Consciousness 1. History of the issue Questions about the nature of conscious awareness have likely been asked for as long as there have been humans. Neolithic burial practices appear to express spiritual beliefs and provide early evidence for at least minimally reflective thought about the nature of human consciousness (Pearson 1999, Clark and Riel-Salvatore 2001). Preliterate cultures have similarly been found invariably to embrace some form of spiritual or at least animist view that indicates a degree of reflection about the nature of conscious awareness. Nonetheless, some have argued that consciousness as we know it today is a relatively recent historical development that arose sometime after the Homeric era (Jaynes 1974). Integral theory consciousness Ken Wilber Journal of Consciousness Studies, 4 (1), February 1997, pp. 71-92 Copyright, 1997, Imprint Academic Abstract: An extensive data search among various types of developmental and evolutionary sequences yielded a `four quadrant' model of consciousness and its development (the four quadrants being intentional, behavioural, cultural, and social). Each of these dimensions was found to unfold in a sequence of at least a dozen major stages or levels. Combining the four quadrants with the dozen or so major levels in each quadrant yields an integral theory of consciousness that is quite comprehensive in its nature and scope. This model is used to indicate how a general synthesis and integration of twelve of the most influential schools of consciousness studies can be effected, and to highlight some of the most significant areas of future research.
Anger potentiates the reporting of threatening interpretations: An experimental study - Scholars Portal Journals This paper reports the results of an experiment investigating the effect of induced anger on interpretational bias using the homophone spelling task. Four groups of participants experienced anger, anxiety, happy or neutral mood inductions and then completed the homophone spelling task. Participants who experienced anger and anxiety inductions reported significantly more threat/neutral homophones as threats compared to control participants; moods had an emotion-congruent effect on threat reporting, with negative moods increasing the tendency to report threat/neutral homophones as threats and positive moods increasing the tendency to report positive/neutral homophones as positive. The findings provide evidence that anger potentiates the reporting of threatening interpretations and does so independently of any effect of concurrent levels of state and trait anxiety.
C.L.A.U.D.I.O. Personality Test Bot (A.L.I.C.E. AI Foundation) Determine your Personality Type! Take the Official ALICE Enneagram personality test. What kind of person are you? Chat with the C.L.A.U.D.I.O. bot and find out! Click here for unlimited chat with the CLAUDIO bot for a full month! Note: CLAUDIO is no longer a subscription service. The Brain: The Mystery of Consciousness The young women had survived the car crash, after a fashion. In the five months since parts of her brain had been crushed, she could open her eyes but didn't respond to sights, sounds or jabs. In the jargon of neurology, she was judged to be in a persistent vegetative state. In crueler everyday language, she was a vegetable. So picture the astonishment of British and Belgian scientists as they scanned her brain using a kind of MRI that detects blood flow to active parts of the brain. When they recited sentences, the parts involved in language lit up.
Mirror neuron A mirror neuron is a neuron that fires both when an animal acts and when the animal observes the same action performed by another. Thus, the neuron "mirrors" the behavior of the other, as though the observer were itself acting. Such neurons have been directly observed in primate species. Birds have been shown to have imitative resonance behaviors and neurological evidence suggests the presence of some form of mirroring system. In humans, brain activity consistent with that of mirror neurons has been found in the premotor cortex, the supplementary motor area, the primary somatosensory cortex and the inferior parietal cortex. The function of the mirror system is a subject of much speculation. Discovery Further experiments confirmed that about 10% of neurons in the monkey inferior frontal and inferior parietal cortex have "mirror" properties and give similar responses to performed hand actions and observed actions.
Consciousness Representation of consciousness from the seventeenth century At one time consciousness was viewed with skepticism by many scientists, but in recent years it has become a significant topic of research in psychology, neuropsychology and neuroscience. The primary focus is on understanding what it means biologically and psychologically for information to be present in consciousness—that is, on determining the neural and psychological correlates of consciousness. The majority of experimental studies assess consciousness by asking human subjects for a verbal report of their experiences (e.g., "tell me if you notice anything when I do this"). Conducting Research with Non-clinical Healthy Undergraduates: Does Effort Play a Role in Neuropsychological Test Performance? + Author Affiliations ↵*Corresponding author at: Department of Psychology, University of Toronto Scarborough, 1265 Military Trail, Toronto, ON, Canada M1C 1A4. Tel.: +1-416-287-7424; fax: +1-416-287-7642.
Virtual Humans Store - Virtual Humans: A Build-It-Yourself Kit, Review Software Development: "An inspirational read, and the examples cited therein are captivating. Australian Personal Computer: “This is a remarkable book, fusing together many disparate technologies to produce a digestable [sic] treatise on creating – as the title indicates – virtual humans!….Virtual Humans is an engrossing book, and gives solid direction….Plantec’s enthusiasm spills from every page and shows how virtual creations can be employed for countless business, entertainment and educational purposes.” Hard problem of consciousness The existence of a "hard problem" is controversial and has been disputed by some philosophers. Providing an answer to this question could lie in understanding the roles that physical processes play in creating consciousness and the extent to which these processes create our subjective qualities of experience. Several questions about consciousness must be resolved in order to acquire a full understanding of it. These questions include, but are not limited to, whether being conscious could be wholly described in physical terms, such as the aggregation of neural processes in the brain.
Theory of mind Definition Theory of mind is a theory insofar as the mind is not directly observable. The presumption that others have a mind is termed a theory of mind because each human can only intuit the existence of his/her own mind through introspection, and no one has direct access to the mind of another. It is typically assumed that others have minds by analogy with one's own, and this assumption is based on the reciprocal nature of social interaction, as observed in joint attention, the functional use of language, and the understanding of others' emotions and actions. Having a theory of mind allows one to attribute thoughts, desires, and intentions to others, to predict or explain their actions, and to posit their intentions. Theory of mind appears to be an innate potential ability in humans; one requiring social and other experience over many years for its full development. Different people may develop more, or less, effective theories of mind. Development
The Nature of Consciousness: How the Internet Could Learn to Feel - Steve Paulson "Romantic reductionist" neuroscientist Christof Koch discusses the scientific side of consciousness, including the notion that all matter is, to varying degrees, sentient. If you had to list the hardest problems in science -- the questions even some scientists say are insoluble -- you would probably end up with two: Where do the laws of physics come from? How does the physical stuff in our brains produce conscious experience? Even though philosophers have obsessed over the "mind-body problem" for centuries, the mystery of consciousness wasn't considered a proper scientific question until two or three decades ago. Then, a couple of things happened.