Category:Political philosophy Philosophy portal Political philosophy, or political theory, is the study of topics such as politics, liberty, justice, property, rights, law, and the enforcement of a laws by authority: what they are, why (or even if) they are needed, what, if anything, makes a government legitimate, what rights and freedoms it should protect and why, what form it should take and why, what the law is, and what duties citizens owe to a legitimate government, if any, and when it may be legitimately overthrown, if ever. In a vernacular sense, the term "political philosophy" often refers to a general view, or specific ethic, political belief or attitude, about politics, synonymous to the term "political ideology". For similar topics see the following categories also:
Abdeljelil Zaouche Tunisian politician (1873–1947) Abdeljelil Zaouche (Arabic: عبد الجليل الزّاوش; 15 December 1873 – 3 January 1947) was a Tunisian politician, reformer, and campaigner in the Tunisian independence movement. Youth His secondary education was at the Collège Saint-Charles in Tunis and then the lycée Louis-le-Grand in Paris where he took his baccalauréat. In 1894, he matriculated at the law faculty in Paris while also studying at the Institut des sciences politiques and the Collège de France. Strongly influenced by Jean Jaurès, he was also a pupil of Émile Durkheim, Émile Boutroux, Henri Poincaré, Antoine Aulard and Ernest Lavisse. He graduated in law and returned to Tunis in 1900 where he involved himself in public affairs. In 1901, together with the Ramella brothers, he founded a flour mill, and in 1903 he hosted a visit by Muhammad Abduh. In 1903 he set up the first scientific press in the Arab world, Al Matbâa Al Ilmiya. Economic reform and political campaigns Works
The White Man's Burden Poem by the English poet Rudyard Kipling In "The White Man's Burden", Kipling encouraged the American annexation and colonisation of the Philippine Islands, a Pacific Ocean archipelago conquered in the three-month Spanish–American War (1898). As an imperialist poet, Kipling exhorts the American reader and listener to take up the enterprise of empire yet warns about the personal costs faced, endured, and paid in building an empire; nonetheless, American imperialists understood the phrase "the white man's burden" to justify imperial conquest as a civilising mission that is ideologically related to the continental expansion philosophy of manifest destiny of the early 19th century. History The White Man's Burden: civilising the unwilling savage. "The White Man's Burden" published in McClure's Magazine, February 1899 He quotes, inter alia, stanzas 1, 4, and 5 of "The White Man's Burden", noting: Those [Filipino] peoples are not suited to our institutions. Text
Westernization Adoption of or assimilation by Western culture Westernization has been a growing influence across the world in the last few centuries, with some thinkers assuming Westernization to be the equivalent of modernization, a way of thought that is often debated. The overall process of Westernization is often two-sided in that Western influences and interests themselves are joined with parts of the affected society, at minimum, to become a more Westernized society, with the putative goal of attaining a Western life or some aspects of it, while Western societies are themselves affected by this process and interaction with non-Western groups. Westernization traces its roots back to Ancient Greece. Westernization can also be compared to acculturation and enculturation. Western world The "West" was originally defined as the Western world. Significantly influenced countries The following countries or regions experienced a significant influence by the process of Westernization: Samuel P.
War of 1812 Conflict between the United States and the British Empire from 1812 to 1815 The War of 1812 (18 June 1812 – 17 February 1815) was fought by the United States of America and its indigenous allies against the United Kingdom and its allies in British North America, with limited participation by Spain in Florida. It began when the United States declared war on 18 June 1812 and, although peace terms were agreed upon in the December 1814 Treaty of Ghent, did not officially end until the peace treaty was ratified by Congress on 17 February 1815. At sea, the far larger Royal Navy imposed an effective blockade on U.S. maritime trade, while between 1812 to 1814 British regulars and colonial militia defeated a series of American attacks on Upper Canada. Origin Since the conclusion of the War of 1812, historians have long debated the relative weight of the multiple reasons underlying its origins. However, other historians believe that a desire to permanently annex Canada was a direct cause of the war.
Timeline of European imperialism From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Jump to navigationJump to search This Timeline of European imperialism covers episodes of imperialism by western nations since 1400; for other countries, see Imperialism § Imperialism by country. Pre-1700 Colonization of North America Map of North America (1750) – France (blue), Britain (pink), and Spain (orange) Map of the northern part and parts of the southern parts of the America, from the mouth of the Saint Laurent River to the Island of Cayenne, with the new discoveries of the Mississippi (or Colbert) River. 1700 to 1799 1793 to 1870 1870–1914 Central and east Africa, 1898, during the Fashoda Incident. 1914–1919 1917: Jones Act gives full American citizenship to Puerto Ricans.1918: Austrian Empire ends, Austria becomes a republic, Hungary becomes a kingdom, Czechoslovakia, Poland, and Yugoslavia become independent Maps French conquests and territories See also Notes Further reading Surveys
Timeline of British diplomatic history From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Jump to navigationJump to search This timeline covers the main points of British (and English) foreign policy from 1485 to the early 21st century. 16th century 17th century 1700–1789 1789–1815 1815–1860 1814–22: Castlereagh as Secretary of State for Foreign Affairs (foreign minister) works with the Congress of Vienna to provide a peace in Europe consistent with the conservative mood of the day. non-intervention; no European police system; every nation for itself, and God for us all; balance of power; respect for facts, not for abstract theories; respect for treaty rights, but caution in extending them … a republic is as good a member of the comity of nations as a monarch. 1860–1896 President Cleveland twists the tail of the British Lion regarding Venezuela—a policy hailed by Irish Catholics in the United States; cartoon in Puck by J.S. 1895: Venezuela Crisis. The battleship HMS Royal Sovereign, 1896 1897–1919
Territorial evolution of Russia Expansion of Russia (1300–1945) The borders of Russia changed through military conquests and by ideological and political unions in the course of over five centuries (1533–present). Russian Tsardom and Empire The name Russia for the Grand Duchy of Moscow began to appear in the late 15th century, and became official in 1547 when the Tsardom of Russia was established. The Grand Duchy of Moscow was one of the successors in part of the territory of medieval Kievan Rus'. After a period of political instability between 1598 and 1613, which became known as the Time of Troubles, the Romanovs came to power (1613) and the expansion-colonization process of the Tsardom continued. This continued for centuries; by the end of the 19th century, the Russian Empire reached from the Baltic Sea, to the Black Sea, to the Pacific Ocean, and for some time included colonies in the Americas (1732–1867) and a short-lived unofficial colony in Africa (1889) in present-day Djibouti. Expansion into Asia
Sykes–Picot Agreement Secret 1916 agreement between the United Kingdom and France The Sykes–Picot Agreement () was a 1916 secret treaty between the United Kingdom and France, with assent from the Russian Empire and the Kingdom of Italy, to define their mutually agreed spheres of influence and control in an eventual partition of the Ottoman Empire. The agreement was based on the premise that the Triple Entente would achieve success in defeating the Ottoman Empire during World War I and formed part of a series of secret agreements contemplating its partition. The primary negotiations leading to the agreement took place between 23 November 1915 and 3 January 1916, on which date the British and French diplomats, Mark Sykes and François Georges-Picot, initialled an agreed memorandum. The agreement was ratified by their respective governments on 9 and 16 May 1916. The agreement effectively divided the Ottoman provinces outside the Arabian Peninsula into areas of British and French control and influence.
Supranational union Multinational political union with a central authority The European Union (EU) has been described as a paradigmatic case of a supranational organization, as it has deep political, economic and social integration, which includes a common market, joint border control, a supreme court, and regular popular elections. Another method of decision-making in international organisations is intergovernmentalism in which state governments play a more prominent role. Origin as a legal concept After the dropping of atomic bombs on Hiroshima and Nagasaki in August 1945, Albert Einstein spoke and wrote frequently in the late 1940s in favour of a "supranational" organization to control all military forces except for local police forces, including nuclear weapons. With its founding Statute of 1949 and its Convention of Human Rights and Fundamental Freedoms, which came into force in 1953, the Council of Europe created a system based on human rights and the rule of law. Joseph H. See also
Spazio vitale Italian Fascist expansionist political project The Italian Empire to be realized within the policy of spazio vitale. Dark red indicates the Italian mainland and actual Italian protectorates and colonies, light red indicates the territories that were occupied by Italian troops during World War II, and beige indicates the territories of the projected Imperial Italy. Spazio vitale (Italian: [ˈspattsjo viˈtaːle], "living space") was the territorial expansionist concept of Italian Fascism. Ideological characteristics According to the Italian Fascist ideologist Giuseppe Bottai (pictured), spazio vitale justified Italian colonialism in Europe and Africa. As such, the ideological purpose of spazio vitale included the exportation of revolutionary fascism to replace the native political systems in order to civilise the conquered peoples into colonies of Fascist Italy. In Europe In Europe, Italy's spazio vitale was to include southeastern Europe. In Africa Art See also
Soviet Empire Informal political term used to describe the actions and power of the Soviet Union before 1989 The greatest extent of the Soviet Empire, the territory which the Soviet Union politically, economically and militarily dominated as of 1959–1960, after the Cuban Revolution but before the official 1961 Sino-Soviet split (total area: c. 35,000,000 km2)[a] Soviet Empire is a political term which is used in Sovietology to describe the actions and power of the Soviet Union, with an emphasis on its dominant role in other countries. In the wider sense, the term refers to the country's foreign policy during the Cold War, which has been characterized as imperialist: the nations which were part of the Soviet Empire were nominally independent countries with separate governments that set their own policies, but those policies had to stay within certain limits decided by the Soviet Union. These limits were enforced by the threat of intervention by Soviet forces, and later the Warsaw Pact. Warsaw Pact