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Rationalism vs. Empiricism

Rationalism vs. Empiricism
1. Introduction The dispute between rationalism and empiricism takes place within epistemology, the branch of philosophy devoted to studying the nature, sources and limits of knowledge. The defining questions of epistemology include the following. What is the nature of propositional knowledge, knowledge that a particular proposition about the world is true? The disagreement between rationalists and empiricists primarily concerns the second question, regarding the sources of our concepts and knowledge. 1.1 Rationalism To be a rationalist is to adopt at least one of three claims. The Intuition/Deduction Thesis: Some propositions in a particular subject area, S, are knowable by us by intuition alone; still others are knowable by being deduced from intuited propositions. Intuition is a form of rational insight. We can generate different versions of the Intuition/Deduction thesis by substituting different subject areas for the variable ‘S’. 1.2 Empiricism 2. 3. 4.

Optical Illusions and Visual Phenomena Débat sur le rationalisme Débats sur les valeurs de l'esprit scientifique à rebours de la caricature zététique Ayant écouté au hasard quelques morceaux du "ballado de la Science et de la Raison" (sic), j'ai été étonné d'entendre une phrase qui m'a paru très bizarre, ironiquement citée du site de J. Beau, rr0.org, qui par ailleurs me semble très respectable. Manifestement un dégat collatéral sur l'image de la science provoquée par les folies de la secte des Zététiciens, j'ai trouvé nécessaire d'y répondre ainsi (citation presque intégrale Mon message à J. Bonjour. D'abord, pour "le problème de vocabulaire": Quel sens donner au mot "rationalisme", et sur quelles bases motiver ce choix de définition ? Voir la bataille sur l'usage du titre de "blog zététique" qui a eu lieu. Donc je rencontre un problème personnel à voir le "rationalisme" défini sous forme de l'explicitation pratique de cette caricature, du fait qu'il m'est impossible d'y trouver ma place. Je vais m'arrêter là et lire un peu plus vos pages. Non.

Sense Perception, use in cinematography "How do we make sense of the complex visual world around us?" That opening question served as the launching pad for an unprecedented two-night Academy event, "Movies in Your Brain: The Science of Cinematic Perception," which brought together filmmakers and cognitive scientists to explore the way viewers process images, events and stories experienced on the silver screen. Bill Kroyer, an Academy Governor representing the Short Films and Feature Animation Branch, welcomed the audience at both evenings of the Sci-Tech Council event, held on July 29 and 30 at the Academy's Linwood Dunn Theater. The host throughout was Tim J. First up on Tuesday night was Uri Hasson, an associate professor of psychology and neurosciences at Princeton University, who explained how brain responses to films could be measured dynamically using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Joining Hasson and Smith for a panel discussion were Jeffrey M.

Empirisme contre rationalisme...ou la déduction et l'induction pour ne pas désespérer de la raison Jeudi 30 décembre 4 30 /12 /Déc 13:59 Les empiristes et les rationalistes se sont interrogés bien plus sur les moyens de connaître que sur la capacité de l’homme quant à la connaissance. Ce point commun est le seul qui les réunit car ils s’opposent sur tout le reste. Les premiers considèrent en effet que l’on connaît grâce aux sens, les seconds affirmant eux que c’est l’entendement qui prime sur l’expérience. Nombre de penseurs illustres se sont inscrits dans l’un ou l’autre de ces deux courants de pensée, Aristote par exemple pour le premier, Platon, ou encore Kant, pour le second. Kant notamment est catégorique sur le sujet, même s’il ouvre la discussion. Partager l'article ! inShare

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Note d’opinion : rationalisme, scepticisme, déterminisme À propos du rationalisme, du scepticisme et du déterminisme Si je devais citer les lieux (1) philosophiques auxquels j’incline à adhérer - exercice évidemment très réducteur -, je choisirais le rationalisme, le scepticisme et le déterminisme (2). Et si j’en parle, ce n’est nullement parce que cela mérite d’être su, mais uniquement en raison du fait qu’il s’agit là d’une conjonction de lieux qui relève a priori du possible (puisque je la vis) et dont je peux tenter de dire quelque chose. Ai-je besoin de préciser que je n’ai pas l’ambition de faire de la philosophie ? 1. Rares sont ceux qui prétendent ne pas s’incliner devant la raison ; mais plus rares encore sont ceux qui, en pratique, lui accordent effectivement la préférence. Comme le dénonce avec force Jacques Bouveresse, nous vivons une époque qui a vu la notion même de vérité mise en cause jusqu’au niveau de sa pertinence. (3) Or, il s’agit là d’un basculement dans l’absurde d’une préoccupation initialement très légitime. 2. 3.

Pareidolia: Why we see faces in hills, the Moon and toasties People have long seen faces in the Moon, in oddly-shaped vegetables and even burnt toast, but a Berlin-based group is scouring the planet via satellite imagery for human-like features. What's behind our desire to see faces in our surroundings, asks Lauren Everitt. Most people have never heard of pareidolia. But nearly everyone has experienced it. Anyone who has looked at the Moon and spotted two eyes, a nose and a mouth has felt the pull of pareidolia. It's "the imagined perception of a pattern or meaning where it does not actually exist", according to the World English Dictionary. German design studio Onformative is undertaking perhaps the world's largest and most systematic search for pareidolia. Google Faces will scan the entire globe several times over from different angles. It's certainly not the first to uncover faces where they don't actually exist. A chicken nugget shaped like US President George Washington earned more than £5,000 ($8,100) on eBay last year.

Diners believe a meal is tastier the more they have paid for it, say researchers - News - Food + Drink People who eat expensive food perceive it to be tastier than the same meal offered at a lower price, the Cornell University study found. The researchers concluded that taste perception and feelings of overeating and guilt can be manipulated by price alone. The New York University study examined the eating habits of 139 people enjoying an Italian buffet in an upstate restaurant. The price of the food was set by the researchers at either $4 (£2.40) or $8 (£4.70) for the all-you-can-eat meal. The people who paid $8 for the food enjoyed their meal 11 per cent more than those who ate the “cheaper” buffet, although both ate the same amount of food. Participants, who ate from the lesser priced buffet, did not enjoy their meal as much and reported frequent feelings of overeating and guilt about loading up their plates. “Simply cutting the price of food at a restaurant dramatically affects how customers evaluate and appreciate the food.”

That picture of the map of different tastes on your tongue is completely wrong, say scientists - Science - News Researchers at Columbia University in the US, found that every one of the thousands of sensors on the tongue can sense the full range of sweet, salty, bitter, sour, and umami (the savoury taste of glutamate). Taste buds each have 50 to 100 receptors attuned to each category, which have a matching partner in the brain that receives signals. Prof Charles Zuker, a lead author of the study, told BBC News: “The cells were beautifully tuned to discrete individual taste qualities, so you have a very nice match between the nature of the cells in your tongue and the quality they represent [in the brain].” Scientists hope that the findings, published in Nature, could be used to help reverse the loss of taste sensation in old age. The human tongue is popularly thought to have distinct zones for discerning sweet, bitter, sour, salty and savoury tastes, with the so-called “tongue map”, often seen in primary school textbooks.

How Stores Manipulate Your Senses So You Spend More Money Internet in de ban van een (blauw met zwarte) jurk Media Internet is in de ban van een jurk. #TheDress is niet zomaar trending, maar gaat zo viraal dat Twitterapplicaties er vast van lopen. De vraag waar het om draait: is-ie wit met goud of blauw met zwart? Gisteren waren het nog twee gevluchte lama’s die het internet domineerden. Hard tegen hard Een Tumblr-post van gisteren was het startschot van de strijd. pvdp Peter van der PloegIk ga vandaag niet meer praten met blauwzwartcollega’s denk ik.14 uur geleden In de metro gaat het verder Zoals gezegd: Twitter ontploft over de prangende kwestie. Antwoord: blauw en zwart Een bedrijf claimt de maker van de jurk te zijn en dus het antwoord te hebben. Hoe kan dat nou? Hoe is het mogelijk dat een deel van de mensheid een wit met gouden jurk ziet, terwijl het andere deel een blauw met zwarte jurk ziet? “Licht komt het oog binnen door een lens; verschillende golflengtes representeren verschillende kleuren. PS. Lees meer over: Internet jurk

Police Body Cameras: What Do You See? Now watch the same encounter filmed from the police car’s dash camera. That didn’t add much clarity, did it? Professor Stoughton said that after watching both videos, most people usually say: “It looked like he pushed the officer, or he fell because he was going to get hit by the door.” Why? Now here is the same incident, from a bystander’s smartphone. So here’s what really happened: The man jumped out because he was trying to get away from a bee inside his car. The video also shows that the officer was not knocked down by the man in the car, or the door — he was too far away. Why might some of us have missed these details? Let’s take a deeper look at the responses. Readers who said at the start that they had a high level of trust in the police or tended to trust the police were more likely to believe that the officer faced a very threatening, or somewhat threatening, situation, according to our updated results. People who generally trust the police Saw a serious threat

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