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The Problem of Perception

The Problem of Perception
First published Tue Mar 8, 2005; substantive revision Fri Feb 4, 2011 Sense-perception—the awareness or apprehension of things by sight, hearing, touch, smell and taste—has long been a preoccupation of philosophers. One pervasive and traditional problem, sometimes called “the problem of perception”, is created by the phenomena of perceptual illusion and hallucination: if these kinds of error are possible, how can perception be what it intuitively seems to be, a direct and immediate access to reality? 1. 1.1 Introduction This entry will focus on a single, central problem of perception: how to reconcile some apparently obvious truths about our experience of the world with the possibility of certain kinds of perceptual error. This problem is not the same as the epistemological problem of how perception can give us knowledge of the external world (see the entry on epistemological problems of perception). 1.2 The Argument from Illusion An illusion here may be defined, with A.D. 2. Related:  Psychology tree

List of cognitive biases Cognitive biases are tendencies to think in certain ways that can lead to systematic deviations from a standard of rationality or good judgment, and are often studied in psychology and behavioral economics. There are also controversies over some of these biases as to whether they count as useless or irrational, or whether they result in useful attitudes or behavior. For example, when getting to know others, people tend to ask leading questions which seem biased towards confirming their assumptions about the person. However, this kind of confirmation bias has also been argued to be an example of social skill: a way to establish a connection with the other person.[7] Although this research overwhelmingly involves human subjects, some findings that demonstrate bias have been found in non-human animals as well. Decision-making, belief, and behavioral biases[edit] Many of these biases affect belief formation, business and economic decisions, and human behavior in general. Social biases[edit]

Big Five (psychologie) Un article de Wikipédia, l'encyclopédie libre. Pour les articles homonymes, voir Big Five. En psychologie, les Big Five sont cinq traits centraux de la personnalité empiriquement mis en évidence par Goldberg (1990). Ils constituent non une théorie mais un repère pour la description et l'étude théorique de la personnalité[1]. Il est parfois question du « modèle OCEAN » suivant les différentes dimensions du modèle[1]. Les Big Five ne classent pas les personnes en cinq catégories mais les évaluent cinq fois différemment : chacun d'entre elles est plus ou moins extraverti (E) ; et cela, sans préjuger si elles sont agréables ou non (A) ; et indépendamment de ces aspects relationnels, chacun d'entre elles est d'humeur plus ou moins égale (inverse du neuroticisme, N) ; et tout cela, sans préjuger de l'ouverture à la nouveauté, aux possibilités (O) ; et sans que tout ceci leur dise si elles sont consciencieuses ou non (C), qui est encore un autre aspect d'elles-mêmes[1].

Study: When resources are scarce, most people forfeit the future Poor people are often criticized for self-defeating behaviors, from taking out high-interest payday loans as a way of getting through the week, to not putting aside money for the future. But a new study published today in Science magazine suggests that most of us are likely to behave that way when we are faced with a shortage of resources. Experiments put college students in "rich" and "poor" groups as they played a series of games. Students in the "poor" groups were given less time or fewer chances to win at the games than those in the "rich" groups. The result? Anuj Shah, a behavioral science professor at the University of Chicago, said the experiments, by researchers at his school and Harvard and Princeton universities, had students play versions of Wheel of Fortune, Angry Birds and Family Feud. There were two primary results. The other lesson is that these behaviors don't just occur when money is tight. Among middle-class people, another common example of scarcity is time. Mr. Ms.

The Top 10 Psychology Studies of 2010 The end of 2010 fast approaches, and I'm thrilled to have been asked by the editors of Psychology Today to write about the Top 10 psychology studies of the year. I've focused on studies that I personally feel stand out, not only as examples of great science, but even more importantly, as examples of how the science of psychology can improve our lives. Each study has a clear "take home" message, offering the reader an insight or a simple strategy they can use to reach their goals , strengthen their relationships, make better decisions, or become happier. If you extract the wisdom from these ten studies and apply them in your own life, 2011 just might be a very good year. 1) How to Break Bad Habits If you are trying to stop smoking , swearing, or chewing your nails, you have probably tried the strategy of distracting yourself - taking your mind off whatever it is you are trying not to do - to break the habit. J. 2) How to Make Everything Seem Easier J. 3) How To Manage Your Time Better M. J.

Psychology Wiki Upper-Class People Have Trouble Recognizing Others’ Emotions News Upper-class people have more educational opportunities, greater financial security, and better job prospects than people from lower social classes, but that doesn’t mean they’re more skilled at everything. A new study published in Psychological Science, a journal of the Association for Psychological Science, finds surprisingly, that lower-class people are better at reading the emotions of others. The researchers were inspired by observing that, for lower-class people, success depends more on how much they can rely on other individuals. For example, if you can’t afford to buy support services, such as daycare service for your children, you have to rely on your neighbors or relatives to watch the kids while you attend classes or run errands, says Michael W. One experiment used volunteers who worked at a university. These results suggest that people of upper-class status aren’t very good at recognizing the emotions other people are feeling.

10 Brilliant Social Psychology Studies Ten of the most influential social psychology experiments. “I have been primarily interested in how and why ordinary people do unusual things, things that seem alien to their natures.Why do good people sometimes act evil?Why do smart people sometimes do dumb or irrational things?” –Philip Zimbardo Like eminent social psychologist Professor Philip Zimbardo (author of The Lucifer Effect: Understanding How Good People Turn Evil), I’m also obsessed with why we do dumb or irrational things. The answer quite often is because of other people – something social psychologists have comprehensively shown. Over the past few months I’ve been describing 10 of the most influential social psychology experiments. Each one tells a unique, insightful story relevant to all our lives, every day. 1. The ‘halo effect’ is a classic social psychology experiment. » Read on about the halo effect -» 2. » Read on about cognitive dissonance -» 3. » Read on about Sherif’s Robbers Cave experiment -» 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10.

ParadigmOfComplexity The last few decades have seen the emergence of a growing body of literature devoted to a critique of the so-called “old” or “Cartesian-Newtonian” paradigm which, in the wake of the prodigious successes of modern natural science, came to dominate the full range of authoritative intellectual discourse and its associated worldviews. Often coupled with a materialistic, and indeed atomistic, metaphysics, this paradigm has been guided by the methodological principle of reductionism. The critics of reductionism have tended to promote various forms of holism, a term which, perhaps more than any other, has served as the rallying cry for those who see themselves as creators of a “new paradigm.” At the forefront of such a challenge, and in many ways the herald of the new paradigm, is the relatively new movement of transpersonal psychology. In taking seriously such experiences, transpersonal theory has been compelled to transcend the disciplinary boundaries of mainstream psychology. C.

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