10 Strange Things About The Universe Space The universe can be a very strange place. While groundbreaking ideas such as quantum theory, relativity and even the Earth going around the Sun might be commonly accepted now, science still continues to show that the universe contains things you might find it difficult to believe, and even more difficult to get your head around. Theoretically, the lowest temperature that can be achieved is absolute zero, exactly ? One of the properties of a negative-energy vacuum is that light actually travels faster in it than it does in a normal vacuum, something that may one day allow people to travel faster than the speed of light in a kind of negative-energy vacuum bubble. One prediction of Einstein’s theory of general relativity is that when a large object moves, it drags the space-time around it, causing nearby objects to be pulled along as well. Relativity of Simultaneity Since this extra dimension is so small, only tiny objects, such as particles, can move along it. Antimatter Retrocausality
Einstein for Everyone Einstein for Everyone Nullarbor Press 2007revisions 2008, 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013 Copyright 2007, 2008, 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013 John D. Norton Published by Nullarbor Press, 500 Fifth Avenue, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 15260 with offices in Liberty Ave., Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, 15222 All Rights Reserved John D. An advanced sequel is planned in this series:Einstein for Almost Everyone 2 4 6 8 9 7 5 3 1 ePrinted in the United States of America no trees were harmed web*bookTM This book is a continuing work in progress. January 1, 2015. Preface For over a decade I have taught an introductory, undergraduate class, "Einstein for Everyone," at the University of Pittsburgh to anyone interested enough to walk through door. With each new offering of the course, I had the chance to find out what content worked and which of my ever so clever pedagogical inventions were failures. At the same time, my lecture notes have evolved. This text owes a lot to many. i i i
TOP 100 SCIENCE SITES SORTED BY POPULARITY Special Relativity Special Relativity These pages are ok as far as they go, but they are missing the planned highlight, to show you what things actually look like when you travel at near the speed of light. I hope to have the opportunity to develop these pages further as time permits. Here is my opinionated Guide to Special Relativistic Flight Simulator Sites. Meanwhile, these pages comprise an animated introduction to the elements of Special Relativity. And don't miss Prasenjit Saha's Interactive Lorentz Transformations. © 1998, 1999 Andrew Hamilton. Forward to The Postulates of Special Relativity Hey, get me back to Falling into a Black Hole Unless otherwise stated, clicking on images gives you enlarged versions thereof, which may be easier to view in a classroom environment. Special Relativity: Index Andrew Hamilton's Homepage Other Relativity and Black Hole links
On the Electrodynamics of Moving Bodies By A. Einstein June 30, 1905 It is known that Maxwell's electrodynamics—as usually understood at the present time—when applied to moving bodies, leads to asymmetries which do not appear to be inherent in the phenomena. Take, for example, the reciprocal electrodynamic action of a magnet and a conductor. The observable phenomenon here depends only on the relative motion of the conductor and the magnet, whereas the customary view draws a sharp distinction between the two cases in which either the one or the other of these bodies is in motion. For if the magnet is in motion and the conductor at rest, there arises in the neighbourhood of the magnet an electric field with a certain definite energy, producing a current at the places where parts of the conductor are situated. § 1. If we wish to describe the motion of a material point, we give the values of its co-ordinates as functions of the time. from A towards B, let it at the “B time” § 2. (a) (b) , let it be reflected at B at the time . where
Science & Technology © AlamyProduction of blood on an industrial scale could become a reality, It is the stuff of gothic science fiction: men in white coats in factories of blood and bones. But the production of blood on an industrial scale could become a reality once a trial is conducted in which artificial blood made from human stem cells is tested in patients for the first time. It is the latest breakthrough in scientists' efforts to re-engineer the body, which have already resulted in the likes of 3d-printed bones and bionic limbs. Marc Turner, the principal researcher in the £5 million programme funded by the Wellcome Trust, told The Telegraph that his team had made red blood cells fit for clinical transfusion. Prof Turner has devised a technique to culture red blood cells from induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells - cells that have been taken from humans and 'rewound' into stem cells.
Physics Flash Animations We have been increasingly using Flash animations for illustrating Physics content. This page provides access to those animations which may be of general interest. The animations will appear in a separate window. The animations are sorted by category, and the file size of each animation is included in the listing. In addition, I have prepared a small tutorial in using Flash to do Physics animations. LInks to versions of these animations in other languages, other links, and license information appear towards the bottom of this page. The Animations There are 99 animations listed below. Other Languages and Links These animations have been translated into Catalan, Spanish and Basque: En aquest enllaç podeu trobar la versió al català de les animacions Flash de Física. Many animations have been translated into Greek by Vangelis Koltsakis. Most animations have been translated into Hungarian by Sandor Nagy, Eötvös Loránd University.
Light and Matter: open-source physics textbooks Extras Who's Using the Books Adoptions of Light and Matter Colleges and Universities High Schools Parker School, Kamuela, HI (Matt Hamilton) Little Axe High School, Norman, Oklahoma (Michael Dean) Orion International Academy, Pasadena, CA (John Gaines's Introduction to Physics) Ballinger High School, Ballinger, TX (Mr. Adoptions of Mechanics University of British Columbia (Profs. Pine Tree High School, Longview, Texas (Blake Sansom's AP Physics C) Ballinger High School, Ballinger, TX (Mr. Adoptions of Simple Nature Regis College (Prof. Adoptions of Special Relativity University of Peradeniya (Prof. Adoptions of Conceptual Physics University of Cincinnati, Blue Ash (Prof. Adoptions of Discover Physics Ohlone College (Otis Walton's Physics 108) Harmony Academies St. Adoptions of Fundamentals of Calculus Bellingham Technical College (Anita Peng's Math 148) Within each section above, schools are listed in reverse chronological order of adoption. Alignment with California Standards
The Large Hadron Collider The Large Hadron Collider (LHC) is the world’s largest and most powerful particle accelerator. It first started up on 10 September 2008, and remains the latest addition to CERN’s accelerator complex. The LHC consists of a 27-kilometre ring of superconducting magnets with a number of accelerating structures to boost the energy of the particles along the way. Inside the accelerator, two high-energy particle beams travel at close to the speed of light before they are made to collide. Thousands of magnets of different varieties and sizes are used to direct the beams around the accelerator. All the controls for the accelerator, its services and technical infrastructure are housed under one roof at the CERN Control Centre. How many kilometres of cables are there on the LHC? Download the LHC guide [PDF] CERN takes safety very seriously. Read about the safety of the LHC Take a virtual tour of the Large Hadron Collider
Sean Carroll: Lecture Notes on General Relativity These lecture notes are a lightly edited version of the ones I handed out while teaching Physics 8.962, the graduate course in General Relativity at MIT, during Spring 1996. Each of the chapters is available here as pdf. Constructive comments and general flattery may be sent to me via the address below. The notes as a whole are available as gr-qc/9712019, and in html from "Level 5" at Caltech. What is even more amazing, the notes have been translated into French by Jacques Fric. Je ne parle pas francais, mais cette traduction devrait etre bonne. Dates refer to the last nontrivial modification of the corresponding file (fixing typos doesn't count). In a hurry? While you are here check out the Spacetime and Geometry bibliography page -- an annotated bibilography of technical and popular books, many available for purchase online. 1.
Physics Flash Animations We have been increasingly using Flash animations for illustrating Physics content. This page provides access to those animations which may be of general interest. The animations will appear in a separate window. The animations are sorted by category, and the file size of each animation is included in the listing. Also included is the minimum version of the Flash player that is required; the player is available free from In addition, I have prepared a small tutorial in using Flash to do Physics animations. LInks to versions of these animations in other languages, other links, and license information appear towards the bottom of this page. The Animations There are 99 animations listed below. Other Languages and Links These animations have been translated into Catalan, Spanish and Basque: En aquest enllaç podeu trobar la versió al català de les animacions Flash de Física. These animations were written by David M.
Newton Papers Cambridge University Library holds the largest and most important collection of the scientific works of Isaac Newton (1642-1727). Newton was closely associated with Cambridge. He came to the University as a student in 1661, graduating in 1665, and from 1669 to 1701 he held the Lucasian Chair of Mathematics. Under the regulations for this Chair, Newton was required to deposit copies of his lectures in the University Library. In 1699 Newton was appointed Master of the Mint, and in 1703 he was elected President of the Royal Society, a post he occupied until his death. After his death, the manuscripts in Newton's possession passed to his niece Catherine and her husband John Conduitt. In 1872 the fifth earl passed all the Newton manuscripts he had to the University of Cambridge, where they were assessed and a detailed catalogue made. The remainder of the Newton papers, many concerned with alchemy, theology and chronology, were returned to Lord Portsmouth. See also