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Mnemonic

Mnemonic
Knuckle mnemonic for the number of days in each month of the Gregorian Calendar. Each protruding knuckle represents a 31-day month. A mnemonic (RpE: /nəˈmɒnɨk/,[1] AmE: /nɛˈmɑːnɪk/ the first "m" is silent), or mnemonic device, is any learning technique that aids information retention. Mnemonics aim to translate information into a form that the brain can retain better than its original form. Even the process of merely learning this conversion might already aid in the transfer of information to long-term memory. Commonly encountered mnemonics are often used for lists and in auditory form, such as short poems, acronyms, or memorable phrases, but mnemonics can also be used for other types of information and in visual or kinesthetic forms. The word mnemonic is derived from the Ancient Greek word μνημονικός (mnēmonikos), meaning "of memory, or relating to memory"[2] and is related to Mnemosyne ("remembrance"), the name of the goddess of memory in Greek mythology. History[edit] For lists[edit]

Outline of communication Outline of communication From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Jump to: navigation, search Communication – purposeful activity of exchanging information and meaning across space and time using various technical or natural means, whichever is available or preferred. Contents [hide] Essence of communication[edit] Branches of communication[edit] Fields of communication[edit] Theories, schools, and approaches[edit] History of communication[edit] History of communication General communication concepts[edit] Types of communication[edit] General topics of communication[edit] Communication industries and media vocations[edit] General communication terms[edit] Communication scholars[edit] See also[edit] References[edit] External links[edit] Retrieved from " Categories: Hidden categories: Navigation menu Personal tools Namespaces Variants Views More Navigation Interaction Tools Print/export Languages العربية Edit links This page was last modified on 16 January 2015, at 07:14.

Scotopic sensitivity syndrome Scotopic sensitivity syndrome (SSS), also known as Visual Stress, Irlen Syndrome, and Asfedia, is a condition relating to the interaction of the central nervous system and the eyes at a physiological level with light. The effects of SSS are most noticeable during activities associated with reading, but an individual with the condition may notice the condition's effects in other activities. The exact cause of SSS is currently under debate within the scientific community. In addition, the scientific community has not reached a consensus on the most efficient method for treating the condition. However, in a joint statement, The American Academy of Ophthalmology, American Academy of Pediatrics, American Association for Pediatric Ophthalmology and Strabismus and American Association of Certified Orthoptists firmly repudiated the use of lenses for treating SSS, stating that there was no scientific evidence supporting their use. History[edit] Research[edit] Brain studies[edit] Theory[edit]

Cognitive map Overview[edit] Cognitive maps serve the construction and accumulation of spatial knowledge, allowing the "mind's eye" to visualize images in order to reduce cognitive load, enhance recall and learning of information. This type of spatial thinking can also be used as a metaphor for non-spatial tasks, where people performing non-spatial tasks involving memory and imaging use spatial knowledge to aid in processing the task.[6] The neural correlates of a cognitive map have been speculated to be the place cell system in the hippocampus[7] and the recently discovered grid cells in the entorhinal cortex.[8] Neurological basis[edit] Cognitive mapping is believed to largely be a function of the hippocampus. Numerous studies by O'Keefe have implicated the involvement of place cells. Parallel map theory[edit] Generation[edit] The cognitive map is generated from a number of sources, both from the visual system and elsewhere. History[edit] The idea of a cognitive map was first developed by Edward C.

History of writing The history of writing is primarily the development of expressing language by letters or other marks[1] and also the study and description of these developments. In the history of how systems of representation of language through graphic means have evolved in different human civilizations, more complete writing systems were preceded by proto-writing, systems of ideographic and/or early mnemonic symbols. True writing, in which the content of a linguistic utterance is encoded so that another reader can reconstruct, with a fair degree of accuracy, the exact utterance written down[A 1] is a later development. It is distinguished from proto-writing which typically avoids encoding grammatical words and affixes, making it more difficult or impossible to reconstruct the exact meaning intended by the writer unless a great deal of context is already known in advance. Inventions of Writing[edit] Writing numbers for the purpose of record keeping began long before the writing of language. Main General

Phonogram (linguistics) A phonogram is a grapheme (written character) which represents a phoneme (speech sound) or combination of phonemes, such as the letters of the Latin alphabet or the Japanese kana. For example, "igh" is an English-language phonogram that represents the hard "I" sound in "high". Whereas the word phonemes refers to the sounds, the word phonogram refers to the letter(s) that represent that sound.

Dyscalculia Dyscalculia is difficulty in learning or comprehending arithmetic, such as difficulty in understanding numbers, learning how to manipulate numbers, and learning math facts. It is generally seen as a specific developmental disorder like dyslexia. Dyscalculia can occur in people from across the whole IQ range, often, but not always, involving difficulties with time, measurement, and spatial reasoning.[1][2] Estimates of the prevalence of dyscalculia range between 3 and 6% of the population.[1][2] A quarter of children with dyscalculia have ADHD.[3] Mathematical disabilities can occur as the result of some types of brain injury, in which case the proper term is acalculia, to distinguish it from dyscalculia which is of innate, genetic or developmental origin. Dyscalculia has been associated with females who have Turner's Syndrome. History[edit] Etymology[edit] The term dyscalculia dates back to at least 1949.[5][6] Dyscalculia comes from Greek and Latin which means: "counting badly".

Grapheme The word grapheme is derived from Greek γράφω gráphō ("write"), and the suffix -eme, by analogy with phoneme and other names of emic units. The study of graphemes is called graphemics. Notation[edit] Graphemes are often notated within angle brackets, as 〈a〉, 〈B〉, etc.[1] This is analogous to the slash notation (/a/, /b/) used for phonemes, and the square bracket notation used for phonetic transcriptions ([a], [b]). Glyphs and allographs[edit] For example, in written English (or other languages using the Latin alphabet), there are many different physical representations of the lowercase letter "a", such as a, ɑ, etc. Types of graphemes[edit] The principal types of phonographic graphemes are logograms, which represent words or morphemes (for example Chinese characters, the ampersand & representing the English word and, Arabic numerals); syllabic characters, representing syllables (as in Japanese kana); and alphabetic letters, corresponding roughly to phonemes (see next section).

Orthography Conventions when writing in a language Most transnational languages in the modern period have a system of writing, and for most such languages a standard orthography has been developed, often based on a standard variety of the language, and thus exhibiting less dialect variation than the spoken language.[1][2] Sometimes there may be variation in a language's orthography, such as that between American and British spelling in the case of English orthography. In some languages (such as French) orthography is regulated by language academies. For most languages (including English), there are no such authorities and a sense of 'correct' orthography evolves through encounters with print in schooling, workplace, and informal contexts. Etymology and meaning[edit] The English word orthography dates from the 15th century. Most natural languages developed as oral languages, and writing systems have usually been crafted or adapted as ways of representing the spoken language. Units and notation[edit]

List of writing systems This is a list of writing systems (or scripts), classified according to some common distinguishing features. The usual name of the script is given first; the name of the language(s) in which the script is written follows (in brackets), particularly in the case where the language name differs from the script name. Other informative or qualifying annotations for the script may also be provided. Writing systems of the world today. Pictographic/ideographic writing systems[edit] Ideographic scripts (in which graphemes are ideograms representing concepts or ideas, rather than a specific word in a language), and pictographic scripts (in which the graphemes are iconic pictures) are not thought to be able to express all that can be communicated by language, as argued by the linguists John DeFrancis and J. Although a few pictographic or ideographic scripts exist today, there is no single way to read them, because there is no one-to-one correspondence between symbol and language. Syllabaries[edit]

Latin alphabet Alphabet used to write the Latin language The Latin or Roman alphabet is the set of letters originally used by the ancient Romans to write Latin. Etymology Evolution Due to its use in writing Germanic, Romance and other languages first in Europe and then in other parts of the world and due to its use in Romanizing writing of other languages, it has become widespread (see Latin script). The Latin alphabet evolved from the visually similar Etruscan alphabet, which evolved from the Cumaean Greek version of the Greek alphabet, which was itself descended from the Phoenician alphabet, which in turn derived from Egyptian hieroglyphics.[1] The Etruscans ruled early Rome; their alphabet evolved in Rome over successive centuries to produce the Latin alphabet. During the Middle Ages, the Latin alphabet was used (sometimes with modifications) for writing Romance languages, which are direct descendants of Latin, as well as Celtic, Germanic, Baltic and some Slavic languages. Diacritics History Spread Notes

Visual thinking Visual thinking, also called visual/spatial learning or picture thinking is the phenomenon of thinking through visual processing. Visual thinking has been described as seeing words as a series of pictures.[citation needed] It is common in approximately 60–65% of the general population. "Real picture thinkers", those who use visual thinking almost to the exclusion of other kinds of thinking, make up a smaller percentage of the population. Non-verbal thought[edit] Thinking in mental images is one of a number of other recognized forms of non-verbal thought, such as kinesthetic, musical and mathematical thinking. Learning styles[edit] The acknowledgement and application of different cognitive and learning styles, including visual, kinesthetic, musical, mathematical and verbal thinking styles, are a common part of many current teacher training courses. Empirical research shows that there is no evidence that identifying a student's "learning style" produces better outcomes. Linguistics[edit]

Logogram Logograms are commonly known also as "ideograms". Strictly speaking, however, ideograms represent ideas directly rather than words and morphemes, and none of the logographic systems described here is truly ideographic. Since logograms are visual symbols representing words rather than the sounds or phonemes that make up the word, it is relatively easier to remember or guess the meaning of logograms, while it might be relatively harder to remember or guess the sound of alphabetic written words. Another feature of logograms is that a single logogram may be used by a plurality of languages to represent words with similar meanings. Modern examples include for example the logograms for "Ladies" and "Gents", "telephone", and "wheelchair access", which can be understood without any knowledge of the spoken language, i.e. the concept conveyed is the same to a German as to a Spaniard (for whom also include the symbols for the numbers 0 to 9, and the ampersand "&") or Korean.

Concept map An Electricity Concept Map, an example of a concept map A concept map or conceptual diagram is a diagram that depicts suggested relationships between concepts.[1] It is a graphical tool that designers, engineers, technical writers, and others use to organize and structure knowledge. A concept map typically represents ideas and information as boxes or circles, which it connects with labeled arrows in a downward-branching hierarchical structure. The relationship between concepts can be articulated in linking phrases such as causes, requires, or contributes to.[2] Overview[edit] A concept map is a way of representing relationships between ideas, images, or words in the same way that a sentence diagram represents the grammar of a sentence, a road map represents the locations of highways and towns, and a circuit diagram represents the workings of an electrical appliance. Concept maps were developed to enhance meaningful learning in the sciences. Differences from other visualizations[edit]

Auditory processing disorder Auditory processing disorder (APD), also known as central auditory processing disorder (CAPD), is an umbrella term for a variety of disorders that affect the way the brain processes auditory information.[1] Individuals with APD usually have normal structure and function of the outer, middle and inner ear (peripheral hearing). However, they cannot process the information they hear in the same way as others do, which leads to difficulties in recognizing and interpreting sounds, especially the sounds composing speech. It is thought that these difficulties arise from dysfunction in the central nervous system. The American Academy of Audiology notes that APD is diagnosed by difficulties in one or more auditory processes known to reflect the function of the central auditory nervous system.[1] APD can affect both children and adults, although the actual prevalence is currently unknown. Presentation in adults[edit] CAPD can continue into adulthood. Definitions[edit] Causes[edit] Diagnosis[edit]

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