Theories Early western history The trait theory was explored at length in a number of works in the 19th century. Most notable are the writings of Thomas Carlyle and Francis Galton, whose works have prompted decades of research. In Heroes and Hero Worship (1841), Carlyle identified the talents, skills, and physical characteristics of men who rose to power. In Galton's Hereditary Genius (1869), he examined leadership qualities in the families of powerful men. After showing that the numbers of eminent relatives dropped off when moving from first degree to second degree relatives, Galton concluded that leadership was inherited. Rise of alternative theories In the late 1940s and early 1950s, however, a series of qualitative reviews of these studies (e.g., Bird, 1940; Stogdill, 1948; Mann, 1959) prompted researchers to take a drastically different view of the driving forces behind leadership. Reemergence of trait theory Attribute pattern approach B.F.
Implementing Strategies in Extreme NegotiationsDownload the PDF of this Idea in Practice. In November 2010, Jeff Weiss and Jonathan Hughes, along with Major Aram Donigian, published an article in HBR called "Extreme Negotiations." It described the temptations we all face when negotiating under duress—for example, acting too quickly or relying too much on coercion—and suggested that the principles of effective negotiation become even more important when the stakes are high and the pressure is on. The authors used examples from military negotiations in Iraq and Afghanistan to illustrate those principles. We followed up with Weiss and Hughes to understand more about how readers could apply these negotiating principles to their own situations. HBR: In a business context, what do you define as an "extreme" negotiation? Weiss and Hughes: It's when the stakes and risks are especially high. Remind us of what the principles are. Do these strategies need to be reciprocated to be effective? W & H: No, although that is a very common concern.
Delivering an Effective Performance Review - Rebecca Knight - Best PracticesIt’s performance review season, and you know the drill. Drag each of your direct reports into a conference room for a one-on-one, hand them an official-looking document, and then start in with the same, tired conversation. Say some positive things about what the employee is good at, then some unpleasant things about what he’s not good at, and end — wearing your most solicitous grin — with some more strokes of his ego. What the Experts Say For many employees, a face-to-face performance review is the most stressful work conversation they’ll have all year. Set expectations early The performance review doesn’t start with a sit-down in the spare conference room. Lay the groundwork About two weeks before the face-to-face review, ask your employee to jot down a few things he’s done over the last year that he’s proud of. Set a tone Too often the face-to-face conversation takes the form of a “feedback sandwich:” compliments, criticism, more niceties. Principles to Remember Do Don’t
Excellence Now by Tom PetersSaving An Iconic Brand: Five Ways Alan Mulally Changed Ford’s CultureAlan Mulally is credited with saving Ford Motor Company--and doing it without the taxpayer’s money. But what he really did was save Ford from itself. In the American automobile industry, Ford was notorious for its caustic corporate culture. Executives put their own advancement and the success of their own departments ahead of the bottom line. The company was divided into warring fiefdoms. Different sets of data were used to make different points to different constituencies. Applying the same methods he had used to save Boeing after the terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001 annihilated its order book, Mulally transformed this short-sighted, cutthroat, careerist culture into a model of collaboration and efficiency. Forcing everyone to “join the team” Before Mulally arrived in Dearborn, Ford meetings were arenas of mortal combat. Insisting on a rigorous reliance on the facts At pre-Mulally Ford, the truth came in many different flavors. Creating one Ford But Mulally’s plan was different.
Steve Jobs and The Bobby Knight School of Leadership - David Aakerby David Aaker | 10:45 AM March 13, 2012 I believe that Steve Jobs was among the best CEOs of this generation because he created entirely new categories six times in a decade, and built the largest company market cap ever. Yet two recent and excellent books (Inside Apple, by Adam Lashinsky and Steve Jobs by Walter Issacson) describe a management style that was disturbingly harsh. To understand Jobs’s success, I find it helpful to look at the success of Bobby Knight, the fabled basketball coach at Indiana. Jobs’s treatment of employees and partners has been described as brutal and even cruel. Knight’s treatment of players has been termed abusive. Knight and Jobs shared four common success traits that seem more obvious when looking at the two together. They were incredibly knowledgeable and insightful. This analysis reminds us that there are many routes to CEO success; there is no one style that is the best.
Global Team Leaders Must Deliberately Create "Moments" - Tsedal Neeleyby Tsedal Neeley | 10:47 AM March 22, 2012 Global teams face the challenge of having to operate with limited face-to-face contact and across vast distances, time zones, language backgrounds, and contexts, as well as cultural differences. In turn, these differences generate disruptions to team cohesion and top performance outcomes. To counter those cohesion and performance risks, managing such a globally-dispersed team requires deliberate planning that helps bridge those boundaries. In my work centered on coordination of work across national boundaries — including the implementation of a standard language — I have learned that the most powerful way to overcome these differences is for global managers to create “moments,” sometimes difficult moments. Four types of moments make material difference: 1. This is counterintuitive to most professionals today who are stretched for time and attention, but part of your agenda-setting with your global team must include “unstructured” time. 2. 3. 4.
6 Habits of True Strategic ThinkersIn the beginning, there was just you and your partners. You did every job. You coded, you met with investors, you emptied the trash and phoned in the midnight pizza. Now you have others to do all that and it's time for you to "be strategic." Whatever that means. If you find yourself resisting "being strategic," because it sounds like a fast track to irrelevance, or vaguely like an excuse to slack off, you're not alone. This is a tough job, make no mistake. After two decades of advising organizations large and small, my colleagues and I have formed a clear idea of what's required of you in this role. Anticipate Most of the focus at most companies is on what’s directly ahead. Look for game-changing information at the periphery of your industrySearch beyond the current boundaries of your businessBuild wide external networks to help you scan the horizon better Think Critically “Conventional wisdom” opens you to fewer raised eyebrows and second guessing. Interpret Ambiguity is unsettling. Decide
Bad to great: The path to scaling up excellenceLeaders who aim to boost organizational performance often start with efforts to kindle good behavior, however they define it. Yet case studies and rigorous academic research show that if you want to create and spread excellence, eliminating the negative is the first order of business. Destructive behavior—selfishness, nastiness, fear, laziness, dishonesty—packs a far bigger wallop than constructive behavior. Organizational researcher Andrew Miner and colleagues, for example, measured the moods of 41 employees at random intervals throughout the workday. The researchers discovered that negative interactions with bosses and coworkers had five times more impact on employees’ moods than positive interactions. Video Scaling up excellence: An interview with Bob Sutton Sutton discusses companies that have scaled up excellence and explains their success. Play video Efforts to scale up excellence stall when bad behavior crowds out good. Negative actions and beliefs also come in different flavors.