be well supported by evidence. Classical philosophical skepticism derives from the 'Skeptikoi', a school who "asserted nothing". Adherents of Pyrrhonism, for instance, suspend judgment in investigations. Skeptics may even doubt the reliability of their own senses. Religious skepticism, on the other hand, is "doubt concerning basic religious principles (such as immortality, providence, and revelation)". Definition In ordinary usage, skepticism (US) or scepticism (UK) (Greek: 'σκέπτομαι' skeptomai, to think, to look about, to consider; see also spelling differences) refers to: Philosophical skepticism Scientific skepticism Media
Lesson 12.7 Enrichment: Estimates Dr. Alley summarized many estimates of the costs of dealing with climate change in his book Earth: The Operators' Manual. Some of those are repeated here. The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) from 2007 found costs of between slight growth (0.6%) and somewhat larger magnitude shrinkage (3.0%) of global GDP in 2030, versus business-as-usual, for different paths toward stabilizing the atmospheric concentration of CO2 at between 1.6 and 2.5 times the level before the industrial revolution. (IPCC, 2007, Summary for Policymakers, in Metz, B., O. Much relevant work has been done in Germany. (German Advisory Council on Global Change (WBGU) (Grassl, H., J. Comparable estimates - average about 1% cost, as low as 1% benefit and as high as 4% costs - were summarized in Hasselmann, K., 2009, 'What to do?