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Theories of Learning

Theories of Learning

Chapter 1 Chapter 1 Foundations of Educational Theory for Online Learning Mohamed Ally Athabasca University There is ongoing debate about whether it is the use of a particular delivery technology or the design of the instruction that improves learning (Clark, 2001; Kozma, 2001). According to Bonk and Reynolds (1997), to promote higher-order thinking on the Web, online learning must create challenging activities that enable learners to link new information to old, acquire meaningful knowledge, and use their metacognitive abilities; hence, it is the instructional strategy and not the technology that influences the quality of learning. Online learning allows for flexibility of access, from anywhere and usually at anytime—essentially, it allows participants to collapse time and space (Cole, 2000)—however, the learning materials must be designed properly to engage the learner and promote learning. top For learners, online learning knows no time zones, and location and distance are not an issue. 1. 2. 3.

Neuromyths in Education: Prevalence and Predictors of Misconceptions among Teachers | Frontiers in Educational Psychology Introduction There is widespread interest among teachers in the application of neuroscientific research findings in educational practice. Neuroscientific research has received a lot of attention since 1990–2000, which was declared the “Decade of the Brain” in the United States. Although neuromyths are incorrect assertions about how the brain is involved in learning, their origin often lies in genuine scientific findings. Yet, only a few studies have examined the prevalence of misunderstandings about the mind and brain. Next to examining the prevalence of neuromyths, it is important to identify the factors that predict a high susceptibility to believing in myths. Consequently, neuroscience literacy (i.e., a general understanding of the brain) may protect against incorrect ideas linking neuroscience and education. The present study investigated the neuroscience literacy and prevalence of neuromyths among primary and secondary school teachers in the UK and the NL. Materials and Methods

Washington Post This was written by Roger C. Schank, a cognitive scientist, artificial intelligence theorist, and education reformer. He has taught at Stanford and Yale universities and is the John Evans Professor Emeritus of Computer Science, Psychology, and Education at Northwestern University. The former head of the Institute for the Learning Sciences, he is the author of “Teaching Minds: How Cognitive Science Can Save Our Schools.” Schank wrote this in response to a recent post I published by University of Virginia cognitive scientist Daniel Willingham entitled, “Yes, algebra is necessary.” “When I first saw yesterday’s New York Times op-ed, I mistook it for a joke. By Roger C. Whenever I meet anyone who wants to talk about education, I immediately ask them to tell me the quadratic equation. (Astrid Riecken/FOR THE WASHINGTON POST) Why this religious zeal over algebra? Reasoning mathematically is a nice skill but one that is not relevant to most of life.

How Knowledge Helps It Speeds and Strengthens Reading Comprehension, Learning—and Thinking By Daniel T. Willingham "Knowledge is Good." It's true that knowledge gives students something to think about, but a reading of the research literature from cognitive science shows that knowledge does much more than just help students hone their thinking skills: It actually makes learning easier. I. The more you know, the easier it will be for you to learn new things. How Knowledge Helps You Take in New Information The first stage in which factual knowledge gives you a cognitive edge is when you are taking in new information, whether by listening or reading. To provide some concrete examples and simplify the discussion, let's focus on reading—but keep in mind that the same points apply to listening. Thus, an obvious way in which knowledge aids the acquisition of more knowledge lies in the greater power it affords in making correct inferences. Most of the time you are unaware of making inferences when you read. II.

BBC Radio 4 - All in the Mind, Neuromyths in schools; psychosis and prisons; the case of HM