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The Problem of Perception

The Problem of Perception
First published Tue Mar 8, 2005; substantive revision Fri Feb 4, 2011 Sense-perception—the awareness or apprehension of things by sight, hearing, touch, smell and taste—has long been a preoccupation of philosophers. One pervasive and traditional problem, sometimes called “the problem of perception”, is created by the phenomena of perceptual illusion and hallucination: if these kinds of error are possible, how can perception be what it intuitively seems to be, a direct and immediate access to reality? 1. 1.1 Introduction This entry will focus on a single, central problem of perception: how to reconcile some apparently obvious truths about our experience of the world with the possibility of certain kinds of perceptual error. This problem is not the same as the epistemological problem of how perception can give us knowledge of the external world (see the entry on epistemological problems of perception). 1.2 The Argument from Illusion An illusion here may be defined, with A.D. 2. Related:  Psychology tree

List of cognitive biases Cognitive biases are tendencies to think in certain ways that can lead to systematic deviations from a standard of rationality or good judgment, and are often studied in psychology and behavioral economics. There are also controversies over some of these biases as to whether they count as useless or irrational, or whether they result in useful attitudes or behavior. For example, when getting to know others, people tend to ask leading questions which seem biased towards confirming their assumptions about the person. However, this kind of confirmation bias has also been argued to be an example of social skill: a way to establish a connection with the other person.[7] Although this research overwhelmingly involves human subjects, some findings that demonstrate bias have been found in non-human animals as well. Decision-making, belief, and behavioral biases[edit] Many of these biases affect belief formation, business and economic decisions, and human behavior in general. Social biases[edit]

60 School Shootings Linked To Psychiatric Drugs Over Past 20 Years | Health (Before It's News) While in the wake to the Sandy Hook Elementary School massacre most of the debate has centered around gun control, perhaps more of the debate should be focused on the mood altering drugs that people are being given as more than 60 school shootings among and more than 4,800 violent attacks have been linked to psychiatric drugs. Credit: Wikipedia The website SSRI Stories ( tracks violence related to psychiatric drugs. This website is a collection of 4,800+ news stories with the full media article available, mainly criminal in nature, that have appeared in the media (newspapers, TV, scientific journals) or that were part of FDA testimony in either 1991, 2004 or 2006, in which antidepressants are mentioned. This web site focuses on the Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors (SSRIs), of which Prozac (fluoxetine) was the first. By clicking on the links, you will be taken to the story. As Dr.

The Top 10 Psychology Studies of 2010 The end of 2010 fast approaches, and I'm thrilled to have been asked by the editors of Psychology Today to write about the Top 10 psychology studies of the year. I've focused on studies that I personally feel stand out, not only as examples of great science, but even more importantly, as examples of how the science of psychology can improve our lives. Each study has a clear "take home" message, offering the reader an insight or a simple strategy they can use to reach their goals , strengthen their relationships, make better decisions, or become happier. If you extract the wisdom from these ten studies and apply them in your own life, 2011 just might be a very good year. 1) How to Break Bad Habits If you are trying to stop smoking , swearing, or chewing your nails, you have probably tried the strategy of distracting yourself - taking your mind off whatever it is you are trying not to do - to break the habit. J. 2) How to Make Everything Seem Easier J. 3) How To Manage Your Time Better M. J.

5 Psychological Flaws That Warp the Way You See the World Whoops. You didn't mean to click on this link, did you? You wanted to read the article full of badass mind-blowing facts about badminded ass-blowers, didn't you? So why did you make that mistake? Come to think of it, why do you make mistakes in general? You're a grown-up, with tons of experience getting through the day without shitting your pants. BananaStock/Getty ImagesLike keeping our pants unsoiled. It turns out that there are some very common patterns that occur when we make mistakes, well-known cognitive speed bumps that our brains can't help but trip over. Here's 12 of them. #5. Do you have any idea how your eye works? Jupiterimages/Polka Dot/Getty ImagesOr a toilet cam. But it's not like that at all, or rather, it's like that if your eye is the shittiest video camera in the world. Hemera Technologies/PhotoObjects.net/Getty ImagesOr other things. Yet despite that, we all still have a pretty good mental image of what's happening in front of us at all times. How did that happen? #4.

10 Brilliant Social Psychology Studies Ten of the most influential social psychology experiments. “I have been primarily interested in how and why ordinary people do unusual things, things that seem alien to their natures.Why do good people sometimes act evil?Why do smart people sometimes do dumb or irrational things?” –Philip Zimbardo Like eminent social psychologist Professor Philip Zimbardo (author of The Lucifer Effect: Understanding How Good People Turn Evil), I’m also obsessed with why we do dumb or irrational things. The answer quite often is because of other people – something social psychologists have comprehensively shown. Over the past few months I’ve been describing 10 of the most influential social psychology experiments. Each one tells a unique, insightful story relevant to all our lives, every day. 1. The ‘halo effect’ is a classic social psychology experiment. » Read on about the halo effect -» 2. » Read on about cognitive dissonance -» 3. » Read on about Sherif’s Robbers Cave experiment -» 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10.

Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs Maslow wanted to understand what motivates people. He believed that individuals possess a set of motivation systems unrelated to rewards or unconscious desires. Maslow (1943) stated that people are motivated to achieve certain needs. When one need is fulfilled a person seeks to fullfil the next one, and so on. The earliest and most widespread version of Maslow's (1943, 1954) hierarchy of needs includes five motivational needs, often depicted as hierarchical levels within a pyramid. This five stage model can be divided into basic (or deficiency) needs (e.g. physiological, safety, love, and esteem) and growth needs (self-actualization). The deficiency, or basic needs are said to motivate people when they are unmet. One must satisfy lower level basic needs before progressing on to meet higher level growth needs. Every person is capable and has the desire to move up the hierarchy toward a level of self-actualization. The original hierarchy of needs five-stage model includes: 1. 1. 1. 2. 3. 4.

The Sequence of Archetypes in Individuation DynaPsych Table of Contents James Whitlark Professor of English Texas Tech University Scattered throughout Jung’s writings are a few references to the sequence of archetypes associated with stages of individuation. The meeting with oneself is, at first, the meeting with one’s own shadow.… Whoever looks into the water sees his own image, but behind it …[s]ometimes a nixie gets into the fisherman’s net.… The nixie is an even more instinctive version of a magical feminine being whom I call the anima.… Only when all props and crutches are broken, and no cover from the rear offers even the slightest hope of security does it become possible for us to experience an archetype that up to then had hidden behind the meaningful nonsense played out by the anima. —C. The above description of the archetypes’ sequence sprawls over twenty-two, highly metaphorical paragraphs. Jung had already argued that each major psychology best serves a different group of patients (CW, vol. 7,p. 140).

Jedi Mind Tricks: 17 Lesser Known Ways to Persuade People Want to know how to persuade people online and get what you want? The power of influence is usually all that separates the successful from everyone else. These are some tactics, discovered through psychological research, that you have probably not yet heard about, but have the potential to increase your persuasive abilities. I’m not going to cover reciprocity, scarcity or social proof and all those widely known persuasion principles. Related: How Nike’s Making Persuasive Product Pages 1. The best way to persuade audiences that are not inclined to agree with you, is to talk fast. Want to boost persuasive power? Don Moore from Carnegie Mellon’s Center for Behavioral Decision Research has published research showing that confidence even trumps past accuracy in earning the trust of others. We prefer advice from a confident source, even to the point that we are willing to forgive a poor track record. People naturally associate confidence with expertise. 2. Light swearing, that is. Image credit

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