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Irritable bowel syndrome

Irritable bowel syndrome
Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) or spastic colon is a symptom-based diagnosis. It is characterized by chronic abdominal pain, discomfort, bloating, and alteration of bowel habits. Diarrhea or constipation[1] may predominate, or they may alternate (classified as IBS-D, IBS-C, or IBS-A, respectively). A diagnosis of IBS may be made on the basis of symptoms, in the absence of worrisome features such as age of onset greater than 50 years, weight loss, bloody stool, signs of infection or colitis, or family history of inflammatory bowel disease.[8][9] Routine testing yield no abnormalities, although the bowels may be more sensitive to certain stimuli, such as balloon insufflation testing. Although no cure for IBS is known, treatments to relieve symptoms exist. This including dietary adjustments, medication, and psychological interventions. Classification[edit] Signs and symptoms[edit] Causes[edit] Stress[edit] Active infections[edit] Diagnosis[edit] Differential diagnosis[edit] Investigations[edit]

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Irritable_bowel_syndrome

Related:  DisordersDiseases, disorders and infections of the Gastrointestinal tract

Heart murmur Murmurs are pathologic heart sounds that are produced as a result of turbulent blood flow across the heart valve that is sufficient to produce audible noise. Most murmurs can only be heard with the assistance of a stethoscope ("or auscultation"). A functional murmur or "physiologic murmur" is a heart murmur that is primarily due to physiologic conditions outside the heart, as opposed to structural defects in the heart itself. Functional murmurs are benign (an "innocent murmur").[1] Murmurs may also be the result of various problems, such as narrowing or leaking of valves, or the presence of abnormal passages through which blood flows in or near the heart. Such murmurs, known as pathologic murmurs, should be evaluated by an expert.

Giardiasis Giardiasis (popularly known as beaver fever[1]) is a zoonotic parasitic disease caused by the flagellate protozoan Giardia lamblia (also sometimes called Giardia intestinalis and Giardia duodenalis).[2] The giardia organism inhabits the digestive tract of a wide variety of domestic and wild animal species, as well as humans. It is the most common pathogenic parasitic infection in humans worldwide; in 2013, there were about 280 million people worldwide with symptomatic giardiasis.[2] Signs and symptoms[edit] Symptomatic infections are well recognized as causing lactose intolerance,[4] which, while usually temporary, may become permanent.[5][6] Although hydrogen breath tests indicate poorer rates of carbohydrate absorption in those asymptomatically infected, such tests are not diagnostic of infection.[7] It has been suggested that these observations are explained by symptomatic giardia infection allowing for the overgrowth of other bacteria.[7][8] Cause[edit]

Palpitation Palpitation is an abnormality of heartbeat that ranges from often unnoticed skipped beats or accelerated heart rate to very noticeable changes accompanied by dizziness or difficulty breathing. Palpitations are common and occur in most individuals with healthy hearts. Palpitations without underlying heart disease are generally considered benign. Pancreatitis Pancreatitis is defined as inflammation of the pancreas. It has several causes and symptoms and requires immediate medical attention. It occurs when pancreatic enzymes (especially trypsin) that digest food are activated in the pancreas instead of the small intestine. It may be acute—beginning suddenly and lasting a few days, or chronic—occurring over many years. Signs and symptoms[edit] Causes[edit]

Myofascial pain syndrome Myofascial pain syndrome (MPS), also known as chronic myofascial pain (CMP), is a syndrome characterized by chronic pain caused by multiple trigger points and fascial constrictions. Characteristic features of a myofascial trigger point include: focal point tenderness, reproduction of pain upon trigger point palpation, hardening of the muscle upon trigger point palpation, pseudo-weakness of the involved muscle, referred pain, and limited range of motion following approximately 5 seconds of sustained trigger point pressure.[1] Symptoms[edit] Myofascial pain can occur in distinct, isolated areas of the body, and because any muscle or fascia may be affected, this may cause a variety of localized symptoms. More generally speaking, the muscular pain is steady, aching, and deep. Depending on the case and location the intensity can range from mild discomfort to excruciating and "lightning-like".[2] Knots may be visible or felt beneath the skin.

Enteric duplication cyst Enteric duplication cysts, sometimes simply called duplication cysts, are rare congenital malformations of the gastrointestinal tract.[1] They most frequently occur in the small intestine, particularly the ileum, but can occur anywhere along the gastrointestinal tract.[1] They may be cystic or tubular in conformation.[2] The condition of having duplication cysts has been called intestinal duplication.[3] Symptoms[edit] Treatment[edit] Duplications are usually removed surgically, even if they are found incidentally (i.e. not causing symptoms or encountered on routine studies for other reasons), as there is a high incidence of complications resulting from untreated cases.[4] Cysts are often technically easier to remove than tubular malformations since tubular structures usually share a blood supply with the associated gut.[2]

Chronic fatigue syndrome Although there is agreement that CFS poses genuine threats to health, happiness and productivity, various physicians' groups, researchers and patient advocates promote differing nomenclatures, diagnostic criteria, etiologic hypotheses and treatments, resulting in controversy about many aspects of the disorder. The name "chronic fatigue syndrome" is controversial; many patients and advocacy groups, as well as some experts, believe the name trivializes the medical condition and they promote a name change.[15] Classification[edit] Notable definitions include:[7] The different case definitions used to research the illness may influence the types of patients selected for studies,[20] and research also suggests subtypes of patients exist within the heterogeneous illness.[21][22][23][24]

Diarrhea Diarrhea or diarrhœa (from the Greek διάρροια, δια dia "through" + ρέω rheo "flow" meaning "flowing through")[2] is the condition of having three or more loose or liquid bowel movements per day.[3] The most common cause is gastroenteritis. Oral rehydration solutions (ORS) with modest amounts of salts and zinc tablets are the treatment of choice and have been estimated to have saved 50 million children in the past 25 years.[1] In cases where ORS is not available, homemade solutions are often used. It is a common cause of death in developing countries and the second most common cause of infant deaths worldwide. The loss of fluids through diarrhea can cause dehydration and electrolyte disturbances such as potassium deficiency or other salt imbalances. In 2009 diarrhea was estimated to have caused 1.1 million deaths in people aged 5 and over[4] and 1.5 million deaths in children under the age of 5.[1]

Post-viral fatigue syndrome Classification[edit] In the WHO's ICD-10, PVFS is listed as sub-category at G93.3 under category G93 'other disorders of the brain'.[2] Listed under PVFS is benign myalgic encephalomyelitis.[3] The term chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) is also direct to sub-category G93.3 in the tabular list and alphabetic index of the ICD-10.[2][4] Post-viral syndromes may also include: post-polio syndrome and possibly chronic mononucleosis or other severe chronic viral infections. Signs and symptoms[edit] The main symptoms of the syndrome are disabling fatigue, musculoskeletal pain, neurocognitive difficulties and mood disturbance.[1] Other symptoms experienced by some patients are those of nausea, dizziness, loss of appetite and patients may also present with unrefreshing sleep.

Cholera Cholera is an infection of the small intestine caused by the bacterium Vibrio cholerae. The main symptoms are watery diarrhea and vomiting. This may result in dehydration and in severe cases grayish-bluish skin.[1] Transmission occurs primarily by drinking water or eating food that has been contaminated by the feces (waste product) of an infected person, including one with no apparent symptoms. The severity of the diarrhea and vomiting can lead to rapid dehydration and electrolyte imbalance, and death in some cases. The primary treatment is oral rehydration therapy, typically with oral rehydration solution, to replace water and electrolytes.

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