Forms of relativism Anthropological versus philosophical relativism Anthropological relativism refers to a methodological stance, in which the researcher suspends (or brackets) his or her own cultural biases while attempting to understand beliefs and behaviors in their local contexts. This has become known as methodological relativism, and concerns itself specifically with avoiding ethnocentrism or the application of one's own cultural standards to the assessment of other cultures. This is also the basis of the so-called "emic" and "etic" distinction, in which: Philosophical relativism, in contrast, asserts that the truth of a proposition depends on the metaphysical, or theoretical frame, or the instrumental method, or the context in which the proposition is expressed, or on the person, groups, or culture who interpret the proposition. Descriptive versus normative relativism Postmodernism and relativism Related and contrasting positions Leo XIII
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Quantum indeterminacyQuantum indeterminacy is the apparent necessary incompleteness in the description of a physical system, that has become one of the characteristics of the standard description of quantum physics. Prior to quantum physics, it was thought that (a) a physical system had a determinate state which uniquely determined all the values of its measurable properties, and conversely (b) the values of its measurable properties uniquely determined the state. Albert Einstein may have been the first person to carefully point out the radical effect the new quantum physics would have on our notion of physical state. Quantum indeterminacy can be quantitatively characterized by a probability distribution on the set of outcomes of measurements of an observable. Indeterminacy in measurement was not an innovation of quantum mechanics, since it had been established early on by experimentalists that errors in measurement may lead to indeterminate outcomes. Measurement Example The Pauli spin matrices A.
PerspectivismView People always adopt perspectives by default – whether they are aware of it or not – and the concepts of one's existence are defined by the circumstances surrounding that individual. Truth is made by and for individuals and peoples. This view differs from many types of relativism which consider the truth of a particular proposition as something that altogether cannot be evaluated with respect to an "absolute truth", without taking into consideration culture and context. Interpretation See also References Jump up ^ Mautner, Thomas, The Penguin Dictionary of Philosophy, page 418Jump up ^ Schacht, Richard, Nietzsche, p 61.Jump up ^ Scott-Kakures, Dion, History of Philosophy, page 346Jump up ^ Schacht, Richard, Nietzsche. External links La Voluntad de ilusión en Nietzsche; bases del perspectivismo| in Konvergencias
Open-mindednessOpen-mindedness is receptiveness to new ideas. Open-mindedness relates to the way in which people approach the views and knowledge of others, and "incorporate the beliefs that others should be free to express their views and that the value of others’ knowledge should be recognized." There are various scales for the measurement of open-mindedness. It has been argued that schools should emphasize open-mindedness more than relativism in their science instruction, because the scientific community does not embrace a relativistic way of thinking. Open-mindedness is generally considered an important personal attribute for effective participation in management teams and other groups. According to What Makes Your Brain Happy and Why You Should Do the Opposite, closed-mindedness, or an unwillingness to consider new ideas, can result from the brain's natural dislike for ambiguity. References Jump up ^ Tjosvold, Dean; Poon, Margaret (September 1998). Further reading
Temporal finitismTemporal finitism is the idea that time is finite. The context of the idea is the pre-modern era, before mathematicians had understood the concept of infinity and before physical cosmology. Medieval philosophy In contrast to ancient Greek philosophers who believed that the universe had an infinite past with no beginning, medieval philosophers and theologians developed the concept of the universe having a finite past with a beginning. Prior to Maimonides, it was held that it was possible to prove, philosophically, creation theory. John Philoponus was probably the first to use the argument that infinite time is impossible, establishing temporal finitism. Philoponus' arguments for temporal finitism were severalfold. A full exposition of Philoponus' several arguments, as reported by Simplicius, can be found in Sorabji, listed in Further reading. "An actual infinite cannot exist." "An infinite temporal regress of events is an actual infinite." Modern philosophy References
Semantic unificationSemantic Matching of concepts Semantic unification, in philosophy, linguistics, and computer science, is the process of unifying lexically different concept representations that are judged to have the same semantic content (i.e., meaning). In business processes, the conceptual Semantic unification is defined as “the mapping of two expressions onto an expression in an exchange format which is equivalent to the given expression”. Semantic unification has a long history in fields like philosophy and linguistics. It has been used in different research areas like grammar unification. Semantic unification has since been applied to the fields of business processes and workflow management. In general, the Semantic Unification in business processes is the process to find a common unified concept that match two lexicalized expressions into the same interpretation. Jump up ^ Fawsy Bendeck,Automation of XML Documents Translators Generation. Michael M.
Moral nihilismMoral nihilism (also known as ethical nihilism) is the meta-ethical view that nothing is intrinsically moral or immoral. For example, a moral nihilist would say that killing someone, for whatever reason, is neither inherently right nor inherently wrong. Moral nihilists consider morality to be constructed, a complex set of rules and recommendations that may give a psychological, social, or economical advantage to its adherents, but is otherwise without universal or even relative truth in any sense. Moral nihilism is distinct from moral relativism, which does allow for moral statements to be true or false in a non-objective sense, but does not assign any static truth-values to moral statements, and of course moral universalism, which holds moral statements to be objectively true or false. Insofar as only true statements can be known, moral nihilism implies moral skepticism. Forms of moral nihilism Expressivism One form of moral nihilism is expressivism. Error theory
monism.pdfUltrafinitismIn the philosophy of mathematics, ultrafinitism, also known as ultraintuitionism, strict-finitism, actualism, and strong-finitism is a form of finitism. There are various philosophies of mathematics which are called ultrafinitism. A major identifying property common among most of these philosophies is their objections to totality of number theoretic functions like exponentiation over natural numbers. Main ideas Like other strict finitists, ultrafinitists deny the existence of the infinite set N of natural numbers, on the grounds that it can never be completed. In addition, some ultrafinitists are concerned with acceptance of objects in mathematics which no one can construct in practice because of physical restrictions in constructing large finite mathematical objects. The reason is that nobody has yet calculated what natural number is the floor of this real number, and it may not even be physically possible to do so. times to 0. People associated with ultrafinitism Notes
ConsciousnessRepresentation of consciousness from the seventeenth century At one time consciousness was viewed with skepticism by many scientists, but in recent years it has become a significant topic of research in psychology, neuropsychology and neuroscience. The primary focus is on understanding what it means biologically and psychologically for information to be present in consciousness—that is, on determining the neural and psychological correlates of consciousness. The majority of experimental studies assess consciousness by asking human subjects for a verbal report of their experiences (e.g., "tell me if you notice anything when I do this"). Issues of interest include phenomena such as subliminal perception, blindsight, denial of impairment, and altered states of consciousness produced by drugs and alcohol, or spiritual or meditative techniques. Etymology and early history John Locke, British philosopher active in the 17th century In the dictionary Philosophy of mind