Constructivist Teaching and Learning Contructivist Teaching and Learning By: Audrey Gray SSTA Research Centre Report #97-07: 25 pages, $11. Back to: Instruction The SSTA Research Centre grants permission to reproduce up to three copies of each report for personal use. Constructivist Teaching and Learning Constructivist teaching is based on the belief that learning occurs as learners are actively involved in a process of meaning and knowledge construction rather than passively receiving information. This report examines constructivist teaching and learning by looking at the distinctive features of a constructivist programme, the qualities of a constructivist teacher, and the organization of a constructivist classroom. Part One of this report provides a definition of an a rationale for constructivist teaching. Table of Contents Constructivist teaching is based on the belief that learning occurs as learners are actively involved in a process of meaning and knowledge construction as opposed to passively receiving information.
The Fountain Magazine - Issue - CONSTRUCTIVISM in Piaget and Vygotsky Issue 48 / October - December 2004 CONSTRUCTIVISM in Piaget and Vygotsky Ozgur Ozer Constructivism is a new approach in education that claims humans are better able to understand the information they have constructed by themselves. According to constructivist theories, learning is a social advancement that involves language, real world situations, and interaction and collaboration among learners. The learners are considered to be central in the learning process. In constructivist classrooms, unlike the conventional lecturer, the teacher is a facilitator and a guide, who plans, organizes, guides, and provides directions to the learner, who is accountable for his own learning. Jean Piaget and Lev Vygotsky are two eminent figures in the development of constructivist theories. Piaget explores four sequential stages of the psychological development of the young learner and believes teachers should be cognizant of these stages.
Cognitive Constructivist Theory For a general intro to constructivism click: Overview of constructivism. Overview of Cognitive Constructivism Cognitive constructivism is based on the work of Swiss developmental psychologist Jean Piaget. Piaget's theory has two major parts: an "ages and stages" ( component that predicts what children can and cannot understand at different ages, and a theory of development that describes how children develop cognitive abilities. Piaget's theory of cognitive development proposes that humans cannot be "given" information which they immediately understand and use. There are thousands of books, articles, and papers on the theories of Piaget and the implications of those theories for teaching and learning. One important generalization of Piagetian theory is role of the teacher. General Implications of Cognitive Constructivism There are a two key Piagetian principles for teaching and learning:
Constructivism: From philosophy to practice Socrates(470-399 B.C.) Knowledge is only perception. Socrates Knowledge is not a transferable commodity and communication not a conveyance E. von Glasersfeld (1987) The world presents itself to us, effectively Which worlds? ...learning theories or models are rarely developed to a point where they can be more or less operationalized.Mendelsohn & Dillenbourg (1994) Constructivism does not claim to have made earth-shaking inventions in the area of education; it merely claims to provide a solid conceptual basis for some of the things that, until now, inspired teachers had to do without theoretical foundation.E. Socrates liked to work with students. Socrates is not generally associated with constructivist philosophy. How we perceive knowledge and the process of coming to know provides the basis for educational practice. The aim of this site is to highlight some of these attempts at integrating constructivist characteristics into the practice of teaching and learning. Socrates is now online.
Constructivism Learning Theory Constructivism Learning Theory Constructivism learning theory is a philosophy which enhances students' logical and conceptual growth. The underlying concept within the constructivism learning theory is the role which experiences-or connections with the adjoining atmosphere-play in student education. The constructivism learning theory argues that people produce knowledge and form meaning based upon their experiences. The role of teachers is very important within the constructivism learning theory. Instead of having the students relying on someone else's information and accepting it as truth, the constructivism learning theory supports that students should be exposed to data, primary sources, and the ability to interact with other students so that they can learn from the incorporation of their experiences. Go Deeper Into Our Constructivism Learning Theory Categories Constructivism Basics
constructivism notes from variety of sources Social Development Theory Overview The major theme of Vygotsky's theoretical framework is that social interaction plays a fundamental role in the development of cognition. Vygotsky (1978) states: "Every function in the child's cultural development appears twice: first, on the social level, and later, on the individual level; first, between people (interpsychological) and then inside the child (intrapsychological). This applies equally to voluntary attention, to logical memory, and to the formation of concepts. All the higher functions originate as actual relationships between individuals." A second aspect of Vygotsky's theory is the idea that the potential for cognitive development depends upon the "zone of proximal development" (ZPD): a level of development attained when children engage in social behavior. Vygotsky's theory was an attempt to explain consciousness as the end product of socialization. Application This is a general theory of cognitive development. Example Principles References Vygotsky, L.S. (1962).
Elementary students learn keyboard typing ahead of new Common Core tests The 7-year-olds in Natalie May’s class have to stretch their fingers across the keyboards to reach “ASDF” and “JKL;” as they listen to the animated characters on their computer screens talk about “home keys.” “After 15 minutes, some of them will say their fingers are hurting, so we take a break,” said May, a Phoenix educator who began teaching typing to second-graders this school year. Of the major shifts taking place in American classrooms as a result of the new national Common Core academic standards, one little-noticed but sweeping change is the fact that children as early as kindergarten are learning to use a keyboard. A skill that has been taught for generations in middle or high school — first on manual typewriters, then electric word processors and finally on computer keyboards — is now becoming a staple of elementary schools. Educators around the country are rushing to teach typing to children who have barely mastered printing by hand. The standards do not dictate curriculum.
Constructivist Learning Design Paper Teachers and teacher educators make different meanings of constructivist learning theory. At a recent retreat with facilitators of learning communities for teachers who were studying in a Masters of Education program, we were talking about our common reading of The Case for Constructivist Classrooms (Brooks & Brooks, 1993). We asked the ten facilitators to answer this question, "What is constructivism?" We are proposing a new approach for planning using a "Constructivist Learning Design" that honors the common assumptions of constructivism and focuses on the development of situations as a way of thinking about the constructive activities of the learner rather than the demonstrative behavior of the teacher. This brief overview above indicates how each of these six elements integrate and work as a whole, but all need further explanation: 1. 2. A. B. 3. 4. 5. 6. Each of these six elements of our constructivist learning design has educational precedents. Ausubel, D. (1978). Slavin, R.
Answers to Constructivism Vygotsky The work of Lev Vygotsky (1934) has become the foundation of much research and theory in cognitive development over the past several decades, particularly of what has become known as Social Development Theory. Vygotsky's theories stress the fundamental role of social interaction in the development of cognition Vygotsky, 1978), as he believed strongly that community plays a central role in the process of "making meaning." Unlike Piaget's notion that children's' development must necessarily precede their learning, Vygotsky argued, "learning is a necessary and universal aspect of the process of developing culturally organized, specifically human psychological function" (1978, p. 90). In other words, social learning tends to precede (i.e. come before) development. Vygotsky has developed a sociocultural approach to cognitive development. No single principle (such as Piaget's equilibration) can account for development. Vygotsky's theory differs from that of Piaget in a number of important ways:
The History of the Internet and the Colleges That Built It Today, without access to Wikipedia and Google, many students would struggle to punch out that last research paper for a psychology class. The Internet has changed higher education and made it more accessible to many students — and without higher education institutions, the Internet may never have become the amazingly versatile tool it is today. Here’s a look at a few key moments in the history of the Internet. 1945: Sci-fi author Arthur C. Clarke envisions satellite network. Clarke first proposed an advanced communication network using geosynchronous satellite technology, which is all the more astounding because Clarke had anticipated this well over a decade before Sputnik 1 was even launched! 1961: Enter Howard Hughes. Hughes had originally formed the Hughes Aircraft Company in 1932, with the primary goal of developing aerospace technology for the United States government. 1963: Syncom 2 is launched. 1963: Accolades for Clarke. The Franklin Institute awarded Arthur C. 1983: Domains.