Quantum indeterminacy Quantum indeterminacy is the apparent necessary incompleteness in the description of a physical system, that has become one of the characteristics of the standard description of quantum physics. Prior to quantum physics, it was thought that (a) a physical system had a determinate state which uniquely determined all the values of its measurable properties, and conversely (b) the values of its measurable properties uniquely determined the state. Albert Einstein may have been the first person to carefully point out the radical effect the new quantum physics would have on our notion of physical state. Quantum indeterminacy can be quantitatively characterized by a probability distribution on the set of outcomes of measurements of an observable. Indeterminacy in measurement was not an innovation of quantum mechanics, since it had been established early on by experimentalists that errors in measurement may lead to indeterminate outcomes. Measurement Example The Pauli spin matrices A.
Perspectivism View People always adopt perspectives by default – whether they are aware of it or not – and the concepts of one's existence are defined by the circumstances surrounding that individual. Truth is made by and for individuals and peoples. This view differs from many types of relativism which consider the truth of a particular proposition as something that altogether cannot be evaluated with respect to an "absolute truth", without taking into consideration culture and context. Interpretation See also References Jump up ^ Mautner, Thomas, The Penguin Dictionary of Philosophy, page 418Jump up ^ Schacht, Richard, Nietzsche, p 61.Jump up ^ Scott-Kakures, Dion, History of Philosophy, page 346Jump up ^ Schacht, Richard, Nietzsche. External links La Voluntad de ilusión en Nietzsche; bases del perspectivismo| in Konvergencias
Xenocentrism Xenocentrism is the preference for the products, styles, or ideas of someone else's culture rather than of one's own. The concept is considered a subjective view[clarification needed] of cultural relativism. One example is the romanticization of the noble savage in the 18th-century primitivism movement in European art, philosophy and ethnography. Origin of the term Xenocentrism has been used in social philosophy to describe a particular ethical disposition. The term is opposed to ethnocentrism, as coined by 19th-century American sociologist William Graham Sumner, which describes the natural tendencies of an individual to place disproportionate worth upon the values and beliefs of one's own culture relative to others. See also Further reading Merton, Robert K. References
Open-mindedness Open-mindedness is receptiveness to new ideas. Open-mindedness relates to the way in which people approach the views and knowledge of others, and "incorporate the beliefs that others should be free to express their views and that the value of others’ knowledge should be recognized." There are various scales for the measurement of open-mindedness. It has been argued that schools should emphasize open-mindedness more than relativism in their science instruction, because the scientific community does not embrace a relativistic way of thinking. Open-mindedness is generally considered an important personal attribute for effective participation in management teams and other groups. According to What Makes Your Brain Happy and Why You Should Do the Opposite, closed-mindedness, or an unwillingness to consider new ideas, can result from the brain's natural dislike for ambiguity. References Jump up ^ Tjosvold, Dean; Poon, Margaret (September 1998). Further reading
Temporal finitism Temporal finitism is the idea that time is finite. The context of the idea is the pre-modern era, before mathematicians had understood the concept of infinity and before physical cosmology. Medieval philosophy In contrast to ancient Greek philosophers who believed that the universe had an infinite past with no beginning, medieval philosophers and theologians developed the concept of the universe having a finite past with a beginning. Prior to Maimonides, it was held that it was possible to prove, philosophically, creation theory. John Philoponus was probably the first to use the argument that infinite time is impossible, establishing temporal finitism. Philoponus' arguments for temporal finitism were severalfold. A full exposition of Philoponus' several arguments, as reported by Simplicius, can be found in Sorabji, listed in Further reading. "An actual infinite cannot exist." "An infinite temporal regress of events is an actual infinite." Modern philosophy References
How to Observe Morals and Manners How to Observe Morals and Manners is a sociological treatise on methods of observing manners and morals written by Harriet Martineau in 1837–8 after a tour of America. She stated that she wasn't looking for fodder for a book, but also privately remarked that "I am tired of being kept floundering among the details which are all a Hall and a Trollope (writer of Domestic Manners of the Americans) can bring away.” As opposed to Victorian prescriptive handbooks of how societies ought to behave, Martineau focuses on observing locals on their own terms and emphasizes the need to accept cultural relativism of other people. Manners and Morals Martineau combined what she called manners and morals. References Jump up ^ Pichanick, Valerie K. External links How to Observe Morals and Manners at Project Gutenberg
Semantic unification Semantic Matching of concepts Semantic unification, in philosophy, linguistics, and computer science, is the process of unifying lexically different concept representations that are judged to have the same semantic content (i.e., meaning). In business processes, the conceptual Semantic unification is defined as “the mapping of two expressions onto an expression in an exchange format which is equivalent to the given expression”. Semantic unification has a long history in fields like philosophy and linguistics. It has been used in different research areas like grammar unification. Semantic unification has since been applied to the fields of business processes and workflow management. In general, the Semantic Unification in business processes is the process to find a common unified concept that match two lexicalized expressions into the same interpretation. Jump up ^ Fawsy Bendeck,Automation of XML Documents Translators Generation. Michael M.
Moral nihilism Moral nihilism (also known as ethical nihilism) is the meta-ethical view that nothing is intrinsically moral or immoral. For example, a moral nihilist would say that killing someone, for whatever reason, is neither inherently right nor inherently wrong. Moral nihilists consider morality to be constructed, a complex set of rules and recommendations that may give a psychological, social, or economical advantage to its adherents, but is otherwise without universal or even relative truth in any sense. Moral nihilism is distinct from moral relativism, which does allow for moral statements to be true or false in a non-objective sense, but does not assign any static truth-values to moral statements, and of course moral universalism, which holds moral statements to be objectively true or false. Insofar as only true statements can be known, moral nihilism implies moral skepticism. Forms of moral nihilism Expressivism One form of moral nihilism is expressivism. Error theory
Situational ethics Situational ethics, or situation ethics, takes into account the particular context of an act when evaluating it ethically, rather than judging it according to absolute moral standards. Early proponents of situational approaches to ethics included Kierkegaard, Sartre, de Beauvoir, Jaspers, and Heidegger. Fletcher, who became prominently associated with this approach in the English-speaking world due to his eponymously-titled book (Situation Ethics), stated that "all laws and rules and principles and ideals and norms, are only contingent, only valid if they happen to serve love" in the particular situation,:30 and thus may be broken or ignored if another course of action would achieve a more loving outcome. Fletcher has sometimes been identified as the founder of situation ethics, but he himself refers his readers to the active debate over the theme that preceded his own work.:33-34 Ethical classification and origin of term Fletcher The four working principles