History of the Internet The history of the Internet begins with the development of electronic computers in the 1950s. Initial concepts of packet networking originated in several computer science laboratories in the United States, Great Britain, and France. The US Department of Defense awarded contracts as early as the 1960s for packet network systems, including the development of the ARPANET (which would become the first network to use the Internet Protocol.) The first message was sent over the ARPANET from computer science Professor Leonard Kleinrock's laboratory at University of California, Los Angeles (UCLA) to the second network node at Stanford Research Institute (SRI). Access to the ARPANET was expanded in 1981 when the National Science Foundation (NSF) funded the Computer Science Network (CSNET). Precursors The telegraph system is the first fully digital communication system. Three terminals and an ARPA A pioneer in the call for a global network, J. Packet switching Networks that led to the Internet
The Real and the Loss of Cyberspace Last week, I wrote a piece entitled “There is no Cyberspace,” where I argued the today’s World Wide Web bears little resemblance to the thing that cyberpunk authors like William Gibson imagined as cyberspace. I explained that Gibson defined cyberspace as a “consensual hallucination” and proceeded to argue that the Web was neither consensual nor hallucinatory. I noted that even Gibson himself acknowledges that the cyberspace concept is outmoded—that, rather than being sucked into the world behind the screen, computers have “everted,” overlaying the physical with the digital. I concluded that the term “cyberspace” confounds our ability to makes sense of a social Web that has very real consequences in our lives because it evokes images of fantastical space apart from reality that we can enter and exit at our leisure. The piece received thorough feedback and critique in posts by Mike Bulajewski (on his Mr. Credit: Werner Kunz What do we mean when we say “the real?”
Mixed reality Mixed reality (MR), sometimes referred to as hybrid reality (encompassing both augmented reality and augmented virtuality), refers to the merging of real and virtual worlds to produce new environments and visualisations where physical and digital objects co-exist and interact in real time. Not taking place only in the physical world or the virtual world, but a mix of reality and virtual reality, encompassing augmented reality and augmented virtuality. An Example Mixed Reality: Virtual characters mixed into a live video stream of the real world. Definition Virtuality Continuum and Mediality continuum In 1994 Paul Milgram and Fumio Kishino defined a mixed reality as "...anywhere between the extrema of the virtuality continuum." "The conventionally held view of a Virtual Reality (VR) environment is one in which the participant-observer is totally immersed in, and able to interact with, a completely synthetic world. Reality-Virtuality Continuum Interreality Physics
Manuel Castells's Network Society | geof Castells is a professor of urban geography at Berkley. He has written a number of books and articles about geography, the city, and the information society, including a three-volume analysis of contemporary capitalism, titled The Information Age. Garnham (2004, p. 165) refers to this as “the most sophisticated version” of the theory of the information society. Castells' analysis involves economic, social, political, and cultural factors. The Network Society Castells (2000a; 2000b) claims that we are passing from the industrial age into the information age. According to Castells, power now rests in networks: “the logic of the network is more powerful than the powers of the network” (quoted in Weber, 2002, p. 104). Capital and Labor Castells distinguishes the terms “information” and “informational”. Despite the disappearance of capitalists and the proletariat, exploitation and differentiation remain. Flows vs. In opposition to the space of flows is the space of places. Conclusion Notes
Speculative Fiction, Atemporality, and Augmented Reality “The future is there,” Cayce hears herself say, “looking back at us. Trying to make sense of the fiction we will have become. And from where they are, the past behind us will look nothing at all like the past we imagine behind us now.” –William Gibson, Pattern Recognition“This is a kind of writing which simply makes you feel very strange; the way that living in the late twentieth century makes you feel, if you are a person of a certain sensibility.” –Bruce Sterling, “Slipstream”, SF Eye #5, July 1989 I first read William Gibson’s Pattern Recognition almost a year ago, after a long hiatus from his work. experience that I always find somewhat refreshingly like exploring a dark, richly appointed room with a small flashlight. And then something rather interesting happened. The divided categories of time have no intrinsic meaning aside from that which we give them through our perceptions of them–through our stories about them. But who cares what kinds of stories we tell?
Virtuality Continuum Reality-Virtuality Continuum. The virtuality continuum is a continuous scale ranging between the completely virtual, a virtuality, and the completely real, reality. The reality-virtuality continuum therefore encompasses all possible variations and compositions of real and virtual objects. The area between the two extremes, where both the real and the virtual are mixed, is the so-called mixed reality. Overview Mediated reality continuum showing four points: augmented reality, augmented virtuality, mediated reality, and mediated virtuality on the virtuality and mediality axes This continuum has been extended into a two-dimensional plane of virtuality and mediality. Taxonomy of reality, virtuality, mediality. While the term augmented virtuality is rarely used nowadays, augmented reality and mixed reality are now sometimes used as synonyms. The virtuality continuum has grown and progressed past labels such as computer science and new media. See also
Network society The term network society describes several different phenomena related to the social, political, economic and cultural changes caused by the spread of networked, digital information and communications technologies. A number of academics (see below) are credited with coining the term since the 1980s and several competing definitions exist. The intellectual origins of the idea can be traced back to the work of early social theorists such as Georg Simmel who analyzed the effect of modernization and industrial capitalism on complex patterns of affiliation, organization, production and experience. Origins The term network society, nettsamfunn, was coined in Norwegian by Stein Braten in his book Modeller av menneske og samfunn (1981). Van Dijk defines the network society as a society in which a combination of social and media networks shapes its prime mode of organization and most important structures at all levels (individual, organizational and societal). Manuel Castells
The Myth of Cyberspace In the early 1980s, when personal computing first became a reality, the faces of glowing terminals had an almost magical aura, transubstantiating arcane passages of 1s and 0s into sensory experience. In fact, the seemingly impenetrable complexity of what was unfolding behind the screen created a sense of mystery and wonderment. We were in awe of the hackers who could unlock the code and conjure various illusions from it; they were modern magicians who seemed to travel between two worlds: reality and cyberspace. The term cyberspace was first coined by author William Gibson. a graphic representation of data abstracted from the banks of every computer in the human system … Lines of light ranged in the nonspace of the mind, clusters and constellations of data. A “nonspace,” meaning that cyberspace lacks the physicality that “space” conventionally implies. The history of the cyberspace concept’s evolution from a descriptive category to a moral one is somewhat varied.
Consensus reality Consensus reality is that which is generally agreed to be reality, based on a consensus view. The difficulty with the question stems from the concern that human beings do not in fact fully understand or agree upon the nature of knowledge or ontology, and therefore it is not possible to be certain beyond doubt what is real. Accordingly, this line of logic concludes, we cannot in fact be sure beyond doubt about the nature of reality. We can, however, seek to obtain some form of consensus, with others, of what is real. We can use this consensus as a pragmatic guide, either on the assumption that it seems to approximate some kind of valid reality, or simply because it is more "practical" than perceived alternatives. Throughout history this has also raised a social question: "What shall we make of those who do not agree with consensus realities of others, or of the society they live in?" General discussion Consensus reality in science and philosophy Objectivists
Manuel Castells Manuel Castells (Spanish: Manuel Castells Oliván; born 1942) is a Spanish sociologist especially associated with research on the information society, communication and globalization. The 2000–09 research survey of the Social Sciences Citation Index ranks him as the world’s fifth most-cited social science scholar, and the foremost-cited communication scholar. He was awarded the 2012 Holberg Prize, for having "shaped our understanding of the political dynamics of urban and global economies in the network society Life Manuel Castells was raised primarily in La Mancha but he moved to Barcelona, where he studied Law and Economics. "My parents were very good parents. Castells was politically active in the student anti-Franco movement, an adolescent political activism that forced him to flee Spain for France. In 1979, the University of California, Berkeley appointed him as Professor of Sociology, and Professor of City and Regional Planning. Work Publications Pertinent papers