Théorie de l'attachement Un article de Wikipédia, l'encyclopédie libre. Pour les nourrissons et les jeunes enfants, le comportement d'attachement permet de maintenir la proximité avec les figures d'attachement, habituellement les parents. Photo d'une famille inuit prise en 1917. La théorie de l'attachement est un champ de la psychologie qui traite des relations entre êtres humains. Son principe de base est qu'un jeune enfant a besoin, pour connaître un développement social et émotionnel normal, de développer une relation d'attachement avec au moins une personne qui prend soin de lui de façon cohérente et continue (« caregiver »). Cette théorie a été formalisée par le psychiatre et psychanalyste John Bowlby, après les travaux de Winnicott, Lorenz et Harlow. Attachement[modifier | modifier le code] Bien que la figure d'attachement primaire est habituellement la mère, les bébés forment des liens d'attachement avec toute personne prenant soin d'eux et répondant à leur demande d'interactions sociales.
Home Explanations of attachment Why do babies form attachments? Learning Theory According to behaviourists, behaviour is not innate but learned. Neo-behaviourists suggest that we learn by watching others (social learning theory or SLT). Note: think of conditioning as learning. Behaviourist explanations of attachment: Operant conditioning Dollard and Miller (1950) suggested that the attachment was due to drive reduction. Hunger and cold (discomfort) are referred to as primary drives and food and warmth are primary reinforcers. Note: When the child is cold and hungry it cries. Classical conditioning This offers a similar but simplified explanation of how food provides attachment. If you want this in technical terms: Food is an unconditioned stimulus that produces an unconditioned response (pleasure). (Again think of conditioned as learned whereas unconditioned is something that was there all the time). Evaluation Is food needed to create an attachment? Harlow’s monkeys (1959): ‘The origins of love.’
Science Says: Excessive Crying Could Be Harmful Science tells us that when babies cry alone and unattended, they experience panic and anxiety. Their bodies and brains are flooded with adrenaline and cortisol stress hormones. Science has also found that when developing brain tissue is exposed to these hormones for prolonged periods these nerves won’t form connections to other nerves and will degenerate. Is it therefore possible that infants who endure many nights or weeks of crying-it-out alone are actually suffering harmful neurological effects that may have permanent implications on the development of sections of their brain? Here is how science answers this alarming question: Chemical and hormonal imbalances in the brain Research has shown that infants who are routinely separated from parents in a stressful way have abnormally high levels of the stress hormone cortisol, as well as lower growth hormone levels. Dr. Dr. Decreased intellectual, emotional, and social development Infant developmental specialist Dr. Dr. Dr. P. Share
What Happens to the Brain During Spiritual Experiences? - Lynne Blumberg The field of neurotheology uses science to try to understand religion, and vice versa. A devotee in a state of trance is calmed by volunteers at a Buddhist temple in Nakhon Pathom Province, Thailand. (Athit Perawongmetha/Reuters) “Everyone philosophizes,” writes neuroscientist Dr. Andrew Newberg in his latest book, The Metaphysical Mind: Probing the Biology of Philosophical Thought. Since everyday and spiritual concerns are variations of the same thinking processes, Newberg thinks it’s essential to examine how people experience spirituality in order to fully understand how their brains work. Newberg is a pioneer in the field of neurotheology, the neurological study of religious and spiritual experiences. Since then, he’s looked at around 150 brain scans, including those of Buddhists, nuns, atheists, Pentecostals speaking in tongues, and Brazilian mediums practicing psychography—the channeling of messages from the dead through handwriting). "It's a little overwhelming.
Attachment Theory: How Early Attachments Shape Behavior Attachment theory is focused on the relationships and bonds between people, particularly long-term relationships including those between a parent and child and between romantic partners. What is Attachment? Attachment is an emotional bond to another person. Psychologist John Bowlby was the first attachment theorist, describing attachment as a "lasting psychological connectedness between human beings." Bowlby believed that the earliest bonds formed by children with their caregivers have a tremendous impact that continues throughout life. The central theme of attachment theory is that primary caregivers who are available and responsive to an infant's needs allow the child to develop a sense of security. Ainsworth's "Strange Situation" In her 1970's research, psychologist Mary Ainsworth expanded greatly upon Bowlby's original work. Why Attachment Matters Researchers have found that attachment patterns established early in life can lead to a number of outcomes. Patterns of Attachment References
Attachment Styles - Types of Attachment What is Attachment? Attachment is a special emotional relationship that involves an exchange of comfort, care, and pleasure. The roots of research on attachment began with Freud's theories about love, but another researcher is usually credited as the father of attachment theory. John Bowlby devoted extensive research to the concept of attachment, describing it as a "lasting psychological connectedness between human beings." In addition to this, Bowlby believed that attachment had an evolutionary component; it aids in survival. Characteristics of Attachment Bowlby believed that there are four distinguishing characteristics of attachment: Proximity Maintenance - The desire to be near the people we are attached to. Bowlby made three key propositions about attachment theory. Next: Ainsworth's Strange Situation Assessment
Learning theory of attachment for A level psychology - Psychteacher Dollard & Miller (1950)According to Dollard & Miller (1950) attachment is a learned behaviour that is acquired through both classical and operant conditioning. Classical conditioningBefore attachment is learned, the infant gains pleasure through being fed. Food is the unconditioned stimulus and pleasure is the unconditioned response.When the infant is being fed, the infant associates the person providing the food with the food.The primary caregiver is the neutral stimulus, which becomes associated with food (the unconditioned stimulus).When the attachment has been learned, the infant gains pleasure when the primary caregiver is present.The primary caregiver is now the conditioned stimulus and pleasure is now the conditioned response.Operant conditioningWhen an infant is hungry it is in an uncomfortable state. Evaluating learning theory of attachmentLearning theory provides a very plausible and scientifically reliable explanation for attachment formation.
A Brief Overview of Adult Attachment Theory and Research | R. Chris Fraley A Brief Overview of Adult Attachment Theory and Research R. Chris Fraley | University of Illinois Summary Research on adult attachment is guided by the assumption that the same motivational system that gives rise to the close emotional bond between parents and their children is responsible for the bond that develops between adults in emotionally intimate relationships. Background: Bowlby's Theory of Attachment The theory of attachment was originally developed by John Bowlby (1907 - 1990), a British psychoanalyst who was attempting to understand the intense distress experienced by infants who had been separated from their parents. Drawing on ethological theory, Bowlby postulated that these attachment behaviors, such as crying and searching, were adaptive responses to separation from with a primary attachment figure--someone who provides support, protection, and care. Individual Differences in Infant Attachment Patterns Ainsworth's work was important for at least three reasons. A.
Brain's balancing act discovered: Wiring determines if neurons communicate -- ScienceDaily Researchers at the University of California, San Diego School of Medicine have discovered a fundamental mechanism by which the brain maintains its internal balance. The mechanism, described in the June 22 advanced online publication of the journal Nature, involves the brain's most basic inner wiring and the processes that control whether a neuron relays information to other neurons or suppresses the transmission of information. Specifically, the scientists have shown that there is a constant ratio between the total amount of pro-firing stimulation that a neuron receives from the hundreds or thousands of excitatory neurons that feed into it, and the total amount of red-light stop signaling that it receives from the equally numerous inhibitory neurons. This constant ratio, called the E/I ratio, was known to exist for individual neurons at a given time. "There is always a tug-of-war. "If this E/I balance is broken, it completely alters your perception of the world," Scanziani said.
Mary Ainsworth | Attachment Styles by Saul McLeod published 2008 John Bowlby (1969) believed that attachment was an all or nothing process. However, research has shown that there are individual differences in attachment quality. Indeed one of the primary paradigms in attachment theory is that of the security of an individual’s attachment (Ainsworth 1970, 1978). Much research in psychology has focused on how forms of attachment differ between infants. However, it was probably the psychologist Mary Ainsworth (1913 - 1999) who provided the most famous body of research offering explanations of individual differences in attachment. It’s easy enough to know when you are attached to someone because you know how you feel when you are apart from that person, and, being an adult, you can put your feelings into words and describe how it feels. Psychologist Mary Ainsworth devised an assessment technique called the Strange Situation Classification (SSC) in order to investigate how attachments might vary between children. Secure Attachment
Antecedents and outcomes of attachment towards smartphone applications - International Journal of Mobile Communications - Volume 11, Number 4/2013 Journal Article Authors Chung K. Kim1, Mina Jun2, Jeongsoo Han3, Miyea Kim4, Joshua Y. 1Graduate School of Business, Sungkyunkwan University, Jongro Myungyun 3-53, Seoul, Republic of Korea2Graduate School of Business, Sungkyunkwan University, Jongro Myungyun 3-53, Seoul, Republic of Korea3Graduate School of Business, Sungkyunkwan University, Jongro Myungyun 3-53, Seoul, Republic of Korea4Graduate School of Business, Sungkyunkwan University, Jongro Myungyun 3-53, Seoul, Republic of Korea5College of Human Ecology, Seoul National University, Gwanak-gu Sillim-dong, San 56-1, Seoul, Republic of Korea Abstract The purpose of this study is to examine how consumers' attachment towards mobile applications is influenced by the antecedent variables, self-connection and social-connection, and how the attachment influences the outcome variables, brand supportive behaviours, self-efficacy and ultimately life satisfaction. Keywords Fulltext Preview (Small, Large) Show References
To Spank or Not to Spank? Is that Really Still a Question? There is a boundless amount of parenting help to be found in many social network communities where some parents ask questions and other inspired parents give their answers. The idea, a good one in my opinion, is parents share with other parents in an effort to help one another. This same activity is what use to be done locally, in neighborhood playgrounds, churches, coffee shops, and other places where parents gathered with their children. One mother wondered at what age it was okay to spank her child on his bare bottom? What followed was a lively and mostly respectful debate among the parents about the concept of spanking although this was not the originators specific questions about spanking a bare or protected bottom. Since it seems that there is still a question to spank or not to spank, I offer my opinion and advice. Almost every parent has had the urge to spank their children or to raise their voice out of frustration and anger at some point in their parenting life.
Should we be mindful of mindfulness? At just after 6.15pm in a brightly lit conference room in Oxford, 22 grown men and women are lying on the floor trying hard to focus on their left knee. From across the room a lilting, calm voice has already invited the group to explore their feet and ankles with "gentle curiosity" and is heading up through the body. "When your mind wanders, gently and kindly escort your attention back to your left knee," she tells us. It's not easy. According to Marie Johansson, the leader of our session, that's all fine. For the growing army of people who have taken part in mindfulness training, these reflective rituals of the 40-minute "body scan" will be all too familiar. Mindfulness is everywhere at the moment. So can an approach so deeply rooted in eastern spiritualism, and which at times comes close to sounding like new age waffle, really work? Professor Mark Williams thinks so. "It's a preventative treatment – that's what makes it different," says Williams. "But it has worked.