Deep and Surface learning It is important to clarify what they are not. Although learners may be classified as “deep” or “surface”, they are not attributes of individuals: one person may use both approaches at different times, although she or he may have a preference for one or the other. They correlate fairly closely with motivation: “deep” with intrinsic motivation and “surface” with extrinsic, but they are not necessarily the same thing. Either approach can be adopted by a person with either motivation. There is a third form, known as the “Achieving” or strategic approach, which can be summarised as a very well-organised form of Surface approach, and in which the motivation is to get good marks. Time to 'fess up: I was that strategic learner. The features of Deep and Surface approaches can be summarised thus: (based on Ramsden, 1988) The Surface learner is trying to “suss out” what the teacher wants and to provide it, and is likely to be motivated primarily by fear of failure. Two other points: More on Marton
Tucson Schools Enhance Learning with the Arts Brain-based research supports an effort to improve student achievement through an interdisciplinary curriculum that combines creative pursuits and academic subjects. Running Time: 8 min. At Corbett Elementary School, in Tucson, Arizona, classical music floats through the hallways all day. First graders and fifth graders create operas. Every fourth grader learns violin. Kindergartners meet weekly with a trio from the Tucson Symphony Orchestra to explore rhythm and patterns and to establish literacy connections. Corbett is part of a sweeping initiative in the Tucson Unified School District to improve student achievement through an interdisciplinary curriculum that fuses the arts and academic subjects. "OMA is not only opening up children to the beauty of the world, it's also strengthening connections in the brain," says Sheila Govern, principal of Lyons Elementary School. Of course, nobody -- least of all, kids -- participates in art to test better.
Can Creativity be Taught? Results from creativity studies Creativity at Work In 1968, George Land distributed among 1,600 5-year-olds a creativity test used by NASA to select innovative engineers and scientists. He re-tested the same children at 10 years of age, and again at 15 years of age. Test results amongst 5 year olds: 98% Test results amongst 10 year olds: 30% Test results amongst 15 year olds: 12% Same test given to 280,000 adults: 2% “What we have concluded,” wrote Land, “is that non-creative behavior is learned.” (Sources: Escape from the Maze: Increasing Individual and Group Creativity by James Higgins; also George Land and Beth Jarman, Breaking Point and Beyond. Why aren’t adults as creative as children? For most, creativity has been buried by rules and regulations. Can Creativity Skills be Taught? Yes, creativity skills can be learned. Over the course of the last half century, numerous training programs intended to develop creativity capacities have been proposed. Creativity is a skill that can be developed and a process that can be managed.
Successful Learning: Peer Learning Many institutions of learning now promote instructional methods involving ‘active’ learning that present opportunities for students to formulate their own questions, discuss issues, explain their viewpoints, and engage in cooperative learning by working in teams on problems and projects. ‘Peer learning’ is a form of cooperative learning that enhances the value of student-student interaction and results in various advantageous learning outcomes. To realise the benefits of peer learning, teachers must provide ‘intellectual scaffolding’. Peer Learning Strategies To facilitate successful peer learning, teachers may choose from an array of strategies: Buzz Groups: A large group of students is subdivided into smaller groups of 4–5 students to consider the issues surrounding a problem. Critique sessions, role-play, debates, case studies and integrated projects are other exciting and effective teaching strategies that stir students’ enthusiasm and encourage peer learning. Successful Peer Learning
Oklahoma's Arts Program Develops Multiple Intelligences The state's schools emphasize the arts through a network dedicated to nurturing creativity among students and teachers. The arts are part of almost everything that happens at Woodrow Wilson Elementary School, in Bartlesville, Oklahoma. Look up at the covering of the walkway as you enter, and you'll see the mural -- brilliant blue sky, sun, cloud puffs with smiling kids' faces. It was conceived, planned, and painted by third graders. Wallace has taught at Wilson for thirteen years, through three principals, and has always done art projects with her kids. "Before, I felt the administration thought art was fluff," Wallace says. The A+ story began in 1998, when the Kirkpatrick Foundation, in Oklahoma City, invited a group of educators to explore school-reform approaches. The group searched the country for models that emphasized arts, required a whole-school commitment, were rooted in the daily practice of the classroom teacher, and were shown through research to be effective.
Art in Schools Inspires Tomorrow's Creative Thinkers Without the arts, education's grade is Incomplete. Education minus art? Such an equation equals schooling that fails to value ingenuity and innovation. The word art, derived from an ancient Indo-European root that means "to fit together," suggests as much. Art is about fitting things together: words, images, objects, processes, thoughts, historical epochs. It is both a form of serious play governed by rules and techniques that can be acquired through rigorous study, and a realm of freedom where the mind and body are mobilized to address complex questions -- questions that, sometimes, only art itself can answer: What is meaningful or beautiful? To erase art, as the Taliban did by turning explosives on the colossal centuries-old Buddhas of Bamiyan along the ancient Silk Road through Afghanistan, is to deny the reality of human differences and historical change. "Life is short, and art long," reads the Hippocratic aphorism. Jeffrey T.
Richard Felder: Resources in Science and Engineering Education Richard Felder's Home Page Richard M. Felder Dr. Richard Felder and Rebecca Brent's blog. Troubled Teens Explore Their Artistic Side A San Francisco program for juvenile offenders fosters creativity, literacy, and freedom of expression through hip-hop. Live a day in my shoes What you think you would do? You think you could handle it, my thoughts? You think you could stand it? During two weeks last summer, twelve students at a juvenile court-mandated school in San Francisco wrote intense, deeply personal pieces of hip-hop and spoken word, set them to music, produced a studio-quality CD, and performed at a local club. The project, called Lyrical Minded, had several goals. Francisca Sanchez, the San Francisco Unified School District's associate superintendent of academics and professional development, explains that the district wants to make the arts more accessible to the most marginalized students. Have you ever been used and abused by people you thought would be good to you? The Principals' Center Collaborative, as the school is officially known, has about sixty students from ninth through twelfth grade.
Creativity—It’s our future | Creativity in Education Share this Episode Please select a language: Autoplay End of Video Show End Screen Default Quality Adjust your embed size below, then copy and paste the embed code above. Community Translation Episode available in 2 languages Available Translations: Join the Community Translation Project Thanks for your interest in translating this episode! Please Confirm Your Interest Thanks for your interest in adding translations to this episode! An error occurred while processing your request. Another translator has already started to translate this episode. Thanks for Participating! This episode has been assigned to you and you can expect an e-mail shortly containing all the information you need to get started. About This Episode Adobe's vision on creativity in education.
Interns - Tutor/Mentor Connection The Arts Are Essential Cornell University's president on why teaching creativity in schools is not a luxury. As president of a large research university that received 33,000 applications for 3,050 places in the fall freshman class, I'm often asked by parents of students in high school, middle school -- and even those in preschool -- what their children should study in the K-12 years to increase their chances of admission to college. I dutifully affirm the conventional wisdom: Take the most challenging courses in core academic disciplines like English, languages, history, math, and science for the required number of years, participate in extracurricular activities, volunteer . . . . Then I put in a plea for taking time to explore the humanities and arts in all their varied dimensions -- visual and performing, Western and non-Western, classical and avant-garde. The Heart of the Matter Great research universities are often thought of in relation to their contributions to the advancement of science and technology.