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Chromatic scale

Chromatic scale
Chromatic scale drawn as a circle: each note is equidistant from its neighbors, separated by a semitone of the same size. The most common conception of the chromatic scale before the 13th century was the Pythagorean chromatic scale. Due to a different tuning technique, the twelve semitones in this scale have two slightly different sizes. Thus, the scale is not perfectly symmetric. The term chromatic derives from the Greek word chroma, meaning color. Notation[edit] The chromatic scale may be notated in a variety of ways. Ascending and descending:[1] The chromatic scale has no set spelling agreed upon by all. Non-Western cultures[edit] Total chromatic[edit] See also[edit] Sources[edit] External links[edit] Recommended Reading[edit] Related:  agyptianrayneMusic theory feb 13

Pitch (music) In musical notation, the different vertical positions of notes indicate different pitches. Play top & Play bottom Pitch may be quantified as a frequency, but pitch is not a purely objective physical property; it is a subjective psychoacoustical attribute of sound. In most cases, the pitch of complex sounds such as speech and musical notes corresponds very nearly to the repetition rate of periodic or nearly-periodic sounds, or to the reciprocal of the time interval between repeating similar events in the sound waveform.[8][9] The pitch of complex tones can be ambiguous, meaning that two or more different pitches can be perceived, depending upon the observer.[5] When the actual fundamental frequency can be precisely determined through physical measurement, it may differ from the perceived pitch because of overtones, also known as upper partials, harmonic or otherwise. The relative perception of pitch can be fooled, resulting in aural illusions. Pitches are labeled using:

Igor Stravinsky Igor Fyodorovich Stravinsky (sometimes spelled Strawinsky or Stravinskii; Russian: Игорь Фёдорович Стравинский, transliterated: Igorʹ Fëdorovič Stravinskij; Russian pronunciation: [ˌiɡərʲ ˌfʲjodɐrɐvʲɪt͡ɕ strɐˈvʲinskʲɪj]; 17 June [O.S. 5 June] 1882 – 6 April 1971) was a Russian (and later, a naturalized French and American) composer, pianist and conductor. He is widely considered one of the most important and influential composers of the 20th century. Life and career[edit] Early life in the Russian Empire[edit] Igor Stravinsky, 1903 In 1905 he was betrothed to his cousin Yekaterina Gavrilovna Nosenko (called "Katya"), whom he had known since early childhood.[13] In spite of the Orthodox Church's opposition to marriage between first cousins, the couple married on 23 January 1906: their first two children, Fyodor (Theodore) and Ludmila, were born in 1907 and 1908, respectively.[14] Life in Switzerland[edit] Vaslav Nijinsky as Petrushka in 1910–11 Life in France[edit] Vera de Bosset Sudeikin

Circle of fifths Circle of fifths showing major and minor keys Nikolay Diletsky's circle of fifths in Idea grammatiki musikiyskoy (Moscow, 1679) In music theory, the circle of fifths (or circle of fourths) is a visual representation of the relationships among the 12 tones of the chromatic scale, their corresponding key signatures, and the associated major and minor keys. Definition[edit] Structure and use[edit] Pitches within the chromatic scale are related not only by the number of semitones between them within the chromatic scale, but also related harmonically within the circle of fifths. Octaves (7 × 1200 = 8400) versus fifths (12 × 700 = 8400), depicted as with Cuisenaire rods (red (2) is used for 1200, black (7) is used for 700). Diatonic key signatures[edit] The circle is commonly used to represent the relationship between diatonic scales. For minor scales, rotate the letters counter-clockwise by 3, so that, e.g., A minor has 0 sharps or flats and E minor has 1 sharp. Play . In lay terms[edit] .

Diatonic and chromatic Melodies may be based on a diatonic scale and maintain its tonal characteristics but contain many accidentals up to all twelve tones of the chromatic scale, such as the opening of Henry Purcell's "Thy Hand, Belinda", Dido and Aeneas (1689) ( Play , Play with figured bass) which features eleven of twelve pitches while chromatically descending by half steps,[1] the missing pitch being sung later. Bartok - Music for Strings, Percussion and Celesta, mov. I, fugue subject: diatonic variant Play .[2] These terms may mean different things in different contexts. History[edit] Greek genera[edit] F♭ E (where F♭ is F♮ lowered by a quarter tone). Medieval coloration[edit] The term cromatico (Italian) was occasionally used in the Medieval and Renaissance periods to refer to the coloration (Latin coloratio) of certain notes. Renaissance chromaticism[edit] The term chromatic began to approach its modern usage in the 16th century. Diatonic scales[edit] Diatonic scale on C Play equal tempered and Play just. Play .

Just Intonation Toolkit The Just Intonation Toolkit is a resource that allows musicians to hear and play intervals other those found in equal temperament tuning system. Various existing systems of just intonation can be selected and then played either with the computer keyboard, a MIDI keyboard, or from an external application. The intervals can be played as zither sounds, organ sounds, piano sounds, or sine tones. You can also specify your own intervals and save the resulting intonation system as a preset. There are several tuning systems built in: La Monte Young's Well Tuned Piano (1973 tuning) Harry Partch's 43 tone system Harry Partch's proposed 4 string instrument for the comparison of equal temperament with various systems of just intonation Intervals from the 5-limit tonality diamond Greek Mixolydian Scales The tetrachord tunings of Archytas, Eratosthenes and Didymos Greek Mixolydian Scales Ling Lun's pentatonic and 12-note systems The systems implemented are based chiefly on the following texts:

Twelve-tone technique Schoenberg, inventor of twelve-tone technique Josef Matthias Hauer's "athematic" dodecaphony in Nomos Op. 19[1]( Play ) Schoenberg himself described the system as a "Method of composing with twelve tones which are related only with one another".[4] It is commonly considered a form of serialism. History of use[edit] Play . The principal forms, P1 and I6, of Schoenberg's Piano Piece, op. 33a, tone row Play feature hexachordal combinatoriality and contains three perfect fifths each, which is the relation between P1 and I6 and a source of contrast between, "accumulations of 5ths," and, "generally more complex simultaneity".[7] For example group A consists of B♭-C-F-B♮ while the, "more blended," group B consists of A-C♯-D♯-F♯. The "strict ordering" of the Second Viennese school, on the other hand, "was inevitably tempered by practical considerations: they worked on the basis of an interaction between ordered and unordered pitch collections Tone row[edit] Example[edit] Application in composition[edit]

Pythagorean tuning The syntonic tuning continuum, showing Pythagorean tuning at 702 cents.[1] Diatonic scale on C Play 12-tone equal tempered and Play just intonation. Pythagorean (tonic) major chord on C Play (compare Play equal tempered and Play just). Comparison of equal-tempered (black) and Pythagorean (green) intervals showing the relationship between frequency ratio and the intervals' values, in cents. The system had been mainly attributed to Pythagoras (sixth century BC) by modern authors of music theory, while Ptolemy, and later Boethius, ascribed the division of the tetrachord by only two intervals, called "semitonium", "tonus", "tonus" in Latin (256:243 x 9:8 x 9:8), to Eratosthenes. Method[edit] Pythagorean tuning is based on a stack of intervals called perfect fifths, each tuned in the ratio 3:2, the next simplest ratio after 2:1. This succession of eleven 3:2 intervals spans across a wide range of frequency (on a piano keyboard, it encompasses 77 keys). Size of intervals[edit] (e.g. between E♭ and E)

Major scale Major scales C major scale ) Structure[edit] The pattern of whole and half steps characteristic of a major scale whole, whole, half, whole, whole, whole, half where "whole" stands for a whole tone (a red u-shaped curve in the figure), and "half" stands for a semitone (a red broken line in the figure). A major scale may be seen as two identical tetrachords separated by a whole tone. whole, whole, half. Scale degrees[edit] The circle of fifths[edit] The numbers inside the circle show the number of sharps or flats in the key signature, with the sharp keys going clockwise, and the flat keys counterclockwise from C major (which has no sharps or flats.) Broader sense[edit] In a broader sense, "major scale" may refer to any heptatonic scale whose first, third, and fifth degrees form a major triad. The harmonic major scale has the sixth degree lowered. The melodic major scale[2] is the fifth mode of the jazz minor scale. The double harmonic major scale has the second and the sixth degrees lowered.

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Microtonal music Composer Charles Ives chose the chord above as a good candidate for a "fundamental" chord in the quarter tone scale, akin not to the tonic but to the major chord of traditional tonality.(Boatright 1971, 8-9) Play or play Terminology[edit] Many microtonal equal divisions of the octave have been proposed, usually (but not always) in order to achieve approximation to the intervals of just intonation. Terminology other than "microtonal" is used by theorists and composers. History[edit] Greek Dorian mode (enharmonic genus) on E, divided into two tetrachords. Play Guillaume Costeley's "Chromatic Chanson", "Seigneur Dieu ta pitié" of 1558 used 1/3 comma meantone and explored the full compass of 19 pitches in the octave. The Italian Renaissance composer and theorist Nicola Vicentino (1511–1576) worked with microtonal intervals and built a keyboard with 36 keys to the octave known as the archicembalo. Microtonalism in electronic music[edit] Microtonalism in rock music[edit] See also[edit]

Music theory Music theory considers the practices and possibilities of music. It is generally derived from observation of how musicians and composers actually make music, but includes hypothetical speculation. Most commonly, the term describes the academic study and analysis of fundamental elements of music such as pitch, rhythm, harmony, and form, but also refers to descriptions, concepts, or beliefs related to music. Because of the ever-expanding conception of what constitutes music (see Definition of music), a more inclusive definition could be that music theory is the consideration of any sonic phenomena, including silence, as it relates to music. Music theory is a subfield of musicology, which is itself a subfield within the overarching field of the arts and humanities. The development, preservation, and transmission of music theory may be found in oral and practical music-making traditions, musical instruments, and other artifacts. History of music theory[edit] Fundamentals of music[edit] Play .

Atonality The ending of Schoenberg's "George Lieder" Op. 15/1 presents what would be "extraordinary" chord in tonal music, without the harmonic-contrapuntal constraints of tonal music (Forte 1977, 1). Play More narrowly still, the term is sometimes used to describe music that is neither tonal nor serial, especially the pre-twelve-tone music of the Second Viennese School, principally Alban Berg, Arnold Schoenberg, and Anton Webern (Lansky, Perle, and Headlam 2001). Late 19th- and early 20th-century composers such as Alexander Scriabin, Claude Debussy, Béla Bartók, Paul Hindemith, Sergei Prokofiev, Igor Stravinsky, and Edgard Varèse have written music that has been described, in full or in part, as atonal (Baker 1980, 1986; Bertram 2000; Griffiths 2001; Kohlhase 1983; Lansky and Perle 2001; Obert 2004; Orvis 1974; Parks 1985; Rülke 2000; Teboul 1995–96; Zimmerman 2002). History[edit] while the texture of this music may superficially resemble that of some serial music ... its structure does not.

The Chaldaick Oracles of Zoroaster (Stanley, 1661) This digital edition by Joseph H. Peterson, Copyright © 1999. All rights reserved. Note: Comments by JHP added in []. The Chaldaick Oracles of And his Followers With the Expositions of Pletho and Psellus Edited and translated to English by Thomas Stanley LondonPrinted for Thomas Dring, 1661 Collected by Franciscus Patricius. Where the Paternal Monad is. The Monad is enlarged, which generates two. For the Duad sits by him, and glitters with Intellectual Sections. And to govern all Things, and to Order every thing not Ordered, For in the whole World shineth the Triad, over which the Monad Rules. This Order is the beginning of all Section. For the Mind of the Father said, that All things be cut into three, Whose Will assented, and then All things were divided. For the Mind of the Eternal Father said into three, Governing all things by the Mind. And there appeared in it [the Triad] Virtue and wisdome, And Multiscient Verity. This Way floweth the shape of the Triad, being præ-existent. Life from several Vehicles.

Isomorphic keyboard Fig. 1: The Wicki isomorphic keyboard note-layout, invented by Kaspar Wicki in 1896. Examples[edit] Helmholtz's 1863 book On the Sensations of Tone gave several possible layouts. Invariance[edit] Isomorphic keyboards expose, through their geometry, two invariant properties of music theory: transpositional invariance,[2] in which any given sequence and/or combination of musical intervals has the same shape when transposed to another key, andtuning invariance,[3] in which any given sequence and/or combination of musical intervals has the same shape when played in another tuning of the same musical temperament. Theory[edit] Benefits[edit] Two primary benefits are claimed by the inventors and enthusiasts of isomorphic keyboards: A third potential benefit of isomorphic keyboards, Dynamic Tonality, has recently been demonstrated, but its utility is not been proven. Comparisons[edit] Musica Facta[edit] See also[edit] Chromatic button accordion References[edit] External links[edit] Software[edit]