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The Problem of Perception

The Problem of Perception
First published Tue Mar 8, 2005; substantive revision Fri Feb 4, 2011 Sense-perception—the awareness or apprehension of things by sight, hearing, touch, smell and taste—has long been a preoccupation of philosophers. One pervasive and traditional problem, sometimes called “the problem of perception”, is created by the phenomena of perceptual illusion and hallucination: if these kinds of error are possible, how can perception be what it intuitively seems to be, a direct and immediate access to reality? 1. 1.1 Introduction This entry will focus on a single, central problem of perception: how to reconcile some apparently obvious truths about our experience of the world with the possibility of certain kinds of perceptual error. This problem is not the same as the epistemological problem of how perception can give us knowledge of the external world (see the entry on epistemological problems of perception). 1.2 The Argument from Illusion An illusion here may be defined, with A.D. 2.

Big Five (psychologie) Un article de Wikipédia, l'encyclopédie libre. Pour les articles homonymes, voir Big Five. En psychologie, les Big Five sont cinq traits centraux de la personnalité empiriquement mis en évidence par Goldberg (1990). Ils constituent non une théorie mais un repère pour la description et l'étude théorique de la personnalité[1]. Il est parfois question du « modèle OCEAN » suivant les différentes dimensions du modèle[1]. Les Big Five ne classent pas les personnes en cinq catégories mais les évaluent cinq fois différemment : chacun d'entre elles est plus ou moins extraverti (E) ; et cela, sans préjuger si elles sont agréables ou non (A) ; et indépendamment de ces aspects relationnels, chacun d'entre elles est d'humeur plus ou moins égale (inverse du neuroticisme, N) ; et tout cela, sans préjuger de l'ouverture à la nouveauté, aux possibilités (O) ; et sans que tout ceci leur dise si elles sont consciencieuses ou non (C), qui est encore un autre aspect d'elles-mêmes[1].

Psychology Wiki ParadigmOfComplexity The last few decades have seen the emergence of a growing body of literature devoted to a critique of the so-called “old” or “Cartesian-Newtonian” paradigm which, in the wake of the prodigious successes of modern natural science, came to dominate the full range of authoritative intellectual discourse and its associated worldviews. Often coupled with a materialistic, and indeed atomistic, metaphysics, this paradigm has been guided by the methodological principle of reductionism. The critics of reductionism have tended to promote various forms of holism, a term which, perhaps more than any other, has served as the rallying cry for those who see themselves as creators of a “new paradigm.” At the forefront of such a challenge, and in many ways the herald of the new paradigm, is the relatively new movement of transpersonal psychology. In taking seriously such experiences, transpersonal theory has been compelled to transcend the disciplinary boundaries of mainstream psychology. C.

Brain research shows psychopathic criminals do not lack empathy, but fail to use it automatically Criminal psychopathy can be both repulsive and fascinating, as illustrated by the vast number of books and movies inspired by this topic. Offenders diagnosed with psychopathy pose a significant threat to society, because they are more likely to harm other individuals and to do so again after being released. A brain imaging study in the Netherlands shows individuals with psychopathy have reduced empathy while witnessing the pains of others. When asked to empathize, however, they can activate their empathy. This could explain why psychopathic individuals can be callous and socially cunning at the same time. Why are psychopathic individuals more likely to hurt others? The Dutch judicial system, however, seems to be an exception. Next, the participants watched the same clips again. "In the third and final part, we performed similar hand interactions with the participants themselves, while they were lying in the scanner, having their brain activity measured", adds Meffert.

Switching between habitual and goal-directed actions—a 'two in one' system in our brain To unravel the circuit that underlies this capacity, the capacity to "break habits," was the goal of the study, carried out by Christina Gremel and Rui Costa, at NIAAA, National Institutes of Health, USA and the Champalimaud Foundation, in Portugal published in Nature Communications. "Pressing the button of the lift at your work place, or apartment building is an automatic action – a habit. You don't even really look at the different buttons; your hand is almost reaching out and pressing on its own. To unravel the circuit that underlies this capacity, the capacity to "break habits", was the goal of this study, carried out by Christina Gremel and Rui Costa, at NIAAA, National Institutes of Health, USA and the Champalimaud Foundation, in Portugal, that is published today (Date) in Nature Communications. "We developed a task where mice would shift between making the same action in a goal-directed or habitual manner.

Study identifies brain circuits involved in learning and decision making (Medical Xpress)—Research from the National Institutes of Health has identified neural circuits in mice that are involved in the ability to learn and alter behaviors. The findings help to explain the brain processes that govern choice and the ability to adapt behavior based on the end results. Researchers think this might provide insight into patterns of compulsive behavior such as alcoholism and other addictions. "Much remains to be understood about exactly how the brain strikes the balance between learning a behavioral response that is consistently rewarded, versus retaining the flexibility to switch to a new, better response," said Kenneth R. The study, published online in Nature Neuroscience, indicates that specific circuits in the forebrain play a critical role in choice and adaptive learning. Like other addictions, alcoholism is a disease in which voluntary control of behavior progressively diminishes and unwanted actions eventually become compulsive.

Brain circuits link obsessive-compulsive behavior and obesity What started as an experiment to probe brain circuits involved in compulsive behavior has revealed a surprising connection with obesity. The University of Iowa-led researchers bred mice missing a gene known to cause obesity, and suspected to also be involved in compulsive behavior, with a genetic mouse model of compulsive grooming. The unexpected result was offspring that were neither compulsive groomers nor obese. The study, published the week of June 10 in the online early edition of the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences (PNAS), suggests that the brain circuits that control obsessive-compulsive behavior are intertwined with circuits that control food intake and body weight. The findings have implications for treating compulsive behavior, which is associated with many forms of psychiatric disease, including obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), Tourette syndrome, and eating disorders. Pieper is interested in compulsive behavior.

New ADHD findings A combination of rare and common genetic variations could play a part in biological pathways linked to Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). Cardiff University scientists revealed last year that children with the condition, like those with autism, were more likely than unaffected individuals to carry duplicated or omitted small DNA segments known as copy number variants (CNVs). The findings suggested that rare genetic variations contribute to ADHD risk. Now a wider study by the same team and colleagues in Eire and Scotland has replicated the initial findings that these large, rare CNVs are more common in children with ADHD than amongst the general population. Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder is characterised by extreme restlessness, fidgetiness, concentration problems and impulsiveness leading to social and educational difficulties. The team also examined more common SNP variants and found there was no significant difference between children with or without ADHD.