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Forms of relativism[edit] Anthropological versus philosophical relativism[edit] Anthropological relativism refers to a methodological stance, in which the researcher suspends (or brackets) his or her own cultural biases while attempting to understand beliefs and behaviors in their local contexts. This has become known as methodological relativism, and concerns itself specifically with avoiding ethnocentrism or the application of one's own cultural standards to the assessment of other cultures.[3] This is also the basis of the so-called "emic" and "etic" distinction, in which: Philosophical relativism, in contrast, asserts that the truth of a proposition depends on the metaphysical, or theoretical frame, or the instrumental method, or the context in which the proposition is expressed, or on the person, groups, or culture who interpret the proposition.[4] Descriptive versus normative relativism[edit] Postmodernism and relativism[edit] Related and contrasting positions[edit] Leo XIII[edit]

Related:  philosophy treeCultural relativismrisully

Skepticism Skepticism or scepticism (see American and British English spelling differences) is generally any questioning attitude towards knowledge, facts, or opinions/beliefs stated as facts,[1] or doubt regarding claims that are taken for granted elsewhere.[2] Philosophical skepticism is an overall approach that requires all information to be well supported by evidence.[3] Classical philosophical skepticism derives from the 'Skeptikoi', a school who "asserted nothing".[4] Adherents of Pyrrhonism, for instance, suspend judgment in investigations.[5] Skeptics may even doubt the reliability of their own senses.[6] Religious skepticism, on the other hand, is "doubt concerning basic religious principles (such as immortality, providence, and revelation)".[7] Definition[edit] In ordinary usage, skepticism (US) or scepticism (UK) (Greek: 'σκέπτομαι' skeptomai, to think, to look about, to consider; see also spelling differences) refers to: Philosophical skepticism[edit]

Xenocentrism Xenocentrism is the preference for the products, styles, or ideas of someone else's culture rather than of one's own.[1] The concept is considered a subjective view[clarification needed] of cultural relativism.[2] One example is the romanticization of the noble savage in the 18th-century primitivism movement in European art, philosophy and ethnography.[3] Origin of the term[edit] Xenocentrism has been used in social philosophy to describe a particular ethical disposition.[citation needed] The term is opposed to ethnocentrism, as coined by 19th-century American sociologist William Graham Sumner, which describes the natural tendencies of an individual to place disproportionate worth upon the values and beliefs of one's own culture relative to others.[2] See also[edit] Further reading[edit]

Consciousness Representation of consciousness from the seventeenth century At one time consciousness was viewed with skepticism by many scientists, but in recent years it has become a significant topic of research in psychology, neuropsychology and neuroscience. The primary focus is on understanding what it means biologically and psychologically for information to be present in consciousness—that is, on determining the neural and psychological correlates of consciousness. Post-processual archaeology In the United States, archaeologists widely see post-processualism as an accompaniment to the processual movement, while in the United Kingdom, they remain largely thought of as separate and opposing theoretical movements. In other parts of the world, post-processualism has made less of an impact on archaeological thought.[4] Various archaeologists have criticized post-processual archaeology, for a variety of reasons. Approach to archaeology[edit] Subjectivism[edit]

Epistemology Epistemology ( i/ᵻˌpɪstᵻˈmɒlədʒi/; from Greek ἐπιστήμη, epistēmē, meaning "knowledge", and λόγος, logos, meaning "logical discourse") is the branch of philosophy concerned with the theory of knowledge.[1] Epistemology studies the nature of knowledge, justification, and the rationality of belief. Much of the debate in epistemology centers on four areas: (1) the philosophical analysis of the nature of knowledge and how it relates to such concepts as truth, belief, and justification,[2][3] (2) various problems of skepticism, (3) the sources and scope of knowledge and justified belief, and (4) the criteria for knowledge and justification.

How to Observe Morals and Manners How to Observe Morals and Manners is a sociological treatise on methods of observing manners and morals written by Harriet Martineau in 1837–8 after a tour of America. She stated that she wasn't looking for fodder for a book, but also privately remarked that "I am tired of being kept floundering among the details which are all a Hall and a Trollope (writer of Domestic Manners of the Americans) can bring away.”[1] As opposed to Victorian prescriptive handbooks of how societies ought to behave, Martineau focuses on observing locals on their own terms and emphasizes the need to accept cultural relativism of other people. Manners and Morals[edit] Martineau combined what she called manners and morals.

Choiceless awareness Choiceless awareness is posited in philosophy, psychology, and spirituality to be the state of unpremeditated, complete awareness of the present without preference, effort, or compulsion. The term was popularized in mid-20th-century by Jiddu Krishnamurti, in whose philosophy it signifies a main theme. Similar or related concepts had been previously developed in several religious or spiritual traditions; the term or others like it has also been used to describe traditional and contemporary secular and religious meditation practices. trading cards > Adorno, Theodor (#7) > Beauvoir, Simone (#20, bootleg) > Beck, Ulrich (#24, bootleg) > Benjamin, Walter (#31, bootleg) > Burchill, Julie (#29, bootleg) > Butler, Judith (#2) > Compte, Auguste (#26, bootleg) > Deleuze & Guattari (#16, bootleg) > DuBois, W.E.B. (#28, bootleg) > Duchamp, Marcel (#18, bootleg) > Emin, Tracey (#9) > Foucault, Michel (#3) > Giddens, Anthony (#1) > Gilbert & George (#10) > Girl Power (#15, bootleg) > Goffman, Erving (#6) > Greer, Germaine (#27, bootleg) > Hooks, bell (#11) > Jung, Carl (#19, bootleg) > Kohut, Heinz (#21, bootleg) > Lacan, Jacques (#17, bootleg) > Lefebvre, Henri (#12) > Luhmann, Niklas (#32, bootleg) > Marx, Karl (#25, bootleg) > Pierre et Gilles (#14, bootleg) > (#22, bootleg) > Postmodernity (#5) > Psychoanalysis (#8) > Psychologists (#4) > Said, Edward (#13, bootleg) > Walkerdine, Valerie (#23, bootleg) > Weber, Max (#30, bootleg) + > The Bowling Green Bootlegs (5 emerging theorists)

Natural philosophy A celestial map from the 17th century, by the Dutch cartographer Frederik De Wit Natural philosophy or the philosophy of nature (from Latin philosophia naturalis) was the philosophical study of nature and the physical universe that was dominant before the development of modern science. It is considered to be the precursor of natural sciences such as physics.