Anger Anger or wrath is an intense emotional response. Often it indicates when one's basic boundaries are violated. Some have a learned tendency to react to anger through retaliation. Anger may be utilized effectively when utilized to set boundaries or escape from dangerous situations. Anger may have physical correlates such as increased heart rate, blood pressure, and levels of adrenaline and noradrenaline. Some view anger as an emotion which triggers part of the fight or flight brain response. Anger becomes the predominant feeling behaviorally, cognitively, and physiologically when a person makes the conscious choice to take action to immediately stop the threatening behavior of another outside force. The English term originally comes from the term anger of Old Norse language. Anger can have many physical and mental consequences. Psychology and sociology Afferent development Extension of the Stimuli of the Fighting Reactions. Rage Symptoms Passive anger
Dialectical behavior therapy Dialectical behavior therapy (DBT) is a therapy designed to help people change patterns of behavior that are not effective, such as self-harm, suicidal thinking and substance abuse. This approach works towards helping people increase their emotional and cognitive regulation by learning about the triggers that lead to reactive states and helping to assess which coping skills to apply in the sequence of events, thoughts, feelings and behaviors that lead to the undesired behavior. DBT assumes that people are doing the best that they can, but either are lacking the skills or are influenced by positive or negative reinforcement that interfere with one’s functioning. DBT is a modified form of cognitive-behavioral therapy that was originally [timeframe?] developed by Marsha M. Linehan, a psychology researcher at the University of Washington, to treat people with borderline personality disorder (BPD) and chronically suicidal individuals. Overview Four modules Mindfulness Observe
Affection A kiss on the cheek, forehead, nose, mouth or lips expresses affection. Restricted definition More specifically, the word has been restricted to emotional states, the object of which is a living thing such as a human or animal. Affection is compared with passion, from the Greek "pathos". Expression Affection can be communicated by words, gestures, or touches. Affection can be displayed in different manners in different cultural societies. See also References Notes Jump up ^ affection - Definitions from Dictionary.comJump up ^ 17th and 18th Century Theories of Emotions > Francis Hutcheson on the Emotions (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy)Jump up ^ according to Communication professor Kory Floyd of Arizona State UniversityJump up ^ Infant Observation: International Journal of Infant Observation and Its ApplicationsJump up ^ up ^ Clarke, John R. (2001). Sources Further reading External links
Personality disorders Personality disorders are a class of mental disorders characterised by enduring maladaptive patterns of behavior, cognition and inner experience, exhibited across many contexts and deviating markedly from those accepted by the individual's culture. These patterns develop early, are inflexible and are associated with significant distress or disability. The definitions may vary some according to other sources. Official criteria for diagnosing personality disorders are listed in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, published by the American Psychiatric Association, and in the mental and behavioral disorders section of the International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems, published by the World Health Organization. The DSM-5 published in 2013 now lists personality disorders in exactly the same way as other mental disorders, rather than on a separate 'axis' as previously. Classification World Health Organization
Dissociative identity disorder Although neither epidemiological surveys nor longitudinal studies have been done, it is thought DID rarely resolves spontaneously. Symptoms are said to vary over time. In general, the prognosis is poor, especially for those with co-morbid disorders. Dissociative disorders including DID have been attributed to disruptions in memory caused by trauma and other forms of stress, but research on this hypothesis has been characterized by poor methodology. Definitions Signs and symptoms The number of alters varies widely, with most patients identifying fewer than ten, though as many as 4,500 have been reported. Co-morbid disorders Borderline personality disorder Causes Research is needed to determine the prevalence of the disorder in those who have never been in therapy, and the prevalence rates across cultures. Developmental trauma Delinking early trauma from the etiology of dissociation has been explicitly rejected by those supporting the early trauma model.
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Somatization disorder Somatization disorder (also Briquet's syndrome) is a mental disorder characterized by recurring, multiple, and current, clinically significant complaints about somatic symptoms. It was recognized in the DSM-IV-TR classification system, but in the latest version DSM-V, it was combined with undifferentiated somatoform disorder to become somatic symptom disorder, a diagnosis which no longer requires a specific number of somatic symptoms. Still, ICD-10, the latest version of the International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems, still includes somatization syndrome. Symptoms and criteria DSM-V In the DSM-5 the disorder has been renamed to somatic symptom disorder (SSD), and includes SSD with predominantly somatic complaints (previously referred to as somatization disorder), and SSD with pain features (previously known as pain disorder). DSM-IV-TR The DSM-IV-TR diagnostic criteria are: ICD-10 Epidemiology Explanations
Pity Pity means feeling for others, particularly feelings of sadness or sorrow, and is used in a comparable sense to the more modern words "sympathy" and "empathy". Through insincere usage, it can also have a more unsympathetic connotation of feelings of superiority or condescension. History Alexander sees with a look of pity that Darius has died from his wounds. The word "pity" comes from the Latin word "Pietas". The word is often used in the translations from Ancient Greek into English of Aristotle's Poetics and Rhetoric. The religious concept of pity was reinforced in the West after the acceptance of Judeo-Christian concepts of God by the proposition of a deity which felt pity for all humanity. Neurological perspectives Modern neurology asserts that pity consists of an initial aversion to the plight of the sufferer, after which the higher parts of the brain make a more nuanced assessment of the situation (e.g., considering the context and invoking empathy, etc.). See also
Sympathy Sympathy (from the Greek words syn "together" and pathos "feeling" which means "fellow-feeling") is the perception, understanding, and reaction to the distress or need of another human being. This empathic concern is driven by a switch in viewpoint, from a personal perspective to the perspective of another group or individual who is in need. Empathy and sympathy are often used interchangeably. Sympathy is a feeling, but the two terms have distinct origins and meanings. Empathy refers to the understanding and sharing of a specific emotional state with another person. Sympathy does not require the sharing of the same emotional state. Instead, sympathy is a concern for the well-being of another. Merriam Webster defines empathy as "the feeling that you understand and share another person's experiences and emotions : the ability to share someone else's feelings Causes In order to get an experience of sympathy there are specific conditions that need to occur. Communication
Psychological trauma Trauma can be caused by a wide variety of events, but there are a few common aspects. There is frequently a violation of the person's familiar ideas about the world and of their human rights, putting the person in a state of extreme confusion and insecurity. This is also seen when institutions that are depended upon for survival, violate or betray or disillusion the person in some unforeseen way. However, the definition of trauma differs among individuals by their subjective experiences, not the objective facts. Some theories suggest childhood trauma can increase one's risk for psychological disorders including posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), depression, and substance abuse. Symptoms People who go through these types of extremely traumatic experiences often have certain symptoms and problems afterward. Triggers and cues act as reminders of the trauma, and can cause anxiety and other associated emotions. Situational trauma Assessment Treatment See also
Complex post-traumatic stress disorder However, C-PTSD was not accepted by the American Psychiatric Association as a mental disorder. It was not included in DSM-IV or in DSM-5, published in 2013. C-PTSD involves complex and reciprocal interactions between multiple biopsychosocial systems. It was first described in 1992 by Judith Herman in her book Trauma & Recovery and an accompanying article. Forms of trauma associated with C-PTSD involve a history of prolonged subjection to totalitarian control including sexual abuse (especially child sexual abuse), physical abuse, emotional abuse, domestic violence or torture—all repeated traumas in which there is an actual or perceived inability for the victim to escape. Symptoms Child and adolescents The diagnosis of PTSD was originally developed for adults who had suffered from a single event trauma, such as rape, or a traumatic experience during a war. However, the situation for many children is quite different. Adults Diagnostics Adults
Empathy Empathy is the capacity to understand what another person is experiencing from within the other person's frame of reference, i.e., the capacity to place oneself in another's shoes. Etymology The English word is derived from the Ancient Greek word ἐμπάθεια (empatheia), "physical affection, passion, partiality" which comes from ἐν (en), "in, at" and πάθος (pathos), "passion" or "suffering". The term was adapted by Hermann Lotze and Robert Vischer to create the German word Einfühlung ("feeling into"), which was translated by Edward B. Titchener into the English term empathy. Alexithymia (the word comes from the Ancient Greek words λέξις (lexis, "diction", "word") and θυμός (thumos, "soul, as the seat of emotion, feeling, and thought") modified by an alpha-privative, literally meaning "without words for emotions"), is a term to describe a state of deficiency in understanding, processing, or describing emotions in oneself. Definition Applications Types