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Chromatic scale

Chromatic scale
Chromatic scale drawn as a circle: each note is equidistant from its neighbors, separated by a semitone of the same size. The most common conception of the chromatic scale before the 13th century was the Pythagorean chromatic scale. Due to a different tuning technique, the twelve semitones in this scale have two slightly different sizes. Thus, the scale is not perfectly symmetric. Many other tuning systems, developed in the ensuing centuries, share a similar asymmetry. Equally spaced pitches are provided only by equal temperament tuning systems, which are widely used in contemporary music. The term chromatic derives from the Greek word chroma, meaning color. Notation[edit] The chromatic scale may be notated in a variety of ways. Ascending and descending:[1] The chromatic scale has no set spelling agreed upon by all. Non-Western cultures[edit] Total chromatic[edit] See also[edit] Sources[edit] External links[edit] Recommended Reading[edit]

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Pitch (music) In musical notation, the different vertical positions of notes indicate different pitches. Play top & Play bottom Pitch may be quantified as a frequency, but pitch is not a purely objective physical property; it is a subjective psychoacoustical attribute of sound. Historically, the study of pitch and pitch perception has been a central problem in psychoacoustics, and has been instrumental in forming and testing theories of sound representation, processing, and perception in the auditory system.[5] Igor Stravinsky Igor Fyodorovich Stravinsky (sometimes spelled Strawinsky or Stravinskii; Russian: Игорь Фёдорович Стравинский, transliterated: Igorʹ Fëdorovič Stravinskij; Russian pronunciation: [ˌiɡərʲ ˌfʲjodɐrɐvʲɪt͡ɕ strɐˈvʲinskʲɪj]; 17 June [O.S. 5 June] 1882 – 6 April 1971) was a Russian (and later, a naturalized French and American) composer, pianist and conductor. He is widely considered one of the most important and influential composers of the 20th century. Life and career[edit]

Pythagorean tuning The syntonic tuning continuum, showing Pythagorean tuning at 702 cents.[1] Diatonic scale on C Play 12-tone equal tempered and Just Intonation Toolkit The Just Intonation Toolkit is a resource that allows musicians to hear and play intervals other those found in equal temperament tuning system. Various existing systems of just intonation can be selected and then played either with the computer keyboard, a MIDI keyboard, or from an external application. The intervals can be played as zither sounds, organ sounds, piano sounds, or sine tones.

Twelve-tone technique Schoenberg, inventor of twelve-tone technique Josef Matthias Hauer's "athematic" dodecaphony in Nomos Op. 19[1]( Play ) Schoenberg himself described the system as a "Method of composing with twelve tones which are related only with one another".[4] It is commonly considered a form of serialism. History of use[edit] Music, Fibonacci numbers and relationships to Phi Musical scales are based on Fibonacci numbers The Fibonacci series appears in the foundation of aspects of art, beauty and life. Even music has a foundation in the series, as:

Collapsible woven refugee shelters powered by the sun More than 40 million people worldwide have been displaced from their homes and left to find shelter in strange lands. Maybe they find a tarp, or a tent, but their quality of life almost always remains dismal. To close this gap in need, Jordanian-Canadian architect and designer Abeer Seikaly designed a new kind of shelter. One that allows refugees to rebuild their lives with dignity. Microtonal music Composer Charles Ives chose the chord above as a good candidate for a "fundamental" chord in the quarter tone scale, akin not to the tonic but to the major chord of traditional tonality.(Boatright 1971, 8-9) Play or play Terminology[edit]

Circle of fifths Circle of fifths showing major and minor keys Nikolay Diletsky's circle of fifths in Idea grammatiki musikiyskoy (Moscow, 1679) In music theory, the circle of fifths (or circle of fourths) is a visual representation of the relationships among the 12 tones of the chromatic scale, their corresponding key signatures, and the associated major and minor keys. More specifically, it is a geometrical representation of relationships among the 12 pitch classes of the chromatic scale in pitch class space.

The Chaldaick Oracles of Zoroaster (Stanley, 1661) This digital edition by Joseph H. Peterson, Copyright © 1999. All rights reserved. Note: Isomorphic keyboard Fig. 1: The Wicki isomorphic keyboard note-layout, invented by Kaspar Wicki in 1896. Examples[edit] Helmholtz's 1863 book On the Sensations of Tone gave several possible layouts. Practical isomorphic keyboards were developed by Bosanquet (1875), Janko (1882), Wicki (1896), Fokker (1951), Erv Wilson (1975–present), Wesley (2001) and Antonio Fernández (2009).[1] Accordions have been built since the 19th century using various isomorphic keyboards, typically with dimensions of semitones and tones.

432: Sacred Music of the Spheres The Schumann resonance (SR) is a set of spectrum peaks in the extremely low frequency (ELF) portion of the Earth's electromagnetic field spectrum. Schumann resonances are global electromagnetic resonances, excited by lightning discharges in the cavity formed by the Earth surface and the ionosphere. Lightning discharges are considered as the primary natural source of Schumann resonances. Lightning channels behave like a huge antenna which radiates electromagnetic energy as impulsive signals at frequencies below about 100 kHz [15].

The Tree of Life The World Egg is the most universal symbol we have, and the Zodiac is the most developed form of it, but we find it everywhere in all cultures, we just don’t recognize it as representing the world egg. The Orphic Egg See also this album: The World Egg and the Zodiac We can find the history of the zodiac in the four heavenly beasts, Eagle, Lion, Ox and Man; they were the first members of the Zodiac, first later came the Cardinal signs, and later again the mutable, they came when man began developing these qualities, just as the outher planets first became visible when they became influential. Syntonic temperament Alternatively put, the syntonic temperament: generates all non-octave intervals from a stack of tempered perfect fifths; andtempers the syntonic comma to unison. Figure 1: The syntonic temperament’s tuning continuum, from (Milne et al. 2007). The syntonic temperament is named after the syntonic comma, as that is the first comma tempered to unison in its comma sequence.