Bjork Learning and Forgetting Lab - Research Applying Cognitive Psychology to Enhance Educational Practice The primary goal of this research, which is funded by the James S. McDonnell foundation, is to promote learning and memory performance within educational contexts through the investigation of principles in cognitive psychology. The overlying theme of "desirable difficulties," first introduced by Robert Bjork (1994), is also explored through manipulations in the spacing of learning events and the study schedule produced by interleaving various to-be-learned items, such as English-Swahili translated word pairs or prose materials. Studies have also looked at the effectiveness of similar choices used in multiple choice tests for future test performance as well as the act of generating items when they are presented with missing letters. This line of work is also directed toward understanding the mechanisms behind metacognitive awareness of learning. I. In recent years, we have explored this phenomenon in a variety of ways. II. R.
Reading Strategies - Learning Skills from MindTools Reading Efficiently by Reading Intelligently Get the most from your reading. © iStockphoto/mammamaart Whether they're project documents, trade journals, blogs, business books or ebooks, most of us read regularly as part of our jobs, and to develop our skills and knowledge. But do you ever read what should be a useful document, yet fail to gain any helpful information from it? In this article, we're looking at strategies that will help you read more effectively. Think About What You Want to Know Before you start reading anything, ask yourself why you're reading it. Once you know your purpose, you can examine the resource to see whether it's going to help you. For example, with a book, an easy way of doing this is to look at the introduction and the chapter headings. Ask yourself whether the resource meets your needs, and try to work out if it will give you the right amount of knowledge. Know How Deeply to Study the Material Read Actively Tip: Know How to Study Different Types of Material Tip 1:
Simple Ways To Study Better Knowledge is the essence of smart thinking. No matter how much raw intelligence you have, you are not going to succeed at solving complex problems without knowing a lot. That's why we spend the first 20 (or more) years of our lives in school. Robert Bjork and fellow PT blogger Nate Kornell have explored some of the study habits of college students in a 2007 paper in Psychonomic Bulletin & Review . Of course, guidelines from memory research come from studies in idealized circumstances. To address this question, Marissa Hartwig and John Dunlosky related the study habits of college students to their grade point average (GPA) in a 2012 paper in Psychonomic Bulletin & Review . The students with the highest GPA were more likely to study by testing themselves than the students with lower GPAs. All college students tend to focus their study on upcoming assignments. Finally, the time of day that students study also matters.
We're Only Human...: The Science of Cramming I went to a very nerdy college. This school was so nerdy that the “mascot” was an engineer, and at football games students would chant: “Tangent, secant, cosine, sine. Three point one four one five nine. Go Engineers!” I'm not kidding. So how is it possible that today I do not even know what a secant is? Was I studying the wrong way during all those wee hours? Consider “overlearning.” University of South Florida psychologist Doug Rohrer decided to explore this question scientifically. The results were interesting. Rohrer and Pashler also wanted to see if the scheduling of study breaks might make a difference in learning. All these experiments involved rote learning, but Rohrer and Pashler have also found similar effects with more abstract learning, like math. All we were taught about study skills at my nerdy school was to keep a clean, well-lit work space and eat a good breakfast, and most of us ignored that advice.
Think You Know How To Study? Think Again Study skills Study skills or study strategies are approaches applied to learning. They are generally critical to success in school, considered essential for acquiring good grades, and useful for learning throughout one's life. There are an array of study skills, which may tackle the process of organizing and taking in new information, retaining information, or dealing with assessments. While often left up to the student and their support network, study skills are increasingly taught in High School and at the University level. More broadly, any skill which boosts a person's ability to study and pass exams can be termed a study skill, and this could include time management and motivational techniques. Study skills are discrete techniques that can be learned, usually in a short time, and applied to all or most fields of study. Historical context The term study skills is used for general approaches to learning, skills for specific courses of study. Types Methods based on visual imagery
Why Forgetting Is Key To Remembering Forgetting isn’t usually thought of in relation to learning, but as it turns out, it might play a role. Herman Ebbinghaus, a German experimental psychologist from the late 19th and early 20th century, was (seemingly) curious about the way people remembered. (And thus forgot.) What made our good man Herman unique though was in his method of study–or rather his focus group. Among other projects, Dr. Among Dr. He is also known for his ideas on the rate of forgetting, claiming that 90% of what is learned is forgotten by learners within 30 days–often within hours. The infographic below reviews some of his ideas–how we remember–and how quickly we forget. This is a cross-post from Online Colleges Related posts:
Método de Estudo Muitos dos problemas de aprendizagem existentes entre os estudantes são hoje explicados pela ausência ou uso inadequado de métodos de estudo e pela inexistência de hábitos de trabalho que favoreçam a aprendizagem. Além disso, muitos jovens manifestam atitudes negativas face ao estudo, uma enorme desmotivação para as actividades escolares, dedicando-lhes muito pouco tempo. Por isso pensámos desenvolver, na nossa escola, um conjunto de iniciativas, dirigidas a alunos, professores e encarregados de educação, no sentido de ajudar os jovens a desenvolver um conjunto de competências fundamentais para uma melhor aprendizagem. Uma dessas iniciativas foi a criação, no ano lectivo de 2001/2002, da Sala de Estudo "Aprendizagem com Autonomia" , que tem como objectivo principal ajudar os alunos que a frequentam a adquirir hábitos e métodos de estudo adequados. O segredo do sucesso está na motivação. Sem motivação aprende-se pouco e esquece-se depressa. Os reforços do interesse Pensar no futuro Sublinhar
Making It Stick: Memorable Strategies to Enhance Learning By: Regina G. Richards Think about how you remember something: When you want to remember a phone number, do you repeat it to yourself several times until you get the whole number dialed?When you get to the grocery story and want to remember four items, do you hold up four fingers to cue yourself to remember?When someone asks you about a wedding you went to a few years ago, how do you call up the memory? Using strategies intrinsically mean slowing down when you do something. We all use strategies throughout our day to remember the variety of facts and ideas we need to retain. It is valuable for us, as teachers, therapists, and parents, to have a basic understanding of how we remember information so we better appreciate the need for strategies. Back to top The memory process Memory is a highly complex process involving multiple components working simultaneously. Everything begins as sensory input from our environment. Figure 1 Memory process schema The RIP toolbox for memory Visual images
Mapas mentais: Imagens que ensinam Jamerson Costa Especial para o SOS Concurseiro Os mapas mentais são uma ferramenta útil na hora de aprender matérias novas, extensas ou complexas. A ideia nasceu do inglês Tony Buzan, conforme explica Viviani Bovo, coautora do livro “Mapas Mentais – Enriquecendo Inteligências” e sócia do Instituto de Desenvolvimento do Potencial Humano (IDPH), de Campinas (SP). Leia também: Estímulos visuais facilitam memorização A especialista conta que Buzan “pesquisou sobre o assunto e levantou práticas usadas pelos estudantes, como sublinhar palavras, fazer desenhos e usar cores. “Uma função dos mapas mentais é organizar a informação de forma mais parecida com a estrutura de cérebro. Um exemplo da funcionalidade do recurso é o engenheiro Geraldo Magela dos Reis, 35 anos, concursado do Banco do Brasil em Patrocínio, cidade do Alto Paranaíba (MG), que destaca o uso dessa ferramenta como responsável em boa parte pelo sucesso que teve em concursos públicos. “É impressionante como funciona.
Why Students Cheat on Tests On Wednesday, June 13, Nayeem Ahsan walked into a fourth-floor classroom at Stuyvesant High School with some two dozen other students to take a physics test—one of a number of Regents Exams that many New York State high-school juniors are required to take. Small and skinny with thick black hair and a bright, shy smile, Nayeem is 16. Like many teenage boys, he seems to straddle two worlds: One moment you see a man, another a boy. The son of Bangladeshi immigrants, Nayeem was born in Flushing Hospital and raised in Jackson Heights, a 35-minute subway ride to Stuyvesant in lower Manhattan. In the academically elite world of Stuyvesant, Nayeem maintains solid if unremarkable grades, and is a friendly, popular-enough kid known to take photographs of sports teams after school and post them on Facebook. When he walked into the exam room that morning, he seemed confident and calm. Nayeem had cased the room beforehand. Nayeem had cheated on tests before. He got bolder.
Everything You Thought You Knew About Learning Is Wrong Learning through osmosis didn't make the strategies list image courtesy of Flickr user indi.ca Taking notes during class? Topic-focused study? Here's what he said. First, think about how you attack a pile of study material. Instead of making an appreciable leap forward with yourserving ability after a session of focused practice, interleaving forces you to make nearly imperceptible steps forward with many skills. Bjork explains that successful interleaving allows you to “seat” each skill among the others: “If information is studied so that it can be interpreted in relation to other things in memory, learning is much more powerful,” he says. There’s one caveat: Make sure the mini skills you interleave are related in some higher-order way. Similarly, studying in only one location is great as long as you’ll only be required to recall the information in the same location. And again, these tips generalize. “Forget about forgetting,” says Robert Bjork.