Outline of communication Outline of communication From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Jump to: navigation, search Communication – purposeful activity of exchanging information and meaning across space and time using various technical or natural means, whichever is available or preferred. Contents [hide] Essence of communication Branches of communication Fields of communication Theories, schools, and approaches History of communication History of communication General communication concepts Types of communication General topics of communication Communication industries and media vocations General communication terms Communication scholars See also References External links Retrieved from " Categories: Hidden categories: Navigation menu Personal tools Namespaces Variants Views More Navigation Interaction Tools Print/export Languages العربية Edit links This page was last modified on 16 January 2015, at 07:14.
Active recall Active recall exploits the psychological testing effect and is very efficient in consolidating long-term memory. Research revealed that it is the quickest, most efficient, and effective way to study written materials, at least for factual and problem-solving tests. Aside from passive review, it is said to be better than mindmapping and note-taking since it is extremely efficient for committing details and ideas into one's memory. It is also suggested that the neocortex has an active recall that can use episodic information to build new semantic memories, which could mean the hippocampus plays a role in the way memories are consolidated in the neocortex. Information retrieval and learning A study done by J.D. Karpicke and H.L. Karpicke and Janell R. McDaniel et al. (2009) came up with the 3R (read-recite-review) method for learning from textbooks. Some critics of active recall claim that using retrieval techniques only improves learning a specific response. See also
Scotopic sensitivity syndrome Scotopic sensitivity syndrome (SSS), also known as Visual Stress, Irlen Syndrome, and Asfedia, is a condition relating to the interaction of the central nervous system and the eyes at a physiological level with light. The effects of SSS are most noticeable during activities associated with reading, but an individual with the condition may notice the condition's effects in other activities. The exact cause of SSS is currently under debate within the scientific community. In addition, the scientific community has not reached a consensus on the most efficient method for treating the condition. However, in a joint statement, The American Academy of Ophthalmology, American Academy of Pediatrics, American Association for Pediatric Ophthalmology and Strabismus and American Association of Certified Orthoptists firmly repudiated the use of lenses for treating SSS, stating that there was no scientific evidence supporting their use. History Research Brain studies Theory
John Amos Comenius Comenius introduced a number of educational concepts and innovations including pictorial textbooks written in native languages instead of Latin, teaching based in gradual development from simple to more comprehensive concepts, lifelong learning with a focus on logical thinking over dull memorization, equal opportunity for impoverished children, education for women, and universal and practical instruction. Besides his native Bohemian Crown, he lived and worked in other regions of the Holy Roman Empire, and other countries: Sweden, the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth, Transylvania, England, the Netherlands and Hungary. Life and work John Amos Comenius was born in 1592 in the Margraviate of Moravia in the Bohemian Crown. His birthplace is uncertain and possibilities include Uherský Brod (as on his gravestone in Naarden), Nivnice, and Komňa, all of which are located in Uherské Hradiště District of today's Czech Republic. Educational influence Theology Family
Cognitive map Overview Cognitive maps serve the construction and accumulation of spatial knowledge, allowing the "mind's eye" to visualize images in order to reduce cognitive load, enhance recall and learning of information. This type of spatial thinking can also be used as a metaphor for non-spatial tasks, where people performing non-spatial tasks involving memory and imaging use spatial knowledge to aid in processing the task. The neural correlates of a cognitive map have been speculated to be the place cell system in the hippocampus and the recently discovered grid cells in the entorhinal cortex. Neurological basis Cognitive mapping is believed to largely be a function of the hippocampus. Numerous studies by O'Keefe have implicated the involvement of place cells. Parallel map theory Generation The cognitive map is generated from a number of sources, both from the visual system and elsewhere. History The idea of a cognitive map was first developed by Edward C.
History of writing The history of writing is primarily the development of expressing language by letters or other marks and also the study and description of these developments. In the history of how systems of representation of language through graphic means have evolved in different human civilizations, more complete writing systems were preceded by proto-writing, systems of ideographic and/or early mnemonic symbols. True writing, in which the content of a linguistic utterance is encoded so that another reader can reconstruct, with a fair degree of accuracy, the exact utterance written down[A 1] is a later development. It is distinguished from proto-writing which typically avoids encoding grammatical words and affixes, making it more difficult or impossible to reconstruct the exact meaning intended by the writer unless a great deal of context is already known in advance. Inventions of Writing Writing numbers for the purpose of record keeping began long before the writing of language. Main General
Phonogram (linguistics) A phonogram is a grapheme (written character) which represents a phoneme (speech sound) or combination of phonemes, such as the letters of the Latin alphabet or the Japanese kana. For example, "igh" is an English-language phonogram that represents the hard "I" sound in "high". Whereas the word phonemes refers to the sounds, the word phonogram refers to the letter(s) that represent that sound.
Dyscalculia Dyscalculia is difficulty in learning or comprehending arithmetic, such as difficulty in understanding numbers, learning how to manipulate numbers, and learning math facts. It is generally seen as a specific developmental disorder like dyslexia. Dyscalculia can occur in people from across the whole IQ range, often, but not always, involving difficulties with time, measurement, and spatial reasoning. Estimates of the prevalence of dyscalculia range between 3 and 6% of the population. A quarter of children with dyscalculia have ADHD. Mathematical disabilities can occur as the result of some types of brain injury, in which case the proper term is acalculia, to distinguish it from dyscalculia which is of innate, genetic or developmental origin. Dyscalculia has been associated with females who have Turner's Syndrome. History Etymology The term dyscalculia dates back to at least 1949. Dyscalculia comes from Greek and Latin which means: "counting badly".
Grapheme The word grapheme is derived from Greek γράφω gráphō ("write"), and the suffix -eme, by analogy with phoneme and other names of emic units. The study of graphemes is called graphemics. Notation Graphemes are often notated within angle brackets, as 〈a〉, 〈B〉, etc. This is analogous to the slash notation (/a/, /b/) used for phonemes, and the square bracket notation used for phonetic transcriptions ([a], [b]). Glyphs and allographs For example, in written English (or other languages using the Latin alphabet), there are many different physical representations of the lowercase letter "a", such as a, ɑ, etc. Types of graphemes The principal types of phonographic graphemes are logograms, which represent words or morphemes (for example Chinese characters, the ampersand & representing the English word and, Arabic numerals); syllabic characters, representing syllables (as in Japanese kana); and alphabetic letters, corresponding roughly to phonemes (see next section).
Orthography Most significant languages in the modern era are written down, and for most such languages a standard orthography has been developed, often based on a standard variety of the language, and thus exhibiting less dialect variation than the spoken language. Sometimes there may be variation in a language's orthography, as between American and British spelling in the case of English orthography. In some languages orthography is regulated by language academies, although for many languages (including English) there are no such authorities, and orthography develops in a more organic way. Even in the latter languages, a significant amount of consensus arises naturally, although a maximum of consistency or standardization occurs only when prescriptively imposed according to style guides. Etymology and meaning The English word orthography dates from the 15th century. Units and notation Orthographic units, such as letters of an alphabet, are technically called graphemes. Types
List of writing systems This is a list of writing systems (or scripts), classified according to some common distinguishing features. The usual name of the script is given first; the name of the language(s) in which the script is written follows (in brackets), particularly in the case where the language name differs from the script name. Other informative or qualifying annotations for the script may also be provided. Writing systems of the world today. Pictographic/ideographic writing systems Ideographic scripts (in which graphemes are ideograms representing concepts or ideas, rather than a specific word in a language), and pictographic scripts (in which the graphemes are iconic pictures) are not thought to be able to express all that can be communicated by language, as argued by the linguists John DeFrancis and J. Although a few pictographic or ideographic scripts exist today, there is no single way to read them, because there is no one-to-one correspondence between symbol and language. Syllabaries
Latin alphabet This map shows the countries in the world that use a Latin alphabet as the sole official (or de facto official) national script in dark green. The lighter green indicates the countries that use Latin as a co-official script at the national level. The classical Latin alphabet, also known as the Roman alphabet, is a writing system originally used to write the Latin Language. History Origins Archaic Latin alphabet Classical Latin alphabet After the Roman conquest of Greece in the 1st century BC, Latin adopted the Greek letters ⟨Y⟩ and ⟨Z⟩ (or readopted, in the latter case) to write Greek loanwords, placing them at the end of the alphabet. The Latin names of some of these letters are disputed[by whom?]. The primary mark of punctuation was the interpunct, which was used as a word divider, though it fell out of use after 200 AD. Medieval and later developments De chalcographiae inventione (1541, Mainz) with the 23 letters. Spread See also References
Visual thinking Visual thinking, also called visual/spatial learning or picture thinking is the phenomenon of thinking through visual processing. Visual thinking has been described as seeing words as a series of pictures. It is common in approximately 60–65% of the general population. "Real picture thinkers", those who use visual thinking almost to the exclusion of other kinds of thinking, make up a smaller percentage of the population. Research and theoretical background In the Netherlands, there is a strong and growing interest in the phenomenon of 'true' "picture thinking", or "beelddenken". Non-verbal thought Thinking in mental images is one of a number of other recognized forms of non-verbal thought, such as kinesthetic, musical and mathematical thinking. Linguistics A common assumption is that people think in language, and that language and thought influence each other. Multiple intelligences Split-brain research Photographic memory Learning styles
Logogram Logograms are commonly known also as "ideograms". Strictly speaking, however, ideograms represent ideas directly rather than words and morphemes, and none of the logographic systems described here is truly ideographic. Since logograms are visual symbols representing words rather than the sounds or phonemes that make up the word, it is relatively easier to remember or guess the meaning of logograms, while it might be relatively harder to remember or guess the sound of alphabetic written words. Another feature of logograms is that a single logogram may be used by a plurality of languages to represent words with similar meanings. Modern examples include for example the logograms for "Ladies" and "Gents", "telephone", and "wheelchair access", which can be understood without any knowledge of the spoken language, i.e. the concept conveyed is the same to a German as to a Spaniard (for whom also include the symbols for the numbers 0 to 9, and the ampersand "&") or Korean.