Gospel of Mark The Gospel According to Mark (Greek: τὸ κατὰ Μᾶρκον εὐαγγέλιον, to kata Markon euangelion), the second book of the New Testament, is one of the four canonical gospels and the three synoptic gospels. It was traditionally thought to be an epitome (summary) of Matthew, which accounts for its place as the second gospel in the Bible, but most contemporary scholars now regard it as the earliest of the gospels. Most modern scholars reject the tradition which ascribes it to Mark the Evangelist, the companion of Peter, and regard it as the work of an unknown author working with various sources including collections of miracle stories, controversy stories, parables, and a passion narrative. Composition and setting Composition The two-source hypothesis: Most scholars agree that Mark was the first of the gospels to be composed, and that the authors of Matthew and Luke used it plus a second document called the Q source when composing their own gospels. Setting Structure 1.
Gospel of Luke The Gospel According to Luke (Greek: Τὸ κατὰ Λουκᾶν εὐαγγέλιον, to kata Loukan euangelion), commonly shortened to the Gospel of Luke or simply Luke, is the third and longest of the four Gospels. This synoptic gospel is an account of the life and ministry of Jesus of Nazareth. It details his story from the events of his birth to his Ascension. According to the preface, the purpose of Luke is to write an historical account, while bringing out the theological significance of the history. Nevertheless, ancient authors emphasized plausibility rather than truth and mixed intentional fiction in with their biography; the claim that the evangelist wrote with historical intentions does not guarantee the preservation of historical facts. Most modern critical scholarship concludes that Luke used the Gospel of Mark for his chronology and a hypothetical sayings source Q document for many of Jesus's teachings. Title Composition Synoptic Gospels Sources L source
Gospel of John The Gospel of John (also referred to as the Gospel According to John, the Fourth Gospel, or simply John) is one of the four canonical gospels in the Christian Bible. In the New Testament it traditionally appears fourth, after the synoptic gospels of Matthew, Mark and Luke. John begins with the witness and affirmation of John the Baptist and concludes with the death, burial, resurrection, and post-resurrection appearances of Jesus. Chapter 21 states that the book derives from the testimony of the "disciple whom Jesus loved" and early church tradition identified him as John the Apostle, one of Jesus' Twelve Apostles. Raymond E. Composition Authorship The gospel identifies its author as "the disciple whom Jesus loved." The earliest manuscripts to contain the beginning of the gospel (Papyrus 66 and Papyrus 75), dating from around the year 200, entitle the gospel "The Gospel according to John". Sources Order of material Signs Gospel Discourses Inspiration
The Corinthians in Corinthians Figure Analysis The Corinthians sure get lots of screen time in the Bible, but just who were they? And why does Paul spend so much time writing letters to their little neck of the woods? The Corinth of Old Ancient Corinth was a lovely little town, which was located in the southern part of Greece on the Isthmus of Corinth. See, Corinth was pretty cosmopolitan at the time (for a place that didn't have flushing toilets, that is): Corinth was home to major seaports, which meant its exports of bronze and terra cotta always sold well.It was a major manufacturing and commercial hub of the ancient world. Paul's Arrival in Greece So Paul hits Corinth and establishes a church pretty quickly. Not quite. Sin's Really Got a Hold on Them The Corinthians get a bad wrap for being a bunch of ancient sinners and sex freaks. "Fornicators, idolaters, adulterers, male prostitutes, sodomites, thieves, the greedy, drunkards, revilers, robbers […] this is what some of you used to be" (1 Corinthians 6:9-11). Wrong:
Marcan priority According to the hypothesis of Markan priority, the Gospel of Mark was written first and then used as a source for the Gospels of Matthew and Luke. Markan priority is the hypothesis that the Gospel of Mark was the first-written of the three Synoptic Gospels and was used as a source by the other two, Matthew and Luke. This hypothesis is a central one in discussion of the Synoptic Problem, the question of the documentary relationship among these three Gospels. Markan priority has been accepted by most scholars since the late nineteenth century and forms the foundation for the widely accepted two-source theory, although a number of scholars support different forms of Markan priority or reject it altogether. History Gottlob Christian Storr. The tradition handed down by the Church Fathers regarded Matthew as the first Gospel written. There was much debate at the time over whether Matthew and Luke used Mark itself or some Proto-Mark (Ur-Mark). In 1899 J. Dependent theories
Acts of the Apostles The Acts of the Apostles (Ancient Greek: Πράξεις τῶν Ἀποστόλων, Práxeis tôn Apostólōn; Latin: Āctūs Apostolōrum), often referred to simply as Acts, is the fifth book of the New Testament; Acts outlines the history of the Apostolic Age. It is almost universally agreed that the author of Acts also wrote the Gospel of Luke. The author is traditionally identified as Luke the Evangelist; see Authorship of Luke–Acts for details. Composition While the precise identity of the author is debated, the consensus is that this work was composed by a (Koine) Greek-speaking Gentile writing for an audience of Gentile Christians. Title The title "Acts of the Apostles" (Greek Πράξεις ἀποστόλων Praxeis Apostolon) was not part of the original text. Genre "Acts" is a recognized genre in the ancient world, "characterizing books that described great deeds of people or of cities Modern scholars assign a wide range of genres to the Acts of the Apostles, including biography, novel and history.
First Council of Nicaea The First Council of Nicaea (/naɪ'si:ə/; Greek: Νίκαια /'ni:kaɪja/ Turkish: Iznik) was a council of Christian bishops convened in Nicaea in Bithynia by the Roman Emperor Constantine I in AD 325. This first ecumenical council was the first effort to attain consensus in the church through an assembly representing all of Christendom. Its main accomplishments were settlement of the Christological issue of the nature of the Son of God and his relationship to God the Father, the construction of the first part of the Creed of Nicaea, establishing uniform observance of the date of Easter, and promulgation of early canon law. Overview Eastern Orthodox icon depicting the First Council of Nicaea The First Council of Nicaea was the first ecumenical council of the Church. Another result of the council was an agreement on when to celebrate Easter, the most important feast of the ecclesiastical calendar, decreed in an epistle to the Church of Alexandria in which is simply stated:
Synoptic Gospels The calming of the storm is similarly recounted in each of the three synoptic gospels, but not in John. The gospels of Matthew, Mark, and Luke are referred to as the Synoptic Gospels because they include many of the same stories, often in a similar sequence and in similar wording. They stand in contrast to John, whose content is comparatively distinct. The term synoptic (Latin: synopticus; Ancient Greek: συνοπτικός synoptikos) comes via Latin from the Greek σύνοψις synopsis, i.e. This strong parallelism among the three gospels in content, arrangement, and specific language is widely attributed to literary interdependence. The question of the precise nature of their literary relationship—the "synoptic problem"—has been a topic of lively debate for centuries and has been described as "the most fascinating literary enigma of all time". Structure Almost all of Mark's content is found in Matthew, and much of Mark is similarly found in Luke. Common features Example Notes
Pauline epistles The Letters of Paul, are the thirteen New Testament books which have the name Paul (Παῦλος) as the first word, claiming authorship by Paul the Apostle. Among these letters are some of the earliest extant Christian documents. They provide an insight into the beliefs and controversies of early Christianity and, as part of the canon of the New Testament, they have also been, and continue to be, foundational to Christian theology and Christian ethics. The Epistle to the Hebrews, although it does not bear his name, was traditionally considered Pauline for a thousand years, but from the 16th century onwards opinion steadily moved against Pauline authorship and few scholars now ascribe it to Paul. The Pauline epistles are usually placed between the Book of Acts and the General epistles. In minuscules 175, 325, 336, and 1424 the Pauline epistles are placed at the end of the New Testament. Order In the order they appear in the New Testament, the Pauline epistles are: Authenticity
Psychology and Alchemy Psychology and Alchemy is Volume 12 in The Collected Works of C. G. Jung, a series of books published by Princeton University Press in the U.S. and Routledge & Kegan Paul in the U.K. It is study of the analogies between alchemy, Christian dogma, and psychological symbolism. Detailed abstracts of each chapter are available online. Overview In this book, Jung argues for a reevaluation of the symbolism of Alchemy as being intimately related to the psychoanalytical process. In drawing these parallels Jung reinforces the universal nature of his theory of the archetype and makes an impassioned argument for the importance of spirituality in the psychic health of the modern man. Also interesting about this book is that patient whose dreams are being analyzed in the second section is the physicist Wolfgang Pauli, who would go on to collaborate with Jung on such ideas as the acausal connection principle of synchronicity. Content Part I. Part II. Chapter 1 - Introduction
Gospel A gospel is an account that describes the life of Jesus of Nazareth . The most widely known examples are the four canonical gospels of Matthew , Mark , Luke , and John , but the term is also used to refer to the apocryphal gospels , the non-canonical gospels , the Jewish-Christian gospels and the gnostic gospels . Christianity traditionally places a high value on the four canonical gospels, which it considers to be a revelation from God and central to its belief system. [ 1 ] Christians teach that the four canonical gospels are an accurate and authoritative representation of the life of Jesus, [ 2 ] but many scholars agree that not everything contained in the gospels is historically reliable. [ 3 ] [ 4 ] [ 5 ] [ 6 ] [ 7 ] [ 8 ] [ 9 ] In Islam the Injil ( Arabic : إنجيل ) is the Arabic term for a book given to Jesus. Etymology [ edit ] The word gospel derives from the Old English gōd-spell [ 11 ] (rarely godspel ), meaning "good news" or "glad tidings". Usage [ edit ] Origin [ edit ]