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Standard Model

Standard Model
The Standard Model of particle physics is a theory concerning the electromagnetic, weak, and strong nuclear interactions, as well as classifying all the subatomic particles known. It was developed throughout the latter half of the 20th century, as a collaborative effort of scientists around the world.[1] The current formulation was finalized in the mid-1970s upon experimental confirmation of the existence of quarks. Since then, discoveries of the top quark (1995), the tau neutrino (2000), and more recently the Higgs boson (2013), have given further credence to the Standard Model. Although the Standard Model is believed to be theoretically self-consistent[2] and has demonstrated huge and continued successes in providing experimental predictions, it does leave some phenomena unexplained and it falls short of being a complete theory of fundamental interactions. Historical background[edit] Overview[edit] Particle content[edit] Fermions[edit] Gauge bosons[edit] Higgs boson[edit] Challenges[edit]

Higgs boson The Higgs boson is named after Peter Higgs, one of six physicists who, in 1964, proposed the mechanism that suggested the existence of such a particle. Although Higgs's name has come to be associated with this theory, several researchers between about 1960 and 1972 each independently developed different parts of it. In mainstream media the Higgs boson has often been called the "God particle", from a 1993 book on the topic; the nickname is strongly disliked by many physicists, including Higgs, who regard it as inappropriate sensationalism.[17][18] In 2013 two of the original researchers, Peter Higgs and François Englert, were awarded the Nobel Prize in Physics for their work and prediction[19] (Englert's co-researcher Robert Brout had died in 2011). A non-technical summary[edit] "Higgs" terminology[edit] Overview[edit] If this field did exist, this would be a monumental discovery for science and human knowledge, and is expected to open doorways to new knowledge in many fields. History[edit]

Keys 2 Cognition - Cognitive Processes 47. Trust what emerges from brainstorming. 48. Easily get in sync physically with people and things around you. Your Demographic Data This assessment and your upcoming results are free of charge. Your sex: Your age: This model tries to tap into development. Which of the following best represents your background, career, and training? Which region below best represents your cultural upbringing or ethnicity? Your Myers-Briggs type code, as you best know? Your name + birth year or other memorable identifier: Minimum 10 letters. The forum, person or website that brought you here: Your comments (optional): Warning! When you are ready, please click submit to view results... Copyright January 2005, 2021, Dario Nardi, with thanks to Dr. Global Research Complex analysis Murray R. Spiegel described complex analysis as "one of the most beautiful as well as useful branches of Mathematics". Complex analysis is particularly concerned with the analytic functions of complex variables (or, more generally, meromorphic functions). Because the separate real and imaginary parts of any analytic function must satisfy Laplace's equation, complex analysis is widely applicable to two-dimensional problems in physics. History[edit] Complex analysis is one of the classical branches in mathematics with roots in the 19th century and just prior. Complex functions[edit] For any complex function, both the independent variable and the dependent variable may be separated into real and imaginary parts: and where are real-valued functions. In other words, the components of the function f(z), can be interpreted as real-valued functions of the two real variables, x and y. Holomorphic functions[edit] See also: analytic function, holomorphic sheaf and vector bundles. Major results[edit]

Force Carrier Particles Fact File Physics for Beginners - What are Force Carrier Particles? This hub aims to summarise the facts you should already know about force carrier particles and their interactions. In order for you to apply the facts that follow in this hub, you will need to have already learned about the fundamental particles that comprise our universe. If you haven't already done so or need to recap, see: Fundamental Particles Fact File Four Interactions There are four interactions that occur between particles. ElectromagneticStrongWeakGravity Every force that we know of can be explained with these four fundamental interactions. 2. Strong Force and Colour Charges Strong force holds together the quarks inside baryons (e.g. protons and neutrons) and mesons.Strong force works through the relationship between colour charged particles.The force carrier particles that carry strong force are called gluons.Gluons have colour charge and so do the particles that they affect: quarks and anti-quarks Quarks and Colour Charges

 INFORMATION CLEARING HOUSE. NEWS, COMMENTARY & INSIGHT Physics Various examples of physical phenomena Physics is one of the oldest academic disciplines, perhaps the oldest through its inclusion of astronomy.[8] Over the last two millennia, physics was a part of natural philosophy along with chemistry, certain branches of mathematics, and biology, but during the Scientific Revolution in the 17th century, the natural sciences emerged as unique research programs in their own right.[b] Physics intersects with many interdisciplinary areas of research, such as biophysics and quantum chemistry, and the boundaries of physics are not rigidly defined. New ideas in physics often explain the fundamental mechanisms of other sciences[6] while opening new avenues of research in areas such as mathematics and philosophy. Physics also makes significant contributions through advances in new technologies that arise from theoretical breakthroughs. History Ancient astronomy Astronomy is the oldest of the natural sciences. Natural philosophy Classical physics Modern physics

Zero-point energy Zero-point energy, also called quantum vacuum zero-point energy, is the lowest possible energy that a quantum mechanical physical system may have; it is the energy of its ground state. All quantum mechanical systems undergo fluctuations even in their ground state and have an associated zero-point energy, a consequence of their wave-like nature. The uncertainty principle requires every physical system to have a zero-point energy greater than the minimum of its classical potential well. This results in motion even at absolute zero. The concept of zero-point energy was developed in Germany by Albert Einstein and Otto Stern in 1913, as a corrective term added to a zero-grounded formula developed by Max Planck in 1900.[1][2] The term zero-point energy originates from the German Nullpunktsenergie.[1][2] An alternative form of the German term is Nullpunktenergie (without the s). History[edit] where is Planck's constant, Relation to the uncertainty principle[edit] Varieties[edit] and defined by . .